History of Educational Technology

Christina M. Yepez
1905 ~ School Museums
 The use of media for instructional purposes via school museums.
 Museums utilized slides, films, charts and stereographs, such as the
one pictured below, for visual instruction (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) .
 E.L. Thorndike – early advocate of behavioral approach & educational
measurement (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011).
1910 – 1923 ~ Visual Instruction
and Instructional Films
 An increased interest in using media in the school for learning
(Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
 Jean Piaget forms his theories of experience-based learning & his
Stages of Intellectual Development.
 Mary Ward & Frederich Burk establish San Francisco Normal School
and use self-instructional materials.
 Lev Vygotsky – Theories of Developmental Psychology & development
of language (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011).
1924 – 1930’s ~ Audiovisual
Instruction Movement & Instructional
 Technological advancements in radio broadcasting, sound motion pictures & sound
recordings bring growth during this period.
 Ralph W. Taylor – 8 Year Study - recognition of the
formative evaluation process.
 Charles F. Hoban Sr.,Charles F. Hoban Jr., and
Stanley B. Zissman write Visualizing the
Curriculum which thoroughly stated the value of
audiovisual material & presented a hierarchy
of media (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
 Sidney Pressey invents testing/teaching machine (Bray, McGovern &
Pedroni, 2011).
1940’s ~ World War II
 U.S. Army Air Force used audiovisual devices for training purposes.
 Produced more than 400 training films & 600 filmstrips.
 Over 4 million showings of training films to U.S. personnel.
 Other audiovisual materials used included overhead projectors, slide
projectors, audio equipment and simulators & training devices.
 Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, John Flanagen asked to develop training
material for the military (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
1950’s ~ Theories of
Interest focused on communication models and placed importance on
Considering all elements of the communication process and not just the
medium as was done in the audio visual field (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) .
1950’s ~ Instructional Television
Increased interest in television as a medium for delivering
Federal Communications Commission sets aside 242
television channels for educational purposes.
Ford Foundation provided funding in the amount of $ 170
million on educational television
(Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
B.F. Skinner – publishes “The Science of
Learning & the Art of Teaching”,
demonstrates a machine to teach
arithmetic using an instructional
program (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011).
1950 – 1970’s ~ Computers for
Instructional Purposes
 Researchers at IBM used computers for computer-assisted instructionCAI in the 1950’s.
 IBM researchers develop the first CAI author language and one of the
first CAI programs used in public schools.
 Gordon Pask – adaptive teaching machines made us of computer technology.
 Richard Atkinson/Patrick Suppers – work in the 1960’s led to early
applications of CAI at public schools & universities.
Development of CAI systems such as PLATO &
TICCIT in the 1960’s & early 1970’s
(Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
1960’s ~ Cognitive Revolution
 Robert Mayer published “Preparing Instructional Objectives” – the use
of performance objectives.
 Robert Gagne published “The Conditions of Learning” – conditions of
learning, 5 domains of learning outcomes: verbal information, intellectual
skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes and cognitive strategies.
 Robert Glaser – criterion-referenced measures.
 Michael Scriven – formative & summative evaluation
(Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
1980 – 1990’s ~ Computers for
Instructional Purposes
 Interest in using computers for instructional purposes grew as more than
40% were being used in elementary schools while over 75 % were being
used at the secondary schools in the U.S.
 Existing associations of professionals were redefined: DAVI became AECT;
publication of Journal of instructional development
 However, computer impact is short-lived in the 90’s for instructional
purposes and were used instead for drill and practice
in the elementary setting & for work processing at
the secondary level (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
2000 – Present ~ Recent
 In 2008, more than 30% of training in business & industry
conducted via technology & 24% of that training was
delivered online.
 In 2010, more than 50% of college faculty utilize
social media for instruction via online videos, podcasts,
blogs and wikis.
 In the fall of 2008, more than 4.6 million students
were enrolled in online courses via higher education institutions in the U.S.
 In the U.S., 45 states have an online school initiative and 24 of those states
have statewide full-time online schools.
 57% of public secondary schools provide online learning for students
(Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
2000 – Present ~ Recent
 U.S. Military uses technology to deliver the technology-based instruction
 Use of the Internet has been viewed as a means of providing instruction
and information to widely dispersed learners at a low cost.
 Distance education in higher education is a low-cost alternative enabling
students to attend school who, due to other factors including a job, family
responsibility or geographic location, would otherwise be unable to attend.
 Internet allows for increased interactive capabilities via online instructional
activities between learners and instructional content, learners and instructor
and among learners (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
Bray, B., McGovern, C., & Pedroni, L. (2011, January 20).
Instructional development timeline. Retrieved from http://myecoach.com/project.php?id=12152&project_step=80007
Reiser, R., & Dempsey, J. (2012). Trends and issues in instructional
design and technology. (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Prentice

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