FormalVM-Cai-Jiang

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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Popek & Goldberg’s notation
Haipeng Cai and Siyuan Jiang
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
•
•
Conventional third generation computer
Virtual machine monitor(VMM)
Haipeng Cai and Siyuan Jiang
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Conventional
Third Generation Computer
Haipeng Cai and Siyuan Jiang
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Processor Mode M
• s: supervisor mode
• u: user mode
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
No I/O instructions
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Memory as
Executable storage E
•
•
E
Linear
Uniformly addressable
… E[i]
0
…
i
Conventional Third Generation Computer
q-1
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Relocation-bounds Register R
•
•
R=(l, b)
An index to E
l
E
…
0
l+b
…
q-1
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
R=(l, b),
address a is reached like:
l
E
l+a
…
0
a<b
l+b
…
q-1
a>b-1
a+l>q-1
Memorytrap
Memorytrap
(Discuss
(Discusslater)
later)
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Relocation-bounds Register R
works in both processor modes
• supervisor mode
• user mode
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Program Counter P
Address of next instruction
•
Relative to R
l
E
…
l+p
0
l+b
…
q-1
P=p
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
State S=<E, M, P, R>
The current state of the real computer system
•
•
•
•
E: executable storage
M: processor mode
P: program counter
R: relocation-register
Conventional Third Generation Computer
PSW:
Program
status word
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
PSW=<M, P, R>
Old-PSW
l
E
…
0 1
l+b
…
q-1
Next-PSW
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
State S=<E, M, P, R>
Notation C
• is the finite set of states
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Instruction i
• is a function f: C  C
C
i
C
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Trap
(an action of instruction)
S1=<E1, M1, P1, R1> trap S2,=<E2, M’, P’, R’>
l1l'
l1+b1
l'+b'
E1
E2
…
…
<M1, P1, R1> <M’,P’,R’>
0
1
Conventional Third Generation Computer
q-1
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
MemoryTrap
•
A trap that caused by an attempt
to access an address
which is beyond the bounds
l
E
l+b
…
0
…
q-1
address a>b-1
a>q-1
(memorytrap)
(memorytrap)
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Privileged instruction i
• For any PSW=<e, p, r> that i does not
memorytrap,
• if M=u, i traps
• else if M=s, i does not trap
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Sensitive instruction i
• Control sensitive
• Behavior sensitive
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Control sensitive instruction i
There exists a state S1=<e1, m1, p1, r1> , note i(S1)=<e2,m2,p2,r2>
such that i(S1) does not memorytrap AND (r1≠r2 OR m1≠m2) is true
In other words, i is control sensitive
if i intends to change one or both of
• R: the available memory resources
• M: the processor mode
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Operator  (for Behavior sensitive instruction)
l
E
l+b
…
…
0
E
…
0
r
q-1
l+x
l+x+b
…
rx
q-1
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Behavior sensitive instruction i
i is behavior sensitive
if there exists integer x and S1, S2
where S1 has m1, r1, p1
and S2 has m2(≠m1), r2=r1x, p2=p1
such that i(S1) and i(S2) differ in one or both of
• the values of available memory
• the program counter
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Behavior sensitive instruction i
• is location sensitive, if the difference is caused by R
• is mode sensitive , if the difference is caused by M
Behavior
Sensitive
Relocation-bounds
Register
Location
Sensitive
Processor Mode
Conventional Third Generation Computer
Mode
Sensitive
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Conventional third generation computer
Wrap Up
• S=<E,M,P,R>
• Executable storage
• PSW
•
•
•
• Instruction
• Trap
Processor Mode
Program counter
Relocation-bounds
Register
• Memorytrap
• Privileged instruction
• Sensitive instruction
• Control Sensitive
• Behavior Sensitive
Conventional Third Generation Computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Virtual Machine Monitor
(VMM)
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Control Program
(CP)
VMM is a kind of CP
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Control Program
Assume
• Control Program runs in s mode
• Other programs run in u mode
(In later discussion, ”program” represents the other programs)
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Control Program CP=<D, A, {vi}>
• Dispatcher D
• Allocator A
• Interpreters {vi}
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Dispatcher D
D decides which module to call.
E[1] has P set to D
l
E
…
l+b
…
q-1
0 1
PSWnext=<M, P->D, R>
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Allocator A
A decides what resource(s) are to be provided.
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Interpreters {vi}
One interpreter routine vi for one privileged instruction i
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Virtual Machine Monitor
A CP with three properties:
•
•
•
Efficiency property
Resource control property
Equivalence property
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Efficiency property:
All innocuous instructions are executed by hardware directly
(with no intervention on the part of the control program)
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Resource control property:
Programs cannot affect the system resources.
(Whenever an attempt to affect system resources, A is to be invoked
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Equivalence property:
With two exceptions(listed in the next slide),
any program k performs in a manner indistinguishable from:
(1) CP does not exist
(2) k has freedom of access to privileged instructions
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Exceptions for equivalence property:
(1) The length of time required for execution
changes when program runs with a CP present
(2) A may not satisfy a particular request for space,
then k will not execute in a same manner
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Virtual Machine
The environment
which any program sees when running with a VMM present
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Virtual machine monitor
Wrap up
• Control Program (CP)
• Dispatcher
• Allocator
• Interpreters{vi}
• Virtual machine monitor properties
• Efficiency
• Resource control
• Equivalence
Virtual Machine Monitor
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Formal Requirements
for Conventional Third Generation Computer
to be Virtualizable
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Theorem 1
For any conventional third generation computer,
a VMM can be constructed,
if the set of sensitive instructions (for that computer)
is a subset of the set of privileged instructions
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Construct a VMM
(in conventional 3rd generation computer)
• VM Map
• Define “Equivalence property”
• VM Map that satisfies three VMM properties
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
VM Map
•
is a function f: Cr->Cv which is a one-one homomorphism
that is for any Si, ei, there exists a e’i, such that f(ei(Si))=e’i(f(Si))
Cr(states without VMM)
Si
f
ei
Cv(states with VMM)
S’i
e'i
Sj
f
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
S’j
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
VM Map
VM Map only maps states:
•
•
after the completion of one instruction in the real machine
before the beginning of the next instruction
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Equivalence (Formal)
Assume a real machine runs from S1, VM runs from f(S1).
The VM is equivalent to the real machine,
if and only if, for any S1,
if the real machine halts in S2, then the VM halts in f(S2).
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Standard VM Map(detail in next slide)
Sr
Standard VM Map
Sv
l
E
…
0
same
<m’=s, p’=CP, r’=(0,q-1)>
E’
2
0
…
CP
<m, p, r> <m’, p’, r’>
l+k
…
k
l+b
…
w-1
l+k+b
…
w+k-1
set by trap handler
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Standard VM Map
Sr<E,M,P,R>Sv<E’, M’, P’, R’>
where R=(l, b), |E|=w, |CP|=k-2
• E’[i+k]  E[i], for i=0, w-1
• E’[i]  CP, for i=2 to k-1
• E’[1]  <m’, p’, r’>
where m’=s, p’=1st location of CP, r’=(0, q-1)
• E’[0]  <m, p, r> as last set by trap handler
• M’ u, P’P, R’(l+k, b)
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Standard VM Map
It can satisfies three properties
if the sensitive instructions are all privileged instructions
in third generation computer
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Overall Wrap up
• Conventional third generation computer
• Virtual machine monitor (control program)
• The condition under which
VMM can be built
in the conventional third generation computer
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Related results: Recursive virtualization
• Can a VM run a copy of the VMM?
• Theorem 2: A conventional third generation
computer is recursively virtualizable if it is:
(a) virtualizable, and
(b) a VMM without any timing dependencies can be
constructed for it
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Relax VMM definition: Hybrid VMM
• Relax VMM definition so that more third
generation computers can be virtualizable
• Theorem 3: A hybrid VMM may be constructed for
any conventional third generation computer
where user sensitive instructions are privileged.
Note1: in Theorem 1, it is all ”sensitive instructions”
Note2: user sensitive instructions are defined in next slide
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
User Sensitive Instructions
• Def. i is said to be user sensitive, if there exists a
state S=<E, u, P, R>, for which i is sensitive
• In other words, i is user sensitive if i is sensitive
under user mode
Formal requirements for virtualizable third
generation computer
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Formal Requirements for Virtualizable
Third Generation Architecture
Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg
Reference
 [1] G. Popek, R. Goldberg, “Formal
requirements for virtualizable third
generation architectures”, Commun. ACM,
vol. 17, pp. 412-421, 1974.
Haipeng Cai and Siyuan Jiang
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