Han Dynasty PPT #2

Report
Liu Bang and the Han dynasty
Han Wudi
Civil service test
The Xiongnu
Maodun
Sima Qian
Royal burials
Wang Mang
Weak emperors
Thieves and Rebellions
Han dynasty innovations
Chinese silk
End of the Han dynasty
1
Liu Bang and the Han Dynasty
China was reunited
under Liu (“Loo”)
Bang.
He founded the Han
dynasty.
The Han dynasty
lasted for over 400
years, from 206 BCE
until 220 CE.
The original Han
capital was at
Chang’an.
It was later moved
to Luoyang.
Liu Bang
2
Han Wudi
The greatest of the Han
emperors was Han Wudi,
also spelled Wu Ti.
He was called the
“Martial Emperor.”
He expanded the
bureaucracy, built many
roads, walls, and canals.
To raise money, he
established state
monopolies to control
iron, salt, and liquor
production.
Han Wudi depicted
worshipping Buddha
3
Han Wudi
established an
imperial university in
124 BCE to train
government
bureaucrats.
The university was
based on the works
of Confucius.
At its height, the
university had up to
30,000 students.
4
Civil Service Test
Only the sons of nobles were
allowed to become bureaucrats.
First, they had to pass the civil
service test.
It took three days to complete.
Each student sat in a small booth
to take the test.
Sometimes hundreds of booths
would be placed in a field.
Students were watched from a
tower to be certain there was no
cheating.
Servants would bring the students
food.
It is reported that some students
actually died of exhaustion while
taking the test.
The test covered current events,
Confucian knowledge, creative
writing, law, and mathematics.
Confucius
5
The Han Empire
Han Wudi conquered northern Vietnam and northern
Korea. But to the north, Han Wudi faced the Xiongnu
(“Hong new”), who are also known as the Huns.
6
Wudi took
control of much
of Mongolia.
He opened the
Silk Road, and
trade became an
important
element of the
economy for
much of the Han
Dynasty.
They needed to
expand in order
to secure the Silk
Road
Xiongnu chieftain’s crown
7
Sima Qian
The greatest Chinese
historian was Sima
Qian (“See-Ma CheeEn”).
He came from a
family of historians.
When he turned 20,
his father sent him on
an expedition around
China to learn about
the ancient sage
kings.
He became an
inspector for Emperor
Han Wudi.
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Sima Qian defended a
friend who was to be
executed by Emperor Han
Wudi.
The emperor was
angered by Sima Qian’s
disrespect and ordered
him executed too.
However, in ancient
China a man could avoid
death by either paying a
large sum of money or by
being castrated.
Sima Qian did not have a
lot of money.
He spent three years in
prison and was castrated.
9
Only castrated
males were allowed
to work in the
emperor’s court.
Sima Qian rose to
the highest level of
court historian, the
“Prefect of the
Grand Scribes.”
Sima Qian
published 2,000
years of Chinese
history, from the
sage kings to his
own time.
Sima Qian’s history
10
Royal Burials
During the Han
dynasty nobles would be
buried in suits of jade plates
sewn together with gold
threads.
It was thought that
jade slowed the
decomposition of the body.
11
Wang Mang
In the year 6
CE, the Han
emperor-to-be
was only two
years old.
Wang Mang,
the baby’s regent
(royal guardian),
claimed the
throne himself.
He became
known as the
“socialist”
emperor.
Wang Mang
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Wang Mang tried
to set limits on land
ownership.
He tried to
redistribute land to
poor peasants.
However, China
was having bad
harvests and famine.
Warlords and
peasants revolted
against Wang Mang.
He was killed in
the rebellion.
Merchants, 1st century CE13
Weak Emperors
Fengxian Cave, Luoyang (Tang dynasty)
Beginning in 25 CE, many new emperors came to power.
These weak rulers were controlled by wealthy warlords.
They moved the Han capital to Luoyang.
Instead of helping the poor, they helped the wealthy
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landowners.
Thieves and Rebellions
There was great poverty
in China.
Gangs of thieves
threatened villages with
robbery and destruction.
Social rebellions, such
as that of the Yellow
Turbans, also threatened
the government.
The Yellow Turbans
were followers of Daoism.
They always wore
yellow turbans on their
heads.
In 184 CE they revolted
against the Han emperor,
but were defeated.
15
Han Dynasty Innovations
Paper, 105 CE
The fishing reel,
200 CE
The yoke, around
200 CE
The yoke is a
shoulder collar for
draft animals such as
oxen and buffalo.
The yoke allows
oxen to pull heavier
carts.
Chinese yoke
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Cai Lun (“Tsai Lun”)
invented paper in 105 CE.
Papermaking is
considered one of the four
great inventions of ancient
China, along with
gunpowder, the compass,
and printmaking.
The paper was made
from bark, hemp, and other
inexpensive materials.
Paper helped China build
its bureaucracy.
Cai Lun’s invention is
considered one of the most
important developments of
mankind.
Cai Lun
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Chinese iron production
The Han dynasty supported the iron industry.
Iron was used to make pots, stoves, knives,
needles, axes, hammers, saws, and other household
items.
Iron tools allowed farmers to grow more food.
The Chinese population expanded.
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Chinese Silk
The silk industry
expanded throughout
China.
Sericulture is the art of
making silk.
The Chinese raised
silkworms on special
farms.
Farm silkworms were
only fed finely chopped
mulberry leaves.
This diet helped the
silkworm make a cocoon
of very long and lustrous
silk fibers.
The Chinese used the
cocoons to make silk.
Chinese silk making
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End of the Han Dynasty
The Han
dynasty fell in 220
CE under Emperor
Xian Di.
Rival warlords
and military
commanders had
grown too powerful
for the emperor to
control.
China collapsed
into three warring
states.
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