SARMAG-APLIKOGSAINS

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KOGNITIF SAINS : Suatu bidang baru yang bersifat interdisipliner
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence,
embracing philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience,
linguistics, and anthropology.
Lahir pertengahan th. 1970 karena adanya pertanyaan yang sama diantara
para ahli dibidang psikologi kognitif, komputer, liguistik, filsafat, syaraf
(neurolog), dan antropologi. Pertanyaan tersebut adalah
BAGAIMANA ALAM BERFIKIR MANUSIA?
( how is the nature of the human mind?)
“… seeks to understand perceiving, thinking, remembering, understanding language,
learning, and other mental phenomena.”
“… a basic science it seeks to discover highly general and explanatory fundamental
principles of information processing.”
Usaha untuk memahami kerja dari alam berfikir manusia sudah
dimulai sejak zaman Yunani:
Plato dan Aritoteles
the nature of human knowledge
FILSAFAT
Abad –19 W.Wundt
Laboratorium untuk
mempelajari mental operations
Psikologi Eksperimen
J.B. Watson: meninjau dari hubungan S -- R
Behaviorism
TIDAK menerima aspek kesadaran (consciousness) dan representasi
mental
Tahun 1956 George Miller
short term dan long term
memory
Information
Processing
Theory
John Mc.Carthy, Marvin Minsky,
Allen Newell, dan Herbert Simon
Naom Chomski
Artificial
Intelligent
Teknologi
komputer
dikenal
Linguist
BAPAK COGNITIVE SCIENCE
Kognitif sains melihat alam berfikir
manusia itu sebagai sesuatu yang
kompleks yang melakukan perilaku
menerima (receives), menyimpan (stores),
menarik (retrieves), men-transformasi
(transforms), dan men-transmisi
(transmits) informasi.
INFORMASI
Informasi dan proses pengolahan informasi itu dapat dipelajari pola
maupun bentuk manupulasi dari pola tersebut.
65
simbol
X
32
sejumlah aturan (rules)
130
195
algorithm atau formal procedures
2080
Dengan diketahui rules atau algorithmnya maka dapat diketahui bagaimana
informasi itu di proses.
“Simbol” dan “formal proses” diatas merupakan representasi dari sesuatu
yang mempunyai arti di dunia nyata.
Beda “informasi” dengan “data”…….”garbage in garbage out” (GIGO)
KETERPADUAN
Hasil dari masing-masing bidang ilmu akan menjadi semacam input
untuk bidang ilmu lain sehingga akan membantu untuk lebih mengerti
alam berfikir manusia itu (the nature of the human mind)
Misalnya temuan di bidang psikologi kognitif seperti persepsi, memori,
proses pengolahan informasi, proses pengmabilan keputusan
merupakan input yang berharga bagi ilmu komputer, khususnya
dibidang AI (expert system).
KULIAH INI
Akan membahas isu-isu di bidang Psikologi Kognitif yang sebenarnya
merupakan titik temu (overlapping areas) dengan bidang Ilmu
Komputer.
Artinya isu-isu apa saja atau hasil studi apa saja di bidang Psikologi
Kognitif yang harus diketahui oleh para ahli di bidang Ilmu Komputer
agar mereka dapat menghasilkan suatu produk teknologi yang cocok
dan berguna bagi manusia.
APLIKASI
• Human Information Processing vs. Machine
Information Processing
• Sistem pengambilan keputusan pada manusia vs.
DSS (Decision Support System)
• Cara berfikir seorang pakar vs. Expert system
• Cara bekerja para manager vs. MIS (Management
Information System)
• Proses belajar manusia vs. CAI/CAL/CMC
PIAGET’S
Cognitive-Stage
Theory
Biographical Sketch
• Jean Piaget, lahir di Neuchatel,
Switzerland thn. 1896
• Minat di masa remaja (10 th):
mechanics, seashells, birds, & fossils
 Konflik
di masa
remaja : agama
vs. Scientific
teaching ……. >
baca buku2
Bergson, , Kant,
Spencer,
Durkheim
dll……> menulis
di bid. filsafat
 Ph.D. di bid moluska (kerang),
usia 21 th.
 Bekerja dgn Theodore Simon
dlm Binet’s Laboratory …. Mulai
tertarik dgn How children think.
 Terbit lima buku: The
Language and Thought of the
Child (27 th),Judgement and
Reasoning in the Child (28
th), The Child’s Conception of
the World (30 th), the Child’s
Conception of the Physical
Causality (31 th), Moral
Judgement of the Child (32
th).
Dikenal sebagai child psychologist tanpa
pendidikan formal.
Mulai mengobservasi anaknya …… sample
utama dari teorinya.
Genetic Epistemology
GE adalah cabang dari filsafat yg
mempelajari knowledge

“…the problem of the relation between the
acting or thinking subjects and objects of his
experience”
Genetic refers not to what is innate, …, but
to the “development” or “emergence”
Piaget:
How do we come to know something?
Is objective knowledge unbiased by the nature of the knower,
even possible?
Are there certain innate ideas, or must all knowledge be
acquired?
Cara:
By studying developmental changes in the process of
knowing and in the organization of knowledge.
Pendekatan: perkawinan antara filsafat &
scientific method of logic and fact.
Menolak armchair approach (filsafat) ….
Dikenal experimental epistemologist
 TEMUAN
… knowledge is a process rather than a state. It is an
event or a relationship between the knower and the
known.
… people construct knowledge. They have an active part
in the process of knowing and even contribute to the
form that knowledge takes place.
Cognitive humans actively select and interpret
information in the environment. They do not passively
soak up information to build a storehouse of knowledge.
Children’s knowledge of the world changes as their
cognitive system develops. As the knower changes, so
does the known.
Perkembangan dari satu tahap ke tahap lain di tentukan
oleh kognitif proses yaitu:
Asimilasi & Akomodasi
Adaptasi (adaptation)
Asimillasi (assimilation)
“ … the way in which a child transforms new information so that it
makes sense within their existing knowledge base. That is, a child
tries to understand new knowledge in terms of their existing
knowledge.”
Akomodasi (accomodation)
“ … a child changes his or her cognitive structure in an attempt to
understand new information. E.g. the child learns to grasp a new object in
a different way, or learns that the new object should not be sucked. In that
way, the child has adapted his or her way of thinking to a new
experience.”
Apa yang berubah?
SCHEMA
“an organized pattern of behavior, it reflects
a particular way of interacting with
environment”
JADI: Proses kognitif asimilasi & akomodasi menyebabkan
terjadinya proses perkembangan
ADAPTASI
EQUILIBIUM
Tahapan (stages)
Sensorimotor Period (birth to 2 years)
“… a child's cognitive system is limited to motor reflexes at birth, but the
child builds on these reflexes to develop more sophisticated procedures.
They learn to generalize their activities to a wider range of situations and
coordinate them into increasingly lengthy chains of behavior.”
Pre-Operational Thought (2 to 6/7 years)
“ … children acquire representational skills in the areas mental
imagery, and especially language. They are very self-oriented, and
have an egocentric view; that is, preoperational children can use
these representational skills only to view the world from their own
perspective”
Concrete Operations (6/7 to 11/12 years)
“ … children in the concrete operations stage are able to take
another's point of view and take into account more than one
perspective simultaneously. They can also represent
transformations as well as static situations. Although they can
understand concrete problems, Piaget would argue that they
cannot yet perform on abstract problems, and that they do not
consider all of the logically possible outcomes.”
Formal Operations (11/12 to adult)
“Children who attain the formal operation stage are capable of
thinking logically and abstractly. They can also reason
theoretically. Piaget considered this the ultimate stage of
development, and stated that although the children would still
have to revise their knowledge base, their way of thinking was as
powerful as it would get.”
Karakteristik Tahapan
• A stage is a structured whole in a state
of equilibrium
• Each stage derives from the previous
stage, incorporates and transforms that
stage, and prepare for the next one.
• The stages follow an invariant sequence
• Stages are universal
• Each stage includes a coming-into-being
and a being
Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the study of interaction
between people (users) and computers. It is an
interdisciplinary subject, relating computer science with many
other fields of study and research. Interaction between users
and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply
interface), which includes both hardware (i.e. peripherals and
other hardware) and software (for example determining
which, and how, information is presented to the user on a
screen).
A. ASPEK INTERDISIPLINER
Aesthetic, Antropology, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive science, Design,
Ergonomics, Human factors, Library and Information Sciences, Psychology,
Social psychology dan Sociology
B. TUJUAN
A basic goal of HCI is to improve interaction between user and computers, by
making computers more user-friendly and easier to use. More broadly, HCI is
also concerned with
• methodologies and processes for designing interfaces
• techniques for evaluating and comparing interfaces
• developing new interfaces and interaction techniques
• developing descriptive and predictive models and theories of interaction
A long term goal of HCI is to design computers that can be exploited to their
fullest potential as instruments that enhance human creativity, liberate the
human mind, and improve communication and cooperation between humans
(see CSCW).
A user in computing context is one who uses a computer system. To use it,
they have an account, and a user name, and peruse the user interface.
A computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling
operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computers are made
from components that perform simple well-defined functions. The complex
interactions of these components endow computers with the ability to process
information. If correctly configured (usually by programming) a computer can be
made to represent some aspect of a problem or part of a system.
Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a
particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal.
Usability can also refer to the methods of measuring usability and the study of the
principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance.

Usability is the degree to which the design of a particular user interface
takes into account the human psychology and physiology of the users,
and makes the process of using the system effective, efficient and
satisfying.
Kaitan dengan
a. mental model,
b. human action cycle,
c. usability testing
A mental model is an
explanation in someone's
thought process for how
something works in the real
world. It is a kind of internal
symbol or representation of
external reality, hypothesised to
play a major part in cognition.
The human action cycle is a psychological model which describes the steps humans take
when they interact with computer systems
The three stages of the human action cycle (goal formation, execution and evaluation).
The model is divided into three stages of seven steps in total, and is (approximately) as
follows:
Goal formation stage
1. Goal formation.
Execution stage
2. Translation of goals into a set of (unordered) tasks required to achieve the goal.
3. Sequencing the tasks to create the action sequence.
4. Executing the action sequence.
Evaluation stage
5. Perceiving the results after having executed the action sequence.
6. Interpreting the actual outcomes based on the expected outcomes.
7. Comparing what happened with what the user wished to happen.
Time on Task -- How long does it take people to complete basic tasks? (For
example, find something to buy, create a new account, and order the item.)
• Accuracy -- How many mistakes did people make? (And were they fatal or
recoverable with the right information?)
• Recall -- How much does the person remember afterwards?
• Emotional Response -- How does the person feel about the tasks
completed? (Confident? Stressed? Would the user recommend this system to
a friend?)
•
Aesthetic, Antropology, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive science,
Design, Ergonomics, Human factors, Library and Information Sciences,
Psychology, Social psychology dan Sociology
• Modern AI is concerned with producing useful machines to automate human
tasks requiring intelligent behavior.
• Cognitive Science is the scientific study of the mind and brain and how they
give rise to behavior.
• Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with
the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a
system, and contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products,
environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the
needs, abilities and limitations of people (IEA, 2000).
• Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include
human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. It
is a profession that focuses on how people interact with products, tools,
procedures, & any processes likely to be encountered in the modern world.




HCI vs CHI. The acronym CHI (pronounced kai), for computer-human
interaction, now refer to their field of study as HCI (pronounced as an
initialism), which perhaps rose in popularity partly because of the
notion that the human, and the human's needs and time, should be
considered first, and are more important than the machine's. The field
of human-centered computing has emerged as an even more
pronounced focus on understanding human beings as actors within
socio-technical systems.
Usability vs Usefulness. Design methodologies in HCI aim to create
user interfaces that are usable, i.e. that can be operated with ease and
efficiency. However, an even more basic requirement is that the user
interface be useful, i.e. that it allow the user to complete relevant
tasks.
Intuitive and Natural. Software products are often touted by
marketeers as being "intuitive" and "natural" to use, often simply
because they have a graphical user interface.
Data Density and Information Absorption. The rapid growth in the
density of computer screen real estate has created an opportunity to
accelerate "information absorption" to much higher levels. Interfaces
such as virtual reality will give further growth the potential density of
information presented.
USER INTERFACE

The user interface is the aggregate of means by which people (the
users) interact with a particular machine, device, computer program
or other complex tool (the system). The user interface provides
means of:
A. Input, allowing the users to control the system
B Output, allowing the system to inform the users (also referred
to as feedback)




The term computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) "how
collaborative activities and their coordination can be supported by
means of computer systems."
Groupware are synonyms. Ellis (1993) defines groupware as
"computer-based systems that support groups of people engaged in
a common task (or goal) and that provide an interface to a shared
environment." On the other hand, different authors claim that while
groupware refers to real computer-based systems, CSCW focuses
on the study of tools and techniques of groupware as well as their
psychological, social, and organizational effects.
CSCW Support different time and place. == A lot of confusion in the
field of CSCW raises from the different interpretations of the terms
collaboration and cooperation.
The concept of cooperation is often used in relation to the concepts
of coordination and communication.
Examples : Videoconferencing, Messaging (Instant messaging, Email)

Untuk mewujudkan konsepsi komputer sebagai pengolah data untuk
menghasilkan suatu informasi, maka diperlukan sistem komputer
(computer system) yang elemennya terdiri dari hardware, software
dan brainware. Ketiga elemen sistem komputer tersebut harus
saling berhubungan dan membentuk kesatuan. Hardware tidak akan
berfungsi apabila tanpa software, demikian juga sebaliknya. Dan
keduanya tiada bermanfaat apabila tidak ada manusia (brainware)
yang mengoperasikan dan mengendalikannya.
A. Hardware atau Perangkat Keras: peralatan yang secara
fisik terlihat dan bisa djamah.
B. Software atau Perangkat Lunak: program yang berisi
instruksi/perintah untuk melakukan pengolahan data.
C. Brainware: manusia yang mengoperasikan dan
mengendalikan sistem komputer
Ikon (Yunani)
= image/gambar/simbol yang
merepresentasikan suatu objek
-> baru kemudian berkembang menjadi
tulisan
Dalam HCI, ikon dimaksudkan sebagai IMAGE atau SIMBOL YANG
MEREPRESENTASIKAN SUATU OPERASI/PERINTAH
a. Ikon Piktorial untuk merepresentasikan informasi operasi
semantik dan abstrak dengan gambar
b. Ikon Simbol untuk merepresentasikan informasi operasi
semantik dengan beberapa karakter
Pertimbangan dalam
menciptakan ikon



KETERGANTUNGAN KULTUR/BUDAYA dan APLIKASI,
gunakan simbol alami sesuai latarbelakang budaya
BENTUK MUDAH DIKENAL (easy recognition), makna
yang tepat akan membantu mengingat dan
mengidentifikasi ikon
BERBEDA DGN IKON LAIN DALAM 1 SISTEM, mudah
dibedakan dan memiliki ciri yang khas dalam
merefleksi-kan makna dari objek yang direpresentasikan
KEUNTUNGAN DIGUNAKAN IKON SEBAGAI ANTARMUKA
• Operasi akan lebih cepat daripada menuliskan kata-kata perintah
• Untuk memahami arti semantik suatu ikon akan lebih cepat
• Perinath-perintah atau operasi dengan ikon dapat dilakukan secara simultan

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