Week 15

Report
Week 15:
CS202 Exam Review
1
Topics covered in IS370
 Introduction to Project Management
 Context and Processes
 Project Integration Management
 Project Scope Management
Key Knowledge Areas
 Project Time Management
 Project Cost Management
 Project Quality Management
 Project HR Management
 Communications Management
 Project Risk Management
 Project Procurement Management
Learning Objectives
 Have knowledge of: Project management
methodologies, processes and techniques including
critical areas of scope management, time management,
cost management, quality management, risk
management, communication and human resource
management.
 Have knowledge of: The scientific tools and techniques
(both qualitative and quantitative) which project managers
can use to improve the chances of success in their
projects
 Have knowledge of: Common project management
software tools used by professionals in the Industry.
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Learning Objectives
 Gain understanding of: How the knowledge in project
management areas should be applied and the
relationship exist between them
 Gain understanding of: Factors contributing to effective
communication among all project stakeholders
 Gain understanding of: The ongoing need for
continuing professional education & development
4
Learning Objectives
 Acquire skills for: Using project management tools,
techniques and methodologies effectively to ensure
project outcomes satisfy both the specified and the
expected requirements of the project stakeholders
 Acquire skills for: Identifying problems that occur
during the implementation phase of projects and
developing strategies to address the situation
 Have developed attributes which allow students
to: Develop their own conceptual framework to assist
them in the interaction with their colleagues and other
stakeholders towards the success of all future
projects in which they may be involved
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Context of your learning
Process
Groups
Project
Managerial
Initiating
Planning
Executing
Quality
Management
Risk
Management
Cost
Management
Technical
Context
Time
Management
Scope
Management
HR
Management
Controlling
Project Integration
Communication
Management
Project Management Tools
Procurement
Management
Closing
Learning Objectives
Process
Groups
 Describe the five project management process groups,
the typical level of activity for each, and the interactions
among them
 Understand how the project management process
groups relate to the project management knowledge
areas
 Discuss how organizations develop information
technology project management methodologies to meet
their needs
7
Project Management
Process Groups
Process
Groups
 Project management can be viewed as a number of
interlinked processes
 The project management process groups include
 initiating processes
 planning processes
 executing processes
 controlling processes
 closing processes
Managerial
Planning ?
Technical
Context
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Risk
Management
Process
Groups
9
,
Process
Groups
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IT Project Management, Third Edition
Chapter 3
Learning Objectives
Execution
 Understand the concept, development, implementation,
and close-out phases of the project life cycle
 Distinguish between project development and product
development
 Discuss the unique attributes and diverse nature of
information technology projects
 List the skills and attributes of a good project manager in
general and in the information technology field
11
A Systems View of Project
Management
Execution
 A systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a
more analytical approach to management and problem
solving
 Three parts include:
 Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting
components working within an environment to fulfill some
purpose
 Systems analysis: problem-solving approach
 Systems management: Address business, technological,
and organizational issues before making changes to
systems
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What Helps Projects
Succeed?
According to the Standish Group’s report, the
following items help IT projects succeed, in
order of importance:

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



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Executive support
User involvement
Experienced project manager
Clear business objectives
Minimized scope
Standard software infrastructure
Firm basic requirements
Formal methodology
Reliable estimates
Execution
Product Life Cycles
Execution
 Products also have life cycles
 The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
is a framework for describing the phases
involved in developing and maintaining
information systems
 Systems development projects can follow
 predictive models: the scope of the project can be clearly
articulated and the schedule and cost can be predicted
 adaptive models: projects are mission driven and component
based, using time-based cycles to meet target dates
14
Distinguishing Project Life
Cycles and Product Life Cycles
Execution
 The project life cycle applies to all projects, regardless
of the products being produced
 Product life cycle models vary considerably based on
the nature of the product
 Most large IT systems are developed as a series of
projects
 Project management is done in all of the product life
cycle phases
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RUP process architecture
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Execution
Suggested Skills for a Project
Manager
Execution
 Communication skills: listening, persuading
 Organizational skills: planning, goal-setting, analyzing
 Team Building skills: empathy, motivation, esprit de
corps
 Leadership skills: set examples, be energetic, have
vision (big picture), delegate, be positive
 Coping skills: flexibility, creativity, patience, persistence
 Technological skills: experience, project knowledge
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Learning Objectives
Integration
 Describe an overall framework for project integration




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management as it relates to the other project management
knowledge areas and the project life cycle
Describe project plan development, including project plan
content, using guidelines and templates for developing plans,
and performing a stakeholder analysis to help manage
relationships
Explain project plan execution, its relationship to project
planning, the factors related to successful results, and tools and
techniques to assist in project plan execution
Understand the integrated change control process, planning for
and managing changes on information technology projects, and
developing and using a change control system
Describe how software can assist in project integration
management
The Key to Overall Project
Success: Good Project Integration
Management
Integration
 Project managers must coordinate all of the other
knowledge areas throughout a project’s life cycle
 Many new project managers have trouble looking at the
“big picture” and want to focus on too many details
 Project integration management is not the same thing as
software integration
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Project Integration Management
Processes
Integration
 Project Plan Development: taking the results of other
planning processes and putting them into a consistent,
coherent document—the project plan
 Project Plan Execution: carrying out the project plan
 Integrated Change Control: coordinating changes across
the entire project
20
Project Plan Development
Execution
 A project plan is a document used to coordinate all
project planning documents
 Its main purpose is to guide project execution
 Project plans assist the project manager in leading the
project team and assessing project status
 Project performance should be measured against a
baseline plan
21
Stakeholder Analysis
Execution
 A stakeholder analysis documents important (often
sensitive) information about stakeholders such as
 stakeholders’ names and organizations
 roles on the project
 unique facts about stakeholders
 level of influence and interest in the project
 suggestions for managing relationships
22
Integrated Change
Control Process
23
Execution
Change Control on Information
Technology Projects
Execution
 Former view: The project team should strive to do
exactly what was planned on time and within budget
 Problem: Stakeholders rarely agreed up-front on the
project scope, and time and cost estimates were
inaccurate
 Modern view: Project management is a process of
constant communication and negotiation
 Solution: Changes are often beneficial, and the
project team should plan for them
24
Suggestions for Managing
Integrated Change Control
Execution
 View project management as a process of constant






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communications and negotiations
Plan for change
Establish a formal change control system, including a
Change Control Board (CCB)
Use good configuration management
Define procedures for making timely decisions on
smaller changes
Use written and oral performance reports to help
identify and manage change
Use project management and other software to help
manage and communicate changes
Learning Objectives
Scope
 Discuss the scope definition process and construct a
work breakdown structure using the analogy, topdown, bottom-up, and mind mapping approaches
 Understand the importance of scope verification and
scope change control to avoid scope creep on
information technology projects
 Describe how software can assist in project scope
management
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Scope Verification and Scope Change
Control
Scope
 It is very difficult to create a good scope statement
and WBS for a project
 It is even more difficult to verify project scope and
minimize scope changes
 Many IT projects suffer from scope creep and poor
scope verification
 FoxMeyer Drug filed for bankruptcy after scope creep on a robotic
warehouse
 21st Century Insurance Group wasted a lot of time and money on a
project that could have used off-the-shelf components
What factors might present problems for a
WBS and consequently the Project??
27
Learning Objectives
Scope
 Understand the importance of project schedules




and good project time management
Define activities as the basis for developing
project schedules
Describe how project managers use network
diagrams and dependencies to assist in activity
sequencing
Explain how various tools and techniques help
project managers perform activity duration
estimating and schedule development
Use a Gantt chart for schedule planning and
tracking schedule information
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IS370 Project Management
Dr Pat Halloran
PERT Formula and Example
Scope
 PERT weighted average formula:
optimistic time + 4X most likely time + pessimistic time
6
 Example:
PERT weighted average =
8 workdays + 4 X 10 workdays + 24 workdays = 12 days
6
where 8 = optimistic time, 10 = most likely time, and 24 =
pessimistic time
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IS370 Project Management
Dr Pat Halloran
Simple Example of
Determining the Critical Path
Scope
 Consider the following project network diagram.
Assume all times are in days.
C=2
start
1
A=2
2
B=5
4
E=1
3
6
D=7
5
F=2
a. How many paths are on this network diagram?
b. How long is each path?
c. Which is the critical path?
d. What is the shortest amount of time needed to complete this
project?
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IS370 Project Management
Dr Pat Halloran
finish
Determining the Critical Path for
Project X
Scope
a. How many paths are on this network diagram?
b. How long is each path?
c. Which is the critical path?
d. What
is the shortest amount of time needed to complete this
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project? IS370 Project Management
Dr Pat Halloran
Words of Caution on Using
Project Management Software
 Many people misuse project management software
because they don’t understand important concepts
and have not had good training
 You must enter dependencies to have dates adjust
automatically and to determine the critical path
 You must enter actual schedule information to
compare planned and actual progress
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IS370 Project Management
Dr Pat Halloran
Scope
Quick Review
Execution
THE SEVEN PHASES OF A PROJECT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Wild enthusiasm
Planning
Disillusionment
Fear / Panic / Chaos
Search for the guilty
Punishment of the innocent
Praise and Honors for the NonParticipants
Conflict Intensity Over
the Life of a Project
Execution
0.40
Conflict Intensity
0.35
0.30
Schedules
0.25
Average
Total Conflict
0.20
Manpower
Technical opinions
Procedures
0.15
Cost
Personality conflicts
0.10
0.05
0.00
Project
Formation
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Priorities
Early Phases
Middle Phases
End Phases
Learning Objectives
Quality
 Understand the importance of project quality


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

35
management for information technology products and
services
Define project quality management and understand
how quality relates to various aspects of information
technology projects
Describe quality planning and its relationship to project
scope management
Discuss the importance of quality assurance
Describe how leadership, cost, organizational
influences, and maturity models relate to improving
quality in information technology projects
Discuss how software can assist in project quality
management
Project Quality Management
Processes
Quality
 Quality planning: identifying which quality standards are
relevant to the project and how to satisfy them
 Quality assurance: evaluating overall project
performance to ensure the project will satisfy the
relevant quality standards
 Quality control: monitoring specific project results to
ensure that they comply with the relevant quality
standards while identifying ways to improve overall
quality
36
Shewhart Cycle (Deming)
37
Quality
Improving Information
Technology Project Quality
Quality
 Several suggestions for improving quality for IT
projects include
 Leadership that promotes quality
 Understanding the cost of quality
 Focusing on organizational influences and
workplace factors that affect quality
 Following maturity models to improve quality
38
Learning Objectives
HR
 Explain the importance of good human resource
management on projects, especially on information
technology projects
 Define project human resource management and
understand its processes
 Summarize key concepts for managing people by
understanding the theories of Abraham Maslow,
Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland, and Douglas
McGregor on motivation, H. J. Thamhain and D. L.
Wilemon on influencing workers, and Stephen Covey
on how people and teams can become more
effective
39
-
Learning Objectives
HR
 Discuss organizational planning and be able to
create a project organizational chart, responsibility
assignment matrix, and resource histogram
 Understand important issues involved in project staff
acquisition and explain the concepts of resource
assignments, resource loading, and resource
leveling
 Assist in team development with training, teambuilding activities, and reward systems
 Describe how project management software can
assist in project human resource management
40
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What is Project Human
Resource Management?
HR
 Project human resource management includes the
processes required to make the most effective use of
the people involved with a project.
 Processes include
 Organizational planning
 Staff acquisition
 Team development
41
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Keys to Managing People
HR
 Psychologists and management theorists have devoted
much research and thought to the field of managing
people at work
 Important areas related to project management include
 motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic)
 influence and power
 effectiveness
42
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Project Resource Management
Involves Much More Than Using
Software
 Project managers must
 Treat people with consideration and respect
 Understand what motivates them
 Communicate carefully with them
 Focus on your goal of enabling project team
members to deliver their best work
43
-
HR
Learning Objectives
Communi
cations
 Understand the importance of good communication on
projects and describe the major components of a
communications management plan
 Discuss the elements of project communications planning,
including information distribution, performance reporting, and
administrative closure
 Discuss various methods for project information distribution
and the advantages and disadvantages of each
 Understand individual communication needs and how to
determine the number of communications channels needed
for a project
44
Importance of Good
Communications
 The greatest threat to many projects is a
failure to communicate
 Our culture does not portray IT
professionals as being good
communicators
 Research shows that IT professionals
must be able to communicate effectively
to succeed in their positions
 Strong verbal skills are a key factor in
career advancement for IT professionals
45
Communi
cations
Project Communications
Management Processes
 Communications planning:
determining the information and
communications needs of the
stakeholders
 Information distribution: making
needed information available in a
timely manner
 Performance reporting: collecting
and disseminating performance
information
 Administrative closure:
generating, gathering, and
disseminating information to
formalize phase or project
completion
46
Communi
cations
Suggestions for Improving
Project Communications
 Manage conflicts effectively
 Develop better communication skills
 Run effective meetings
 Use e-mail effectively
 Use templates for project communications
47
Communi
cations
Developing a Communications
Infrastructure
Communi
cations
 A communications infrastructure is a set of tools, techniques,
and principles that provide a foundation for the effective
transfer of information
 Tools include e-mail, project management software,
groupware, fax machines, telephones, teleconferencing
systems, document management systems, and word
processors
 Techniques include reporting guidelines and templates,
meeting ground rules and procedures, decision-making
processes, problem-solving approaches, and conflict
resolution and negotiation techniques
 Principles include using open dialog and an agreed upon
work ethir
48
Learning Objectives
RISK
 Understand what risk is and the importance of good
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49
project risk management
Discuss the elements involved in risk management
planning
List common sources of risks on information technology
projects
Describe the risk identification process and tools and
techniques to help identify project risks
Discuss the qualitative risk analysis process and explain
how to calculate risk factors, use probability/impact
matrixes, the Top Ten Risk Item Tracking technique, and
expert judgment to rank risks
,
Learning Objectives
RISK
 Explain the quantify risk analysis process and how to use
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50
decision trees and simulation to quantitative risks
Provide examples of using different risk response planning
strategies such as risk avoidance, acceptance,
transference, and mitigation
Discuss what is involved in risk monitoring and control
Describe how software can assist in project risk
management
Explain the results of good project risk management
What is Project Risk
Management?
RISK
The goal of project risk management is to minimize potential risks
while maximizing potential opportunities. Major processes include
 Risk management planning: deciding how to approach and plan
the risk management activities for the project
 Risk identification: determining which risks are likely to affect a
project and documenting their characteristics
 Qualitative risk analysis: characterizing and analyzing risks and
prioritizing their effects on project objectives
 Quantitative risk analysis: measuring the probability and
consequences of risks
 Risk response planning: taking steps to enhance opportunities and
reduce threats to meeting project objectives
 Risk monitoring and control: monitoring known risks, identifying
new risks, reducing risks, and evaluating the effectiveness of risk
reduction
51
Learning Objectives
Procurem
ent
 Understand the importance of project procurement
management and the increasing use of outsourcing for
information technology projects
 Describe the procurement planning process,
procurement planning tools and techniques, types of
contracts, and statements of work
 Discuss what is involved in solicitation planning and the
difference between a request for proposal and a request
for quote
 Explain what occurs during the solicitation process
52
Learning Objectives
Procurem
ent
 Describe the source selection process and different
approaches for evaluating proposals or selecting
suppliers
 Discuss the importance of good contract
administration
 Describe the contract close-out process
 Discuss types of software available to assist in project
procurement management
53
Importance of Project
Procurement Management
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54
Procurem
ent
Procurement means acquiring goods and/or services
from an outside source
Other terms include purchasing and outsourcing
Worldwide information technology outsourcing market
exceeds $300 billion
U.S. federal spending on IT outsourcing is projected to
increase from $6.6 billion in 2002 to nearly $79 billion
by 2010due to an emphasis on e-government,
homeland security, and the shortage of IT workers in
government

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