The Role of the Private Surveyors

Report
Conference and Plenary Meeting
of the PCC in Cyprus
The Resurvey Project of the
Department of Land and Surveys in Cyprus and
the Role of the Private Surveyors in the Cadastre
Dr Elikkos Elia
Senior Land Officer
November 29, 2012
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Presentation Content
The Cyprus Cadastral Map
The Resurvey Project
Private Sector Involvement in Cadastral Surveys in Cyprus
Conclusion
Dr Elikkos Elia
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
of the PCC in Cyprus
The Cyprus Cadastral Map
The cadastral map together with the Land Registry constitutes
the basis of the Cyprus Cadastral System.
The cadastral plans cover the extend of the whole island, and
approximately 1,579,000 parcels appear today on the plans.
Today, there are 8,545 cadastral plans on scales from 1:500 up
to 1:5000.
The first cadastral map series was created from 1904 to 1929
and it is being updated since then, with the applications-cases
that are carried out.
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
of the PCC in Cyprus
Cyprus First Cadastral Map
Cyprus Geodetic Reference System 1913-1915
Map Projection: Cassini
Reference Spheroid: Clark 1858
33º 20’ E
0,0
Dr Elikkos Elia
35º N
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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1914-1918
Chain Survey
Plans on Scales 1:500,
1:1000, 1:1250, 1:2500
1904-1911
Unsound Chain Survey
Plans on Scale 1:2500
1918-1929
Plane Table Method
Plans on Scales 1:5000
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Cyprus First Cadastral Map
Plan on scale 1:500 (chain survey)
Plan on scale 1:2500
(unsound survey)
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Cyprus First Cadastral Map
Plans on scale 1:5000
(plane table)
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Digital Cadastral Data Base
All the features shown on the cadastral plans have been
digitized and edge-matched, creating the DCDB of the
Cyprus Land Information System
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Problems related to the First Cadastral Map
• accuracy
• update & maintenance
• copy and reproduction
• distribution
To overcome these problems the DLS set a strategic objective
aiming to establish a fixed boundary coordinated cadastre
system, through the resurvey project, which started in 1999.
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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New Geodetic Reference System in 1993
Reference Geodetic Datum : WGS 84
Map Projection: Local Transverse Mercator (LTM)
New Cadastral Plan scales: 1:1000, 1:2000, 1:5000
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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RESURVEY PROJECT – ADOPTION OF NEW PLANS
The resurvey project and the adoption of new plans are
carried out according to the procedure described in article
50A of the Immovable Property (Tenure, Registration and
Valuation) Law, Cap.224.
The Director of the DLS may order the adoption of new
plans for any area.
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Resurvey Project
The determination, relocation and demarcation of the position of a parcel
on a new cadastral plan, as a result of the resurvey project, require a
complicated procedure (analysis), where a number of factors, having
various relative weights (%), need to be taken into account. The
determination of the position of the parcel is actually the weighted average
of the following factors:
W1 x Legal Cadastral Plan +
W2 x Legal Parcel Area
+
W3 x Previous Legal Measurements
Weighted Average =
and Previous Applications +
Parcel Position
W4 x Actual Land Tenure +
W5 x Actual Parcel Area +
W6 x Existing Topo or
Constructed Features
The difficulty in the whole process is to define the percentage (%) of the
relative weight of each factor.
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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RESURVEY PROJECT
The whole procedure of the
determination of a boundary is
not facilitated in cases where
land disputes occur between the
owners of neighboring parcels.
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digitizedoflegal
cadastral
the PCC in Cyprus
plan
vs
1963 land tenure
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digitized oflegal
cadastral
the PCC
in Cyprus
plan
vs
actual (current) land tenure
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and Plenary Meeting
Legal
measurements
carried out in1967 for the subdivision of a parcel in two
of the PCC in Cyprus
parcels with equal extends.
(The measurements do not result to equal extends).
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Determination of
the position of the
parcels as a result
of the analysis of
the weighted
average of all
various factors
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Proposed boundaries position
digitized legal cadastral plan
vs
proposed cadastral plan
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Resurvey Project
RESURVEY PROJECT
Article 50A of the Immovable Property (Tenure, Registration and
Valuation) Law Cap.224:
• Any person who has a lawful interest in any immovable property
situated within the resurveyed area may inspect the existing plan
in use, the new plan to be adopted and a list showing the number
and area of each parcel on the first and the corresponding
number and area of a parcel on the second plan.
• If any objection is submitted within 60 days from the publication,
the Director shall notify his decision thereon by a notice served on
the person objecting and on any other person whose lawful
interests may be affected by the objection or the decision thereon.
After the expiry of the period for objections, the Director shall
proceed to adopt the new plan.
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Resurvey Project
The result of the resurvey
project is the adoption of
new, accurate, digital
cadastral plans …
… which formulate the basis of
a fixed boundary coordinated
cadastral system.
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
260 plans 1:1000
(LTM)
of the PCC
in Cyprus
750 plans 1:2000 (LTM)
906 plans 1:2500 (cassini-unsound)
211 plans 1:500 (cassini)
615 plans 1:1000 (cassini)
3383 plans 1:2500 (cassini)
1590 plans 1:5000 (cassini)
830 plans 1:1250 (cassini)
CYPRUS CADASTRAL MAP
October 2012
1,579,000 parcels
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Systematic and
Sporadic Resurvey
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Private Sector Involvement in
Cadastral Surveys in Cyprus
Dr Elikkos Elia
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Private Sector Involvement in Cadastral Surveys
In many countries, Private Land Surveyors can carry out cadastral
surveys, and in most of the cases they need a license to do so.
In a few countries, such as Sweden, The Netherlands and Finland,
private land surveyors do not have a direct involvement and act
mainly as consultants or undertake special projects.
In other countries, such as Czech Republic, Hungary and New
Zealand, cadastral surveys are carried out exclusively by private
surveyors.
Source: www.cadastraltemplate.org
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Number of Professional
Land Surveyors
(The proportion of the time
that they actually commit for
cadastral matters vary from
40% to 100%)
* The report submitted in 2003
Germany*
23,000
Poland
16,700
Australia
3,500
Bulgaria
2,333
Hungary
1,700
Lithuania
1,516
Czech Republic
1,500
Belgium*
950
Sweden, New Zealand*
600
Switzerland*
500
Finland
400
Denmark, The Netherlands
300
Latvia
173
Cyprus
100
Source: www.cadastraltemplate.org - FIG
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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The surveyors in Cyprus have been graduated mainly
from the following Universities:
National Technical University of Athens
School of Rural and Surveying Engineering
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
School of Rural and Surveying Engineering
Budapest University of Technology & Economics
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Cyprus University of Technology
Department of Civil Engineering & Geomatics
(…expected in 2013….)
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Private Sector Involvement in Cadastral Surveys in Cyprus
In Cyprus, the involvement of private land surveyors began in 1992,
for a specific type of cadastral applications regarding land divisions
and horizontal (strata) divisions. The demarcation of the external
boundary for these applications was carried out at that time by
governmental surveyors.
A small number of applications were carried out by private
surveyors until 2007 when the Cadastral Survey Law was enforced.
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Cadastral Surveys Law
In 2006, the Cyprus Cadastral Survey Council was established
and the first Cadastral Surveyors Register was created.
The Cadastral Surveys Law was actually enforced on the
2.2.2007.
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Becoming a Cadastral Surveyor…
Any person may be included in the Cadastral Surveyors Register if
he/she:
1.
is a member of the Scientific Technical Chamber of Cyprus in
the Rural and Surveying Engineering Branch,
2.
has at least one year experience in the field of cadastral
surveying.
Today, 87 Private Surveyors and 14 Civil Servants are registered as
Cadastral Surveyors.
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Current working status of Professional
Surveyors in Cyprus
Land & Surveys
Dept.
Land Consolidation
Dept.
Other Governm.
Depts
Private Cadastral
Surveyors
Other private works
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Cadastral field surveys carried out by
private surveyors
Applicants to any District Land Office of the Land and Surveys
Department, requiring cadastral field surveys, have the
option to choose between a governmental or a private
licensed surveyor. Such works include the field surveys for:
• land demarcations
• vertical or horizontal (strata) property divisions
• boundary readjustments
• boundary amalgamations
• street widening and building or other property registrations.
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Cadastral field surveys carried out by
private surveyors
In any case, whether the work is undertaken by a private or a
governmental surveyor, the applicant has to pay the required fee
to the Land and Surveys Department. If the applicant chooses to
proceed with a private licensed surveyor, the applicant has to
personally agree with the Private Surveyor for an additional fee
and sign a contract provided by the Cyprus Scientific and
Technical Chamber. In all cases the field work is checked by the
DLS staff who has also the responsibility to update the cadastral
plan and the databases of the Land Information System.
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Examples of Fees Paid to the DLS
Application
Undertaken by DLS
Field work by private
licensed surveyor
Land demarcation
Up to 6 BTPs
From 7 to 12 BTPs
More than 13 BTPs
€50 for each BTP
€30 for each BTP
€20 for each BTP
€15 for each BTP
€10 for each BTP
€6 for each BTP
Land parcel division
or boundary
readjustment
€110 for each new
created parcel
€35 for each new
created parcel
Building (strata)
division
€100 for each new
created unit
€30 for each new
created unit
Boundary dispute
€160 for each
involved parcel
Not carried out by
private surveyors
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Cyprus Positioning System (CYPOS)
The cadastral field surveying works are supported today by the
Cyprus Positioning System.
Seven permanent GNSS
network stations.
Users: DLS, private
surveyors, other
engineers, departments,
organizations and
citizens.
Annual fee = €200+VAT
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Applications undertaken by governmental & private surveyors
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2006
2007
2008
Undertaken by the DLS
Dr Elikkos Elia
2009
2010
2011
2012
Field work by Private Surveyors
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Applications carried out by governmental and
private surveyors in 2006
DLS
97%
Private
Surveyors
3%
Total:11.234
DLS: 10.869
Private: 365
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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Applications carried out by governmental and
private surveyors in 2011
Private
38%
DLS
62%
Dr Elikkos Elia
Total: 9.156
DLS: 5.688
Private: 3.488
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Conference and Plenary Meeting
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CONCLUSION
The resurvey project aims to prepare new digital cadastral plans with
high accuracy and reliability, providing a fundamental infrastructure
to the databases of the Land Information System, the Cadastre and
to the broader Land Administration System. In the areas where the
resurvey project was completed, governmental or private surveyors
can carry out cadastral surveys rapidly, efficiently and without
ambiguities. It is recognized that more effort should be placed to
accelerate and finish this project.
The private surveyors have an important and active role in the field
of cadastral surveying in Cyprus. Today the citizens have the option
to choose between the DLS or a private licensed surveyor to carry
out a cadastral survey. With the completion of the resurvey project,
it will be easier for the Government to pass all cadastral field works
to the private sector.
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