Conceptual Study of Humanitarian Supply Chains in Indian Context Devendra K. Yadav Research Scholar Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar Humanitarian logistics deals with •Earthquakes, • Terrorist Attacks, •Tsunamis, • War Situations •Hurricanes, • Epidemics, •Droughts, • and a combination of several disasters which may occur simultaneously. (Kovács •Famines, and Spens, 2009) Collaboration Coordination Communication Humanitarian Logistics A humanitarian relief operation during a disaster, works under the blend of communication, collaboration and coordination. (Van Wassenhove et al., 2009) Natural disasters in India: causes • Adverse geographic condition • Population explosion, • Rapid urbanization, • Topographic features, • Industrial development, • Environmental degradation, • Flawed development practices India Disaster Report 2011, 2012 Objective of this paper To identify the current practices of humanitarian logistics To identify the challenges of humanitarian logistics in Indian context Literature survey Authors Beamon and Balcik (2008) Kovacs and Spens (2007) Van Wassenhove (2006) Contributions Performance measurement in humanitarian logistics Role of Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief Challenges of humanitarian logistics Humanitarian aid logistics Thomas and Copczak (2005) Role of Humanitarian logistics training Kovacs and Spens (2009) Literature survey Authors Howden M. (2009) Cozzolino et al. (2012) Kunz N. (2012) Sinha A.K. (2001) Kumar et al. (2012) Costa et al. (2012) Contributions Role of information System in humanitarian logistics Agile and lean principle in Humanitarian supply chain Meta Analysis(Literature review) of humanitarian logistics research Report on Gujarat Earthquake India Disaster Report 2011 Role of infrastructure in logistics activities Challenges 1. Infrastructure • The disasters affect the infrastructure of transport, communications and logistical support. (Costa et al., 2012) • Infrastructure repair and construction of hospitals and shelters are treated as critical activities. (Kovács and Spens, 2009) Challenges 2. Coordination among various players International organizations Logistics providers NGOs Humanitarian relief network Local agencies Governments Military (Kovács and Spens, 2007) Challenges 3. Communication and information system • Lack of reliable information during Gujarat’s earthquake in 2001. (Van Wassenhove, 2006) • Communication failure was noted during Tsunami 2004, Hurricane Katrina 2005, and Tsunamis in the islands of Samoa in 2009 . (Haddow et al., 2011) Challenges 4. Strategic planning • Lack of available trained and experienced humanitarians. (Fritz Institute, 2005) • Lack of plan for permanent flood control (Disaster Report 2011, 2012) • Failure of forecasts and warning systems (SANDRP, 2013) Challenges 5. Technology • Lack of tracking and tracing technology in the humanitarian sector. • Logistics and supply chain management is still manual. (Thomas and Kopczak, 2005) Challenges 6. Performance measure system • No Key Performance Indicators(KPI’s) and targets for periodic evaluation. (Beamon and Balcik, 2008) • Lack of Development of standards, procedures and technical specifications for supplies. (Costa et al., 2012) Case studies Gujarat Earthquake,2001 Uttarakhand flood and land-sliding, 2013 1.Gujarat earthquake January 2001 • Earthquake on 26 January 2001, killed over 20,000 people. • Professionally trained search and rescue team were not available. • No centralized resource inventory. • Geo-technical and structural failures. (Sinha, A. K., 2001) 2. Tsunami December 26, 2004, • Lack of regional tsunami warning capabilities. (Bullock et al., 2011) • More than 2,27,000 people killed and 1.5 million affected (Thomas and Fritz,2006) 3. Odisha flood 2011 • Affected more than 3.5 million populations belongs Case tostudies various districts in Odisha a state of India. • Lack of initiation to plan for permanent flood control or long term measures to tackle the flood and reduce its impact. (India Disaster Report 2011, 2012) 4. Uttarakhand flood and landslides 2013 • A flash flood and landslides in Uttarakhand state during mid June 2013, death of more than 580 people and more than 5000 people are missing till mid august 2013. (National Disaster Management India,2013) • Adequate technology and lack of coordination. (Employment News, July 2013) • . Future Work • Modeling of selected challenges through multi criteria decision making tools. • Modeling and optimization of vehicle routing, inventory planning, and Demand predictions, through Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization, and Artificial Neural Network etc. CONCLUSION • This paper communicates all the aspects of humanitarian logistics with the help of four case studies in Indian context. • Disaster relief comprises about 80% logistics works (Van Wassenhove, 2006) • Various government and non government organizations in India and worldwide are needed to continuously engaged in humanitarian activities. THANK YOU…. References • Balcik, B., Beamon, B. M., Krejci, C. C., Muramatsu, K. M., & Ramirez, M. (2010). “Coordination in humanitarian relief chains: Practices, challenges and opportunities”, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 126 No. 1, pp.22–34. • Beamon, B. M., & Balcik, B. (2008), “Performance measurement in humanitarian relief chains”, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 21 No.1, pp.4-25. • Costa, S. R. A. Da, Campos, V. B. G., & Bandeira, R. A. D. M. (2012), “Supply Chains in Humanitarian Operations: Cases and Analysis”, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 54, pp.598–607. • Fritz Institute (2005), “lessons from the Tsunami: Survey of Non-Governmental Organizations in India and Sri Lanka”, available at: http://www.fritzinstitute.org/PDFs/findings/NGOsReport.pdf, accessed on: 02 July 2013. • K.J. Anandha Kumar, Ajinder Walia, and Shekher Chaturvedi (2012), “INDIA DISASTER REPORT 2011”, available at: http://nidm.gov.in/PDF/India%20Disaster%20Report%202011.pdf, accessed on: 14 July 2013. References • Kovács, G., & Spens, K. M. (2007), “Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief operations”, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol.37 No.2, pp.99-114. • National Disaster Management (2013), “Flood Situation Report-2013”, available at: http://www.ndmindia.nic.in/flood2013/floods2013.htm, accessed on: 10 July 2013. • Sinha, A. K. (2001), “The Gujarat Earthquake 2001”, Asian Disaster Reduction Center. • Thomas, A. S., & Kopczak, L. R. (2005), “From logistics to supply chain management: the path forward in the humanitarian sector”, Fritz Institute, Vol.15, pp.1-15. • Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2006), “Humanitarian aid logistics: supply chain management in high gear†”, Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 57 No.5, pp.475–489.