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Social 6 Review
What is Democracy?
• Power resides in the people
• Four pillars of democracy: Justice, Equity,
Freedoms, Representations
• Democratic values = Values of the people
• Democratic values = equality, right to vote,
fairness, compromise, peacefulness
• In Canada decisions are made by the people,
by the majority, and often by representation
What is democracy?
There are 3 types of government:
• Local (municipal)
• Provincial/ Territorial
• Federal
*Each level has elected and appointed citizens
who represent the majority
What is Democracy?
What are the similarities and differences between
direct and representative democracy?
• In Canada all citizens can participate directly
in government matters, but it is hard to do so
all of the time for every person.
– Travel
– Time
– Listening to all opinions
This is why we use representative democracy
Representative Democracy
• In a representative government, the candidate
who gets the most votes will represent the
majority
• This happens in all 3 levels of government:
local (municipal), provincial/ territorial, federal
Direct Democracy
• Canadian representative democracy is related,
but different from the direct democracy
practiced in Ancient Athens
• Athenian citizens = males who were not
Metics of Slaves
• These citizens were responsible for being
active participants in the government
Direct Democracy
• Athens – most important body of government
was the Assembly which took place at the
Pnyx
• Had to be a male citizen over 20 years old
• Thousand of men often attended, all had right
to speak
• Voting taken by counting hands, or sometimes
placing coloured stone in a jar
Direct Democracy
• Males citizens over 30 were also expected to
serve on the Council of 500 or in the courts as
a part of the jury.
Direct Democracy
Bad things about the Athenian Direct
Democracy model:
– Not all people could vote
– Not all people were considered equal
Direct Democracy in Canada
• Sometime in Canada we have referendums or
plebiscites.
• Example 1982: Division of Northwest
Territories are put to a plebiscite. Decision by
the direct vote was in favour of division. Thus
Nunavut was created in 1993
What if…?
What if your class was offered $100 and you had to decide what to
do with it…
What would the decision-making process be like if your class were
a direct democracy?
What would it look like if your class was a representative
democracy?
What would it look like if your class made decision by consensus?
What would it look like if you class was a dictatorship?
What are the similarities and
differences between direct and
representative democracy?
What are the rights and responsibilities of
citizens living in a representative democracy?
• Canadian rights promised by the Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
• 34 sections entrenched into the Canadian
Constitution
• Rights = Responsibilities
• Right to vote = Responsibility to be an
informed voter
What are the rights and responsibilities of
citizens living in a representative democracy?
• It is our responsibility as citizens to tell our
government about our needs and concerns, so
that the government knows what we need
• It is our responsibility to help better our
communities for common good
What are the rights and
responsibilities of citizens living in a
representative democracy?
How does Canada’s justice system help protect
your democratic and constitutional rights?
• Games need rules/ societies need laws
• Constitution is Canada’s supreme document
which includes laws and rights (laws uphold
rights)
• Laws reflect Canadian values (fairness,
respect, equality, peacefulness)
• The job of the Justice system is to protect the
Rights of Canadians by enforcing the law
Supreme Court of Canada
• Supreme Court of Canada can review laws if it
conflicts with Rights and Freedoms
• Protecting these rights and common good is
essential to Canadian Democracy
How does Canada’s justice system help
protect your democratic and
constitutional rights?
How does the Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms protect the individual rights and
freedoms of all Canadians?
• Rights and Freedoms are guaranteed by law
since they are entrenched in the Constitution
• Laws can be challenged by individuals or
groups if they do not feel their rights are being
upheld (Justine Blainey)
Sections in the Charter of Rights and
Freedoms
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Fundamental Freedoms
Democratic Freedoms
Mobility Rights
Legal Rights
Equality Rights
Official Language Rights
Other Rights (aboriginal rights,
Sections of the Charter
• Fundamental Freedom- freedom of speech,
thought, opinion and religion (in a peaceful
manner)
• Democratic Rights – Right to vote for
representatives in the government.
Democratic rights have expanded over the last
century (100 years), allowing women and all
cultures to vote
• Mobility Rights – citizens can move, work, and
travel anywhere in Canada
• Legal Rights – Protect citizens involved in legal
conflict. (Ex: Innocent until proven guilty)
• Equality Rights – Ensure equal and fair treatment
for everyone. Sometimes this includes
accommodations (Ex: building a school elevator
for someone in a wheel chair so they may have
access to school as other students have.
• Official Language Rights – bilingual country
(French and Canadian) Government signs,
services in both languages.
• Other Rights – Aboriginal Rights
• Gender Equality Rights added in 1982 (section
28). Equal pay and treatment for women in
the work place.
How does the Canadian Charter of
Rights and Freedoms protect the
individual rights and freedoms of all
Canadians?
• What types of freedoms and rights are in the
Charter?
How does the Canadian Charter of Rights
and Freedoms protect collective rights?
• Collective rights protect particular groups,
these groups have a collective identity (shared
beliefs, values, language, culture)
• These groups have a long history that
precedes (came before) the Confederation of
Canada in 1867.
• The main Collective Rights that are protected
include rights of aboriginal groups and official
language minorities
Collective Rights in Canada
• Examples of Official Language minorities are
Francophones (French speakers) in Lethbridge,
or Anglophones (English speakers) in Quebec
City
• When the Charter was entrenched in 1982, so
were the above collective rights
Collective Rights for Aboriginal Peoples
after 1982
• First Nations, Metis, Inuit (FNMI)
– Regaining Land Titles/ Claims
– Regaining Rights
– Self- Governance
– Control over Natural Resources on their land
– Compensation (money) for impacted lands
– Consultation over land development
Self- Governance
• 1999, Section 77 (1) of the Indian Act, was
changed.
• Prior only First Nations living on reserves
could vote for band leaders.
• John Corbiere, chief of Ontario’s Batchwan
Nation agrued that First Nations people on
reserves and off reserves needed to have a
vote in order for their to be equity and
fairness
Protecting Collective Rights for Official
Language Minorities
• Both Francophones and Anglophones were
important in establishing Canada as a
Confederation, therefore their language rights
are important
• Government buildings and services must be
offered in both languages
How does the Canadian Charter of
Rights and Freedoms protect collective
rights?
How did the Treaty of La Grande Paix de Montréal
address Collective Identity and Collective Rights?
• Before European settlement, there were many
aboriginal communities. Europeans were the first
non-aboriginals to settle in Canada
• French wanted to improve the fur-trade between
them and the Ouendat and Algonquin. But these
First Nations groups were in conflict with the
Haudenosaunee
• This conflict was preventing the settlement of
Montreal, which was important to the French and
the fur-trade
Treaty of La Grande Paix de Montreal
(1701)
• The Governor of New France wanted Peace
between all First Nations groups (not just
between the Haudenosaunee)
• Dozens of First Nations groups met in
Montreal to discuss peace and treaty
• Approximately 1,300 people from 40
Aboriginal groups come to discuss
• These discussions led to the signing of the
Treaty of La Grande Paix de Montreal
Treaty of La Grande Paix de Montreal
(1701)
• Each group’s identity and opinion was
respected, thus respecting collective identity
• The groups worked together through
cooperation and compromise for common good
How did the Treaty of La Grande Paix de
Montréal address Collective Identity and
Collective Rights?
How do the Treaty of GPM (1701) and the
Canadian Charter (1982) compare in addressing
individual and collective rights?
• These documents were written over 300 years
apart, but are very similar in how they address
individual and collective rights
How do the Treaty of GPM (1701) and the
Canadian Charter (1982) compare in addressing
individual and collective rights?
Individual Identity
GPM – respected the identity of each FN group
CC – guarantees individual rights and freedoms
How do the Treaty of GPM (1701) and the
Canadian Charter (1982) compare in addressing
individual and collective rights?
Collective Identity
GPM – respected the identity of each FN group.
Treated the French and the FN groups as equal
and independent nations
CC – respects FN collective identity and official
language minorities
How do the Treaty of GPM (1701) and the
Canadian Charter (1982) compare in addressing
individual and collective rights?
Collective Rights
GPM – Ensured collective rights for French and
FN groups. FN groups could be self-governing
and hunt on territorial lands
CC – guarantees collective rights of FNMI groups
and the official language minorities
Treaty of La Grande Paix de Montreal
(1701)
• Can be thought of as an early model of human
rights in Canada
• Build with fairness, equality, respect,
representation, and fundamental freedoms in
mind. All of these things are the foundation of
our democracy and our Charter
How do the Treaty of GPM (1701) and
the Canadian Charter (1982) compare
in addressing individual and collective
rights?
Why is the Canadian Charter
entrenched in the Constitution?
• To guarantee rights and freedoms by law
• Entrenchment happened on April 17, 1982
(Constitution Act)
• These rights are now protected, because
changing the Constitution in very hard to do,
helping to ensure our democratic society
• Before the Charter in 1982, there was the
Canadian Bill of Rights (1960). CBR was limited
because it was 1) a bill and 2) only could be used
in federal law, not provinicial
Why is the Canadian Charter
entrenched in the Constitution?
How are representatives chosen to
form a local government?
• Towns, cities, villages, municipal districts =
municipalities
• Each municipality has its own form of local
government
• Local elections happen about every 3 years
• Electoral Process- Constituents vote for the
candidate they feel best represents their views
Becoming a local government
candidate
• Nomination
• Pay candidate fee/ fill out forms/ background
check
• Campaign: speeches, signs, debates, door to
door
• Secret ballot vote
• Candidate with majority vote wins
Elected Local Leaders
• Mayor – Urban Areas
• Reeve – Rural Areas
• Chief – First Nations/ Metis
• Council members are local government
members who are elected
• Council members help the leader make
decisions on issues, programs, bylaws, etc.
How can you (a non-voter) make a
difference?
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Identify the issue of concern
Research
Contact local council, MLA
Council then will discuss and review your
information
How are representatives chosen to
form a local government?
What are the responsibilities of local
government?
• Listening to citizen’s concerns
• Enforcing and passing bylaws in order to meet
community needs
• Providing services to the community
• Collecting taxes (property)
What are the responsibilities of the
citizens?
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Vote
Attend council meetings
Express views on issues
May run for election
Bylaws
• Bylaws are created by local government for
the safety and respect of their citizens
• An example of a bylaw is ‘no smoking in any
public place’ or ‘no letting dog’s off-leash in
parks’.
• The law is only upheld in the municipality it is
created in. (Ex: Calgary bylaws are not laws in
Lethbridge, only in Calgary)
Services provided by local government
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Libraries
Parks
Senior citizens facilities
Road and bridge construction
Police services
Garbage collection
Storm and drain sewers
Various other local services
Taxes
• In order for the local government to gain
revenue (money/ income) they collect taxes
• These taxes are mostly in the form of property
taxes
• Also gained by user fees (Ex: bus ticket),
community rentals (ex: picnic spots at
Henderson)
What are the responsibilities of local
government?
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Responsibilities?
Bylaws?
Services?
Taxes?
How are local governments structured
differently in rural and urban settings?
Urban vs. Rural
• Urban: larger populations (cities, town and
villages)
• Rural: lower populations (parkland, forested
areas, farmland, Metis settlements, First
Nation Reserves)
First Nations form of government
• According to the British America Act of 1867,
the federal government runs the First Nation
reserves
• FN communities have their own government,
called a band council
• Chief is elected, council is appointed
• More population, the larger the council
• Bylaws = Band Council Resolutions
Metis Form of Government
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Self-governance
8 Metis settlements
Elected Local Council of 5
Chairperson is appointed by the Council
Govern their local areas and make bylaws
Together all 40 councillors make up the Metis
settlement General Council
How are local governments structured
differently in rural and urban settings?
• What is the difference between rural and
urban
• What is an urban local gov. leader called?
• What is a rural local gov. leader called?
• What is the FN local gov. called? What is their
leaders title?
• How many councillors are in the Metis local
gov.? What is their leaders title?
What are the similarities and differences
between rural and urban local government?
• These structures are different mainly because
of the different numbers of people they must
serve (less people in the rural areas)
They are similar in the following ways:
1) An elected council
2) Committees and a chief administrator
3) Departments
What are the similarities and
differences between rural and urban
local government?
• Similarities?
• Differences?
What role is played by school boards?
• Province of Alberta takes care of Alberta’s
Education
• School boards make sure that all educational
needs are being met in their local area (Ex:
Lethbridge)
• More than 50 school boards in Alberta (public,
separate, private and Francophone)
• School board = a hired superintendent, elected
trustees. They make decisions on budget, policy
and programming
Parents’ right to choose the type of
school their children attend
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Separate Schools
Public Schools
Francophone Schools
FNMI Schools/ Educational Programming
Charter Schools
Parents’ right to choose the type of
school their children attend
• Separate Schools – mainly Catholic schools
• Public Schools – open to all students
• Francophone Schools – CC maintains the
collective rights of the French-speaking Albertans
have the right to education in French
• FNMI Schools/ Educational Programming –
Aboriginal identity, culture and language are
taught
• Charter Schools – these schools have a special
focus or are for a particular group. For example,
all Girls school, athletics focus, fine arts focus, etc
What role is played by school boards?
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Responsibilities of the school board?
How makes up a school board?
Parents’ rights?
Different types of school board in Alberta (5)?
What are the main differences between each
school board?
How is the provincial government
structured?
• 1 MLA per constituency
• MLAs represent their constituents concerns and help
make laws
• The political party with the most members of the
Legislative Assembly governs the province. Their
leader become the Premier
• Premier selects cabinet ministers
• Cabinet ministers run departments (ex: education)
• Premier + cabinet = executive council
How is the provincial government
structured?
• How is the Premier chosen?
• Are MLAs appointed or elected?
• What do we call the party with the most MLA
seats?
• What do we call the party with the second
most MLA seats?
What is the role of the LieutenantGovernor?
• Appointed by the Governor General and Prime
Minister
• Acts on behalf of the Queen, signs bills to make
them laws
• On paper is the head of provincial government,
but does not have any real power
• Does not belong or favour any political party
Lieutenant Governor has many jobs, but the
most important are:
• Signing of bills (granting royal ascent)
• Swearing in MLAs
• Chief Executive Officer of the Province (makes
sure all candidates and politicians obey the
law)
Hierarchy of the Provincial
Government
• Lieutenant Governor
• Premier
• Cabinet Ministers
• MLAs (Legislative Assembly)
What is the role of the LieutenantGovernor?
• Elected or appointed? By whom?
• What are the 3 main responsibilities of the
LG?
• What is the hierarchy of the Provincial
Government?
What are the responsibilities of the
Provincial Government?
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Serve the people of the province
Create jobs for a stronger economy
Improve health care
Spending wisely, while still providing services
Develop resources, while still caring for the
environment
• Create safe and vibrant communities
Passing Provincial Laws
• Bill introduced by an MLA
• First Reading at the Legislative Assembly
• Bill is studied and public input is heard through
public meetings, petitions, letters
• Second reading in the Legislative Assembly
• Debate by MLAs, vote, revised
• Third reading, debate, vote
• If the majority vote for the bill, it becomes law
after the Lieutenant Governor signs
Services Provided by the Provincial
Government
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Education
Environment
Highways Transport
Seniors and Community Support
Tourism, Parks, Recreation
Health and Wellness
Employment and Immigration
Provincial Government Taxes
To gain revenue (income/money). These
revenues are gained by collecting:
• Income Tax
• Program fees such as healthcare premiums
What are the responsibilities of the
Provincial Government?
• What are their main roles?
• How are bills passed in provincial
government?
• What services do they provide?
• How do they gain revenue?
How are representatives chosen at the
provincial level of government?
• Provincial elections held every 4 years or so,
the charter states it must be done every 5
years
• Premier and MLAs = elected
• Lieutenant Governor and Cabinet members=
appointed
To run in a provincial election, one
must…
• Be an eligible voter in their province
• Have a form signed by 25 voters in their
constituency
• Campaign
• Chief Electoral Officer (aka?) ensure all is run
according to law
• Vote by secret ballot. MLAs in each
constituency that gets majority votes wins the
seat
• 87 constituencies in Alberta= 87 MLAs
How are representatives chosen at the
provincial level of government?
• Who is elected in the Prov. Gov? Who is
appointed? Who is from the same political
party?
• How often do prov. elections occur?
What is the difference between a MLA
and a Cabinet Minister
MLAs have 2 main responsibilities:
1) Representing their constituents (maintaining
open office, community functions, informing
constituents about what is happening)
2) Participate in Government (introducing and
passing bills, committees, interests groups)
Cabinet Ministers
• Cabinet Ministers are MLAs appointed by
(chosen) by the Premier. They are assigned a
specific department of Responsibility (such as
Education, Energy). They are to:
1) Make decisions
2) Develop government policies
3) Review government spending
What is the difference between a MLA
and a Cabinet Minister
• Name the 2 main jobs of a MLA
• Name the 3 main jobs of a Cabinet Minister
How can individuals, groups, and associations within a
community participate in the decision-making process regarding
current events or issues?
• Lobbying (interest group who work with
government)
• Petitioning
• Organizing and attending local meetings
• Rallies
• Contacting elected candidates
• Grassroots Organizations (study issues and watch
the government)
• Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO-larger,
can be international, donations, volunteers)
• How can individuals, groups, and associations
within a community participate in the
decision-making process regarding current
events or issues?
How do associations provide their members a voice at
local and provincial levels to exercise historical and
constitutional rights?
Three examples of Associations:
• Association Canadienne-Francaise de l’Alberta
(ACFA)
• First Nations Authorities (FNA)
• Metis Nation of Alberta Association (MNAA)
Association Canadienne-Francaise de l’Alberta
(ACFA):
• Worked to preserve French language, culture
and identity
• Newpapers, libraries, TV broadcasting, Film
Festival, Francophone school boards,
First Nations Authorities (FNA)
• TGPM (1701) and the Royal Proclamation
1763 respected the rights of Aboriginal
peoples
• When Confederation happened in 1867,
Aboriginals lost the right to self-govern
• Regained in 1982 (Constitution and
Entrenchment of the Charter)
• FNA acts on behalf of the 46 FN at the local
level of government
• Oversee local matters in affecting their
communities
• Goal is to maintain self-governance
• They have other authorities (like councils) on
Education, Finance, Police and Health so that
they control these programs in their
communities
Metis Nation of Alberta Association
(MNAA)
• Metis have ancestry to the FN and Europeans.
They were not recognized as people until The
Constitution Act in 1982
They want to guarantee two main things for
their people:
• Land and resource rights
• Self-governing rights
How do associations provide their members a
voice at local and provincial levels to exercise
historical and constitutional rights?
• What types of actions does the ACFA take?
• What is the main thing that FNA wants?
• What 2 main things does the MNAA wants?
How do elected officials demonstrate
their accountability to the electorate?
• Elected are responsible to represent their
constituents need and viewpoints
They show that they are doing this by:
• Listening and talking with their constituents
• Addressing needs and concerns
• Building communities
• Maintaining office
• Must obey the law= rule of law
• Follow the principles of FREJ (Freedom,
Representation, Equity and Justice)
• How do elected officials demonstrate their
accountability to the electorate?

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