Christina M. Yepez 1905 ~ School Museums The use of media for instructional purposes via school museums. Museums utilized slides, films, charts and stereographs, such as the one pictured below, for visual instruction (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) . E.L. Thorndike – early advocate of behavioral approach & educational measurement (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011). 1910 – 1923 ~ Visual Instruction Movement and Instructional Films An increased interest in using media in the school for learning (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Jean Piaget forms his theories of experience-based learning & his Stages of Intellectual Development. Mary Ward & Frederich Burk establish San Francisco Normal School and use self-instructional materials. Lev Vygotsky – Theories of Developmental Psychology & development of language (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011). 1924 – 1930’s ~ Audiovisual Instruction Movement & Instructional Video Technological advancements in radio broadcasting, sound motion pictures & sound recordings bring growth during this period. Ralph W. Taylor – 8 Year Study - recognition of the formative evaluation process. Charles F. Hoban Sr.,Charles F. Hoban Jr., and Stanley B. Zissman write Visualizing the Curriculum which thoroughly stated the value of audiovisual material & presented a hierarchy of media (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Sidney Pressey invents testing/teaching machine (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011). 1940’s ~ World War II U.S. Army Air Force used audiovisual devices for training purposes. Produced more than 400 training films & 600 filmstrips. Over 4 million showings of training films to U.S. personnel. Other audiovisual materials used included overhead projectors, slide projectors, audio equipment and simulators & training devices. Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, John Flanagen asked to develop training material for the military (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). 1950’s ~ Theories of Communication Interest focused on communication models and placed importance on Considering all elements of the communication process and not just the medium as was done in the audio visual field (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) . 1950’s ~ Instructional Television Increased interest in television as a medium for delivering instruction. Federal Communications Commission sets aside 242 television channels for educational purposes. Ford Foundation provided funding in the amount of $ 170 million on educational television (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). B.F. Skinner – publishes “The Science of Learning & the Art of Teaching”, demonstrates a machine to teach arithmetic using an instructional program (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011). of 1950 – 1970’s ~ Computers for Instructional Purposes Researchers at IBM used computers for computer-assisted instructionCAI in the 1950’s. IBM researchers develop the first CAI author language and one of the first CAI programs used in public schools. Gordon Pask – adaptive teaching machines made us of computer technology. Richard Atkinson/Patrick Suppers – work in the 1960’s led to early applications of CAI at public schools & universities. Development of CAI systems such as PLATO & TICCIT in the 1960’s & early 1970’s (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). 1960’s ~ Cognitive Revolution Robert Mayer published “Preparing Instructional Objectives” – the use of performance objectives. Robert Gagne published “The Conditions of Learning” – conditions of learning, 5 domains of learning outcomes: verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes and cognitive strategies. Robert Glaser – criterion-referenced measures. Michael Scriven – formative & summative evaluation (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). 1980 – 1990’s ~ Computers for Instructional Purposes Interest in using computers for instructional purposes grew as more than 40% were being used in elementary schools while over 75 % were being used at the secondary schools in the U.S. Existing associations of professionals were redefined: DAVI became AECT; publication of Journal of instructional development However, computer impact is short-lived in the 90’s for instructional purposes and were used instead for drill and practice in the elementary setting & for work processing at the secondary level (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). 2000 – Present ~ Recent Developments In 2008, more than 30% of training in business & industry conducted via technology & 24% of that training was delivered online. In 2010, more than 50% of college faculty utilize social media for instruction via online videos, podcasts, blogs and wikis. In the fall of 2008, more than 4.6 million students were enrolled in online courses via higher education institutions in the U.S. In the U.S., 45 states have an online school initiative and 24 of those states have statewide full-time online schools. 57% of public secondary schools provide online learning for students (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). 2000 – Present ~ Recent Developments U.S. Military uses technology to deliver the technology-based instruction online. Use of the Internet has been viewed as a means of providing instruction and information to widely dispersed learners at a low cost. Distance education in higher education is a low-cost alternative enabling students to attend school who, due to other factors including a job, family responsibility or geographic location, would otherwise be unable to attend. Internet allows for increased interactive capabilities via online instructional activities between learners and instructional content, learners and instructor and among learners (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). References Bray, B., McGovern, C., & Pedroni, L. (2011, January 20). Instructional development timeline. Retrieved from http://myecoach.com/project.php?id=12152&project_step=80007 Reiser, R., & Dempsey, J. (2012). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Prentice Hall.