PowerPoint - Escondido Christadelphian Ecclesia

Report
Exodus Chapters 1 through 15
Wonderfully describe an exciting and amazing
time of NEW things for Israel:
 See them grow into their new name as the
“children of Israel”, as a NEW creation
 There is the raising up of a NEW deliverer
 The “LORD God of the Hebrews” is revealed
to Israel by a NEW name
 Israel will now enjoy a NEW relationship as
“my son, even my firstborn”
 Israel and Egypt will know the LORD by NEW
wonders
 Their lives will be changed with a NEW
calendar and a NEW feast of deliverance
 This deliverance will be praise and
commemorated through a NEW song
Exodus Chapter 1 – A New Creation: God
Keeps His Promises
“And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased
abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding
mighty; and the land was filled with them.” v. 7
Breakdown of Exodus Chapter 1
The promised seed is multiplied by the unseen hand of the
LORD despite the connivings of man.
v. 1-5
The family that entered Egypt is enumerated
v. 6
The passing of the first generation is highlighted
v. 7
The next generations of Israel grow, and grow, and grow
v. 8-14
A new king arises and fearful of Israel’s numbers places
them into extreme servitude – Plan A (1st challenge)
v. 15-21
Plan B – Stunt their growth by killing male children during
child birth (2nd “private” pogrom)
v. 22
Plan C – Pharaoh charges “all his people” to cast every
Hebrew son into the Nile river (3rd “public” pogrom)
A New Creation: God Keeps His Promises
The Ways of Providence (first printed in 1881) – p. 71
When Joseph lived, their position was one of comfort and honour
in the land; but after he was dead, “there arose a new king over
Egypt, which knew not Joseph” (Exod. 1:8), and this new king
regarded this thriving and prolific colony of Israelites with a
jealousy which prompted him to devise harsh measures against
them. He “made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar,
and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field”.
This grievous experience was calculated to revive Israel’s
recollection of the promise that God would deliver them—a
promise made long before, but which prosperity of the first part
of the period of their settlement in Egypt may have caused the
people to forget or undervalue, in the same way that we find, in
our day, that prosperity for the Jews in any part of the world
makes them think lightly of the promised restoration.
Evidence that Moses is the writer of the book of Exodus
Internal evidence within the book:
• Moses is told to record on a scroll the episode of Israel’s victory over
Amalek – Exo. 17:14.
• He records “all the words of the LORD” – Exo. 24:4, which included at
least the Book of the Covenant – Exo. 20:22-23:33
Supporting references in the Gospels endorsing Moses’ authorship:
• “have you not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush…” – Mar.
12:26 citing Exo. 3:6
• “the days of her purification according to the law of Moses…As it is
written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb…”
– Luk. 2:22-23, which cites Lev. 12:2-6, in particular v. 8 and Exo. 13:2
• “For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother, and Whoso
curseth father or mother, let him die the death:” – Mar. 7:10 which
cites Exo. 20:12 and 21:17
• “Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keepeth the
law…” – Joh. 7:19
The Expositor’s Bible Commentary
The Hebrew name for the book derives from the first words of the text:
“And these are the names of” – Exo. 1:1 which connects with Gen. 46:8
where a list of names is provided for those who went to Egypt with Jacob.
The first four books of Moses comprise one continuous record (Yg’s Lit):
“In the beginning, God created…” – Gen. 1:1
“And these are the names of the sons of Israel…” – Exo. 1:1
“And Jehovah calleth unto Moses…” – Lev. 1:1
“And Jehovah speaketh unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai…” Num. 1:1
Deuteronomy seems to connect with another new, significant period as
Israel prepares to enter the promised – “And it cometh to pass after the
death of Moses” – Jos. 1:1 and then “And…” continues once again.
v. 1-4 virtually repeat Gen. 35:22-26
v. 5 is a reiteration of Gen. 46:27
v. 6 of Gen. 50:26
Painstakingly repeated. Why?
Point = none were lost!
Genesis 15:16 - “But in the fourth generation they shall come
hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites in not yet full.”
‘iniquity’ – 5771 – perversity, moral (evil),
cp. Gen. 4:13 in the response of Cain to the LORD’s
pronouncement = ‘punishment’
‘Amorites’ – 567 – publically with prominence, a mountaineer,
from 559 – to say. The son of Canaan in Gen. 10:16, first usage.
Resided in the land of Canaan, see v. 21. Conflict with the
Amorites spoken of in Gen. 48:22. [‘Amalek’ – dweller in a valley’]
‘not yet full’ – Rotherham’s – ‘not complete’. Possible parallel
with Pagan Rome’s restraint over the apostacy, “And now ye know
what withholdeth (RSV, ‘restraining’) that he [the ‘man of sin’]
might be revealed in his time.”
The early history of the sons of Jacob must have shown the need
alike of their removal from contact with the people of Canaan.
The Amorites
Jos. 9:10 – “to the two kings of the Amorites…to Sihon king of
Heshbon, and to Og king of Bashan”
1 Kin. 21:26 – “And he [King Ahab, the husband of Jezebel] did
very abominably in following idols, according to all things as did
the Amorites, whom the LORD cast out before the children of
Israel.”
Amos 2:9-10 – “Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them, whose
height was like the height of the cedars (see Deu. 1:27-28; 3:11),
and he was strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed his fruit from
above, and his roots from beneath. Also I brought you up from the
land of Egypt, and led you forty years through the wilderness (due
to their unwillingness to enter the land the first time – Num.
13:28-33), to possess the land of the Amorite.”
“Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came
into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob.”
– Exo. 1:1
‘Jacob’ used 11x in Exodus (see below), whereas ‘Israel’ appears
158x.
“that came out of the loins of Jacob” – 1:5
“remembered his covenant…with Jacob” – 2:24; 3:6; 4:5; 6:8 (land)
“but by my name Yahweh” – 3:15, 16; 6:3
“And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect
unto them.” – 2:25
Exodus 19:3 – “Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell
the children of Israel;”
‘say’ – 559 – to say, be told
‘tell’ – 5046 – to be conspicuous, tell, make known
“Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into
Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob.” – Exo. 1:1
Leah’s sons in Exo. 1:2-3
Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and
Judah, Issachar, Zebulun
Rachel’s son in Exo. 1:3
Benjamin. Joseph was
already in Egypt (v. 5)
Bilhah, Rachel’s maid’s sons
in Exo. 1:4
Dan, and Naphtali
“And all the souls that came out of the
loins of Jacob were seventy souls”
– Exo. 1:5 (cp. Exo. 15:27 – full circle!)
Zilpah, Leah’s maid’s sons in
Exo. 1:4
Gad, and Asher
< Mothers’ names not mentioned >
“And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near
unto me, thou, and thy children, and they children’s children, and thy
flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast.” – Gen. 45:10
“Goshen” – 1657 – drawing near
See Gen. 47:11…
“a possession” – 272 – property,
possession by inheritance,
implying a fixed hereditary
proprietorship, see v. 27
“in the best of the land”
“and I will give you the good of
the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat
the fat of the land.” – Gen. 45:18
“That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy
seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea
shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies.” – Gen. 22:17
72 To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember
his holy covenant’
73 The oath which he sware to our father Abraham.
74 That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the
hand of our enemies might serve him without fear.
Luke 1
Compare to the blessing given to Jacob by Isaac in Genesis 28:
“And God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply
thee, that thou mayest be a multitude (6951 – assembly, company for
religious purposes, see Exo. 12:6; 16:3) of people; and give thee the
blessing of Abraham…” v. 3-4
“But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew.
And they were grieved because of the children of Israel.” – Exo. 1:12
Language of a NEW creation in Exo. 1:7
“fruitful” – 6509 – to bear fruit – same
English word in Gen. 1:22, 28
“increased abundantly” – 8317 – to wriggle,
by implication, swarm or abound – ‘bring or
brought forth abundantly’ in Gen. 1:20, 21
“multiplied” – 7235 – to increase in whatever
respect – ‘multiply’ in Gen. 1:22, 28
“waxed exceeding” – 3966 – properly, vehemence,
by implication, wholly, speedily – ‘very’ in Gen. 1:31
“mighty” – 6105 – to bind fast, to be powerful or numerous – ‘mightier’ in Gen.
26:16 (Isaac’s seed was mightier than Abimelech’s)
“filled” – 4390 – to fill or be full of – ‘fill’ in Gen. 1:22; ‘replenish’ in Gen. 1:28
“grew” – 6555 – to break out – ‘abroad’ in Gen. 28:14 (growth of seed promised)
Aligning Events in the Book of Exodus
120
“And Joseph died, and all
his brethren, and all that
generation” – Exo. 1:6
Death of Isaac
At 40 he
flees to
Midian
18th Egyptian Dynasty
12th Egyptian Dynasty
13th Egyptian Dynasty
HYKSOS
“Now there arose a new king over Egypt,
which knew not Joseph.” – Exo. 1:8
18th Egyptian Dynasty
Old Testament Bible History – Volume II, Alfred Edersheim
The Ancient Religion of Egypt – p. 14
Hyksos, or Shepherd kings,
a foreign and barbarous
race of invaders, hated
and opposed by the
people, and hostile to
their ancient civilization
and religion.
“The Shepherds” were evidently an eastern race, and probably of
Phoenician origin…there is evidence that the race brought with it
the worship of Baal and the practice of human sacrifices—both of
Phoenician origin.
Aligning Events in the Book of Exodus
120
“And Joseph died, and all
his brethren, and all that
generation” – Exo. 1:6
Death of Isaac
At 40 he
flees to
Midian
18th Egyptian Dynasty
12th Egyptian Dynasty
13th Egyptian Dynasty
HYKSOS
“Now there arose a new king over Egypt,
which knew not Joseph.” – Exo. 1:8
18th Egyptian Dynasty
Old Testament Bible History – Volume II, Alfred Edersheim
The Ancient Religion of Egypt – p. 16
We know that under the rule of the last great king of this native
dynasty (the 13th) a completely new system of Nile irrigation was
introduced, such as we may well believe would have been devised
to avoid another period of famine, and, strangest of all, a place by
the artificial lake made at that time bears the name Pi-aneh, “the
house of life,” which is singularly like that given by Pharaoh to
Joseph.
Aligning Events in the Book of Exodus
120
“And Joseph died, and all
his brethren, and all that
generation” – Exo. 1:6
Death of Isaac
At 40 he
flees to
Midian
18th Egyptian Dynasty
12th Egyptian Dynasty
13th Egyptian Dynasty
HYKSOS
“Now there arose a new king over Egypt,
which knew not Joseph.” – Exo. 1:8
18th Egyptian Dynasty
Old Testament Bible History – Volume II, Alfred Edersheim
The Ancient Religion of Egypt – p. 17
The period between the “new king” of the
Bible (Aahmes I) and Thothmes II (the second
in succession to him), when we suppose the
Exodus to have taken place, quite agrees
with the reckoning of Scripture.
Now this Thothmes II began his reign very
brilliantly. But after a while there is a perfect
blank in the monumental records about him.
But we read of a general revolt after his
death among the nations whom his father
had conquered. Of course, one could not
expect to find on Egyptian monuments an
account of the disasters which the nation
sustained at the Exodus, nor how Pharaoh
and his host perished in the Red Sea.
Old Testament Bible History – Volume II, Alfred Edersheim
The Ancient Religion of Egypt – p. 17
But we do find in his reign the conditions which we should have
expected under such circumstances, viz., a brief, prosperous reign,
then a sudden collapse; the king dead; no son to succeed him; the
throne occupied by the widow of a Pharaoh, and for twenty years
no attempt to recover the supremacy of Egypt over the revolted
nations in Canaan and east of the Jordan. Lastly the character of
his queen, as it appears on the monuments, is that of a proud and
bitterly superstitious woman, just such as we would have
expected to encourage Pharaoh in “hardening his heart” against
Jehovah.
Old Testament Bible History – Volume II
The Ancient Religion of Egypt – p. 17-18
But the chain of coincidences does not break
even there. From the Egyptian documents we
learn that in the preceding reign—that is, just
before the children of Israel entered the desert
of Sinai—the Egyptians ceased to occupy the
mines which they had till then worked in the
peninsula. Further, we learn that, during the
latter part of Israel’s stay in the wilderness, the
Egyptian king, Thothmes III, carried on and
completed his wars in Canaan, and that just
immediately before the entry of Israel into Palestine the great confederacy of
Canaanitish kings against him was broken up. This explains the state in which
Joshua found the country, so different from that compact power which forty
years before had inspired the spies with such terror; and also helps us to
understand how, at the time of Joshua, each petty king just held his own city
and district, and how easily the fear of a nation, by which even the dreaded
Pharaoh and his host had perished, would fall upon the inhabitants of the land.
“Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with
their burdens…But the more they afflicted them, the more they
multiplied and grew.” – Exo. 1:10-11
“taskmasters”
- Roth.’s – “chiefs of
tribute…to humiliate them”
“afflict” – 6031 – looking
down, browbeating, to
depress, abase. Hebrew word
first used in Gen. 15:13.
“rigour” – 6531 – in v. 13 &
14, to break apart, fracture,
severity,
Cf. Lev. 25:43, 46; Ezk. 34:4
Same Hebrew word in Deu. 8:2 –
“humble”; v. 3 – “humbled”, Look at v. 5!!
<<See v. 11>>
“For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and
scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.” – Heb. 12:6
“And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities (RSV – ‘store-cities’),
Pithom and Raamses” - Exo. 1:11
‘Pithom’ – 6619 – the city of justice
‘Raamses’ – 7486 – child of the sun
* The positioning of these store-cities
would be within easy reach of the
children of Israel when they took a
spoil from the Egyptians.
“But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt
commanded them, but saved the men children alive.” – Exo. 1:17
‘midwives’ – mentioned earlier in
the book of Genesis:
a) Rachel with the birth of
Benjamin – Gen. 35:16-18
a) Tamar with the births of
Pharez and Zarah – Gen.
38:27-30
Wonderful quality here in Exo. 1:17 – they ‘feared God’ (see also v. 21)
Exhibited by the very meanings of the names of these two sisters:
‘Shiphrah’ - brightness, garnished, glisten, fair
‘Puah’ - to glitter, brilliancy
Cp. Ecc. 8:12; Exo. 20:20
<< Acts 5:29; 4:18-19>>
Exodus Chapter 1
Lessons that we have learned:
 The LORD keeps His promises
 His servants are known to Him
by name
 The LORD will sustain us, as
part of His NEW CREATION,
despite the odds at times
 Whom the LORD loveth He
chasteneth
 Those who allow their fear of
God to guide their actions will
be rewarded by the LORD
Exodus Chapters 1 through 15
Wonderfully describe an exciting and amazing
time of NEW things for Israel:
 See them grow into their new name as the
“children of Israel”, as a NEW creation
 There is the raising up of a NEW deliverer
 The “LORD God of the Hebrews” is revealed
to Israel by a NEW name
 Israel will now enjoy a NEW relationship as
“my son, even my firstborn”
 Israel and Egypt will know the LORD by NEW
wonders
 Their lives will be changed with a NEW
calendar and a NEW feast of deliverance
 This deliverance will be praise and
commemorated through a NEW song
Exodus Chapters 3 & 4 – A New Name is
Delivered by a New Mediator
“And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he
said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I
AM hath sent me unto you. Exo. 3:14
Breakdown of Exodus Chapters 3 & 4
The timing is now right for God to act through his servant Moses to
deliver the children of Israel, those he now claims as his firstborn son.
3:1-6
God’s glory, holiness, and faithfulness are manifested to Moses
3:7-10
The sufferings of Israel are know to their God
3:11-13
Moses 1st and 2nd objections to God’s plan for him
3:14-17
The Memorial Name is expounded
3:18-22
Israel will worship the LORD using the spoils of Egypt
4:1-17
Objections 3, 4, and 5 despite the signs provided
4:18-23
Moses to return to Egypt (new relationship as “firstborn son”)
4:24-26
Zipporah circumcises her son
4:27-31
Aaron meets Moses. They return to Egypt and communicate
the LORD’s message.
A New Name is Delivered by a New Mediator
The Ways of Providence – p. 70-71
Chapter IX
Moses
Next we turn to the case of Moses. This
towers over all others like a great
mountain over the surrounding country.
Moses is next to the Lord Jesus, “the
prophet unto him”, in the height,
breadth, importance, and greatness of
his case in all points and relations; yet all
of God, for apart from God’s use of him
(God’s word to him and work with him),
Moses would have lived a quiet pastoral life in Midian, and passed
off the scene without leaving much if any mark behind him.
“And when he (Moses) was full forty years old, it came unto his
heart to visit his brethren the children of Israel…For he supposed
his would have understood how that God by his hand would
deliver them…” – Act. 7:23, 25
Moses saw his life as being inextricably
linked to that of Joseph. Israel had been
“added [to]” through Joseph; they
would now be “drawn out” by Moses.
• Joseph is in his 40th year in Gen. 45
• He was 30 years old in Gen. 41:46
when he stood before Pharaoh
• 7 years of plenty finished in Gen.
41:53
• 2 years of famine had already elapsed
in Gen. 45:6
Moses would have thought upon the
parallels in his life to that of Joseph
 God did send me before you to
preserve life
 And God sent me before you to
preserve you a posterity in the
earth
 And to save your lives by a great
deliverance
 It was not you that sent me hither,
but God
 Like Joseph, he had a familial
relationship with Pharaoh
 As the son of Pharaoh’s daughter,
he too was in a position of
authority in Egypt
“And Moses took the bones of
Joseph with him: for he had straitly
sworn the children of Israel, saying,
God will surely visit you; and ye
shall carry up my bones away
hence with you.” – Exo. 13:19
The Ways of Providence (first printed in 1881) – p. 80-81
Our aim is to bring to bear so much of the history and experience
of the fathers as may be applicable to our own case. Like Moses
we are living at the end of a time of Israel’s down-treading. Like
him, we are looking for a promised divine interposition. Like him
we are able to discern providential signs characteristic of the
situation; but like him we have been the subjects of delay in our
expectations. As in the case, we may see that notwithstanding
adverse appearances, God is at work, and we may hope that like
him we shall one day, and that soon, be rescued and cheered by
the angelic intimation that the moment of open interference has
at last arrived.
Figure of the furnace used to describe Israel’s experience in Egypt
“brought you forth out of the iron furnace,
even out of Egypt” – Deu. 4:20;
“brought them forth out of the land of Egypt,
from the iron furnace” – Jer. 11:4
Why refer to Egypt as an “iron furnace”?
IRON
GOLD & COPPER
SILVER
TIN
“…and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush
was not consumed.” – Exo. 3:2 >>> not preserved by natural means
‘bush’ – 5572 – to prick,
bramble, thorny bush.
Edersheim – “the thorny
acacia tree…the only
timber of any size”
Cp. Mat. 27:29 – “platted
a crown of thorns, they
put it upon his head”
Principle of not being consumed…
In Moses’ own life, see Exo. 18:4
See also Lam. 3:22-23; Mal. 3:6
“And God said, unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM (Rotherham’s ‘I Will
Become’): and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of
Israel, I AM (‘I Will Become’) hath sent me unto you.” – Exo. 3:14
See Eph. 3:15
Heb. 11:16
Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh = I Will Be What I Will Be
“that thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name,
THE LORD THY GOD (YHWH thy elohim)” – Deu. 28:58b
Moses’ objections to the LORD’s commission
1. “Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the
children of Israel out of Egypt” – Exo. 3:11
2. “When I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of
your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his
name? What shall I say unto them? – Exo. 3:13
3. “But, behold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice: for they will
say, The LORD had not appeared unto thee.” – Exo. 4:1
4. “O my Lord, I am not eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken
unto thy servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue.” – Exo. 4:10
5. “O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of whom thou wilt send.” – Exo.
4:13, see NIV trans. “But Moses said, O Lord please send someone else to do
it.”
God makes a concession to help his servant, but there would be a consequence:
>>> Aaron would receive the honour of leading the priesthood.
It is strange that Moses did not raise another, larger issue: the feasibility of
organizing, equipping, and sustaining such a massive escape. Apparently the
problem was settled by the burning bush, for to preserve one entity (the bush)
was a token that Israel could be preserved.
“Israel is my son, even my firstborn” – Exo. 4:22 >>> ADOPTION!
Moses and Aaron sprang, not from the “firstborn,” Reuben, but
from Levi, Jacob’s third son, and not even then from Levi’s oldest
son; but Kohath, his second son; and Moses was not even the
oldest son of his father, for Aaron was older.
Privileges of
firstborn:
Priesthood
cp. Abel, Aaron
& Samuel
Inheritance
Double portion
Deu. 21:17
Rulership
Jehoshaphat &
Jehoram
in 2 Chr. 21:3
* Based on Gen. 49:3
Gershon/Gershom – 1647
“And her two sons; of which the name of the
one was Gershom; for he said, I have been
an alien in a strange land: And the name of
the other was Eliezer; for the God of my
father, said he, was mine help, and delivered
me from the sword of Pharaoh.”
– Exo. 18:3b-4 (rejoin Moses)
Old Testament characters with this name:
• Firstborn son of Moses and Zipporah
Exo. 2:22, Eliezer not initially named
• Firstborn son of Jacob’s son Levi
1 Chr. 6:16
• A son of the priestly family of Phinehas
who returned from exile with Ezra
Ezr. 8:2
Exodus Chapters 3 & 4
Lessons that we have learned:
 The timing of events is according
to the LORD’s will
 God’s people are tried to reveal
His glory, not to be destroyed
 The LORD is He that sanctifieth
 The LORD is faithful and His NEW
NAME is “future-focused” and will
be revealed in a multitude
 God is patient and He will work
with His saints to fulfill his plans
 By adoption and covenant we can
enjoy a NEW RELATIONSHIP with
our God
Exodus Chapters 1 through 15
Wonderfully describe an exciting and amazing
time of NEW things for Israel:
 See them grow into their new name as the
“children of Israel”, as a NEW creation
 There is the raising up of a NEW deliverer
 The “LORD God of the Hebrews” is revealed
to Israel by a NEW name
 Israel will now enjoy a NEW relationship as
“my son, even my firstborn”
 Israel and Egypt will know the LORD by NEW
wonders
 Their lives will be changed with a NEW
calendar and a NEW feast of deliverance
 This deliverance will be praise and
commemorated through a NEW song
Exodus Chapters 7 & 8 – New Wonders by the
Finger of God Seen in Egypt
“And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD,
when I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring
out the children of Israel from among them.” Exo. 7:5
Breakdown of Exodus Chapters 7 & 8
The plagues will show Pharaoh and his servants that there is none like
“the LORD God of the Hebrews” in all the earth. Yahweh orders and
controls all things.
7:1-9
Moses is encouraged to go to Pharaoh
7:10-13
The contest begins with Pharaoh and his magicians
7:14-25
First plague : waters in Nile River and vessels turned to blood
8:1-15
Second plague: frogs covered the land of Egypt
8:16-19
Third plague: lice, which the magicians could not replicate!!!
8:20-24
Fourth plague: flies, the land of Goshen is now shielded
8:25-32
Moses and Aaron called before Pharaoh.
Will they compromise???
New Wonders by the Finger of God Seen in Egypt
Egypt & Pharaoh – Symbols of Sin & Death
Like Israel…
- By our own: thinking, strength, and
actions we can’t conquer Sin!
- We must learn that our deliverance
from Sin and Death depends on the
LORD
- We personally struggle with Sin each day of our lives
(if there isn’t a struggle then Sin is winning – see
Gal. 5:16-17)
- Victory over Sin and Death will not be easy and will
require real sacrifice
- Sin and temptation will not let go of us of their own
free will – We have to leave them behind.
- There can be no peace with Sin, it must be utterly
destroyed (stone that crushes the kingdoms of men)
Introduction to the Plagues
The plagues increase in severity…
• 1) Irritations – plagues 1, 2 & 3
• 2) Destructions – plagues 4, 5 & 6
• 3) Death – plagues 7, 8 & 9 and ultimately the tenth as well
The first 9 plagues are arranged in 3 groups of 3 plagues each:
• The first plague in each group (1, 4 & 7) was introduced by a
warning delivered to Pharaoh early in the morning as we went
out to the Nile, each with a purpose clause – Exo. 7:15; 8:20; 9:13
• The second plague in each group (2, 5 & 8) was introduced by a
warning, but it was delivered to Pharaoh at his palace – Exo. 8:1;
9:1; 10:1
• The last plague in each group (3, 6 & 9) commenced without any
warning – Exo. 8:16; 9:8; 10:21
The Ways of Providence – p. 81-82
The purpose of God (which was declared to Moses), that ultimately He
would fill the earth with His glory (Num. 14:21), required that a
beginning should be made then, in the exhibition of His power in a way
not to be mistaken. To allow of this exhibition, it was needful there
should be a plain issue between God and man, and resistance on the
part of man, and an ensuing struggle sufficiently prolonged and
diversified to exclude the possibility of doubt as to the nature of the
operations performed.
God could have manifested His power by hurling the mountains from
their base, or cleaving the earth with terrible chasms, or rending the air
with terrific conflagration. But this would not have got at the
understanding of the people. It would have scared without instructing,
and would have passed out of memory as a mere freak of nature. It
was necessary that intelligence should be manifestly at work, and this
necessity could only be met by a situation that all could understand, and
that would allow of the works of God being seen in intelligible relation
thereto.
Old Testament Bible History – Volume II, Alfred Edersheim
Progress and Duration of the Ten Plagues – p. 69-70
The supernaturalness of the plagues consisted in: 1) their severity; 2) their
successive occurrence; 3) their coming and going at the word of Moses; 4)
their partial extent, and 5) the unusual seasons and manner in which they
appeared. (Suggests a ten month period.)
The first three were in connection with the river and soil which formed the
boast of Egypt.
The other six came exclusively upon the Egyptians, as the LORD had said:
“I will put a division between My people and thy people,” “to the end that
thou mayest know that I am Yahweh in the midst of the land.”
If the first three plagues had shown the impotence of Egypt, the others
proved that Yahweh reigned in the midst of Egypt…the three last “strokes”
were not only far more terrible than any of the others, but intended to
make Pharaoh know “that there is none like Me in all the earth.”
Plagues by reference to a natural phenomena – plague number in brackets
• Heavy rainfall causes high flooding of the Nile around September
• High flooding means more red earth and bacteria suspended in the soil,
causing a “bloody” Nile [1]
• Fish die because of bacteria in the Nile; they die and decompose causing
disease (anthrax)
• Infected frogs leave the river because of unpalatable water and die rapidly [2]
• Lice/mosquitoes multiply because of favorable breeding conditions at the time
of the high Nile [3]
• Frogs die of anthrax, and flies multiply because of the dead frogs and fish [4]
• Cattle are now infected with anthrax, perhaps carried into the field by frogs [5]
• The boils are skin anthrax carried by the flies from infected carcasses of frogs
and cattle [6]
• Heavy storms are typical of early February in the region [7]
• The heavy rainfall which caused the high Nile in the first place would make
conditions favorable for a locust plague by March [8]
• The ‘khamsin’ dust storm would be fueled by the dust from the now dried-out
flooded areas of the Nile valley. These storms typically last three days [9]
• We are now in the right sort of time-period for Passover and plague [10]
The Exodus: a commentary on Exodus 1-15 – Bro. Mark Vincent, p. 115-116
“In this thou shalt know
that I am the LORD”
– Exo. 7:17
“This is the
finger of God”
– Exo. 8:19
“I will put a division
between my people
and thy people”
– Exo. 8:23
1st plague: water turned to blood
God had “struck the Nile” (RSV Exo. 7:25),
the lifeline of Pharaoh’s empire.
The Nile was the source of:
• Drinking water
• Fish for their daily diet
Normal work would have been disrupted!
“And the fish that was in the river
died…And all the Egyptians digged
round about the river for water to
drink; for they could not drink of the
water of the river” – Exo. 7:21a, 24
2nd plague: frogs
The visitation was horrible to the senses—
nauseous, disgusting. The frogs were hideous to
the eye, grating to the ear, repulsive to the touch.
Their constant presence everywhere rendered
them a continual torment. If other plagues were
more injurious, the plague of frogs was perhaps
the most loathsome [i.e. their psychological
affects].
Eustathius recorded that the people of Paeonia
and Dardania [in Macedonia] on one occasion,
were so plagued by a multitude of frogs, which
filled the houses and the streets, infected the
water, invaded the cooking utensils, and made all
the food uneatable, that after a time, being
unable to bear the pest any longer, they “fled
from that region altogether.”
Ellicott’s Commentary on the Whole Bible
Frogs were sacred animals to the Egyptians, who
regarded them as symbols of procreative power,
and associated them especially with the goddess
Heka (a wife of Kneph, or Num), whom they
represented as frog-headed.
Sacred animals might not be intentionally killed;
and even their involuntary slaughter was not
infrequently punished with death. To be plagued
with a multitude of reptiles which might not be
put to death, yet on which it was scarcely
possible not to tread, and which, whenever a
door was opened were crushed, was a severe
trial to the religious feelings of the people, and
tended to bring the religion itself into contempt.
Ellicott’s Commentary on the Whole Bible
“they gathered them together upon heaps:
and the land stank” – Exo. 8:14
Why should the frogs so suddenly abandon their
natural habitat in August during a high Nile and
invade the homes, bedrooms, ovens, kneading
troughs, and even the palace itself? And why
should they likewise die off so suddenly?
Possibly linked to the dead fish that had been
killed by bacteria. The frogs abandoned all the
polluted waterways and seek cover from the sun
on dry land in homes where possibly the presence
of some unadulterated water attracted them.
However, since they had already been exposed to
spores of bacillus anthracis from the death spread
along the waterways, the frogs also suddenly
collapsed and died.
3rd plague: lice
The references, both in Exodus and in
Psalms, are all to the plague of "lice." the
Revised Version margin suggests "fleas"
or "sandflies." The Septuagint rendering
would favor "sandflies" or "mosquitoes,"
between which two insects the Old
Testament writers would hardly be
expected to discriminate. Mosquitoes
belong to the order of Diptera, family
Culicidae; the sandfly (Plebotomus
papataci) to the family of Simuliidae of
the same order. The sandflies are much
smaller than mosquitoes, and are nearly
noiseless, but give a sharp sting which
may leave an unpleasant irritation. They
are abundant in the Levant (eastern
Mediterranean). In Southern Europe they
cause the "three-day fever" or
"papataci."
4th plague: flies
It is thought that the fly Stomoxys calcitrans
best fulfills all the conditions of the text.
This fly multiples rapidly in
tropical or subtropical regions
in the fall by laying its six
hundred to eight hundred eggs
in dung or rotting plant debris.
When it is full grown, the fly
prefers to infest houses and
stables, and it bites both men
and animals, usually in the
lower extremities.
Thus is becomes the principal transmitter of
skin anthrax, which it contracts by crawling over
carcasses of animals that have died of internal
anthrax.
The Process of Personal Free Will versus the Divine Will
Passage
Exo. 7:13
Exo. 7:14
Exo. 7:22
Exo. 8:15
Exo. 8:19
Exo. 8:32
Exo. 9:7
Exo. 9:12
Exo. 9:34
Exo. 9:35
Exo. 10:1
Exo. 10:20
Exo. 10:27
Exo. 11:10
Exo. 14:4
Exo. 14:8
Exo. 14:17
Pharaoh hardened
God hardened
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
G
P
P
“What if God, willing to shew his
wrath, and to make his power
known, endured with much
longsuffering the vessels of wrath
fitted to destruction” – Rom. 9:22
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
Consider these verses:
• Act. 7:39-42
• Rom. 1:24
• Rom. 9:17
“the deceitfulness of sin”…
it will entice us to make compromises!
1st compromise
You don’t have to leave just worship here
beside us, we’re your friends – Exo. 8:25
2nd compromise
We’re okay you don’t need to go so far
away – Exo. 8:28
Consider the examples of Lot
and Solomon…
Both compromised their
service to God by making
wrong choices!
3rd compromise
The men can go, but leave your children
here we’ll look after them – Exo. 10:7-9
4th compromise
Don’t be a stickler, you can serve God
your own way, details don’t matter
– Exo. 10:24-25
Exodus Chapters 7 & 8
Lessons that we have learned:
 God prepares some vessels
unto honour and others unto
dishonour
 Pretenders will come to
challenge the truth, but the
LORD will be revealed to be in
control
 At times the LORD will use
trials to teach us with NEW
WONDERS
 God will safeguard His children
 Sin will entice us to make
compromises, but don’t give in
Exodus Chapters 1 through 15
Wonderfully describe an exciting and amazing
time of NEW things for Israel:
 See them grow into their new name as the
“children of Israel”, as a NEW creation
 There is the raising up of a NEW deliverer
 The “LORD God of the Hebrews” is revealed
to Israel by a NEW name
 Israel will now enjoy a NEW relationship as
“my son, even my firstborn”
 Israel and Egypt will know the LORD by NEW
wonders
 Their lives will be changed with a NEW
calendar and a NEW feast of deliverance
 This deliverance will be praise and
commemorated through a NEW song
Exodus Chapters 11 & 12 – The Beginning of a
New Calendar and the New Feast of Redemption
“This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it
shall be the first month of the year to you…the fourteenth
day…it is the LORD’s passover.” – Exo. 12:1, 6, 11
Breakdown of Exodus Chapters 11 & 12
The final plague would vanquish Egypt and provide deliverance to
Israel, if they obediently followed the LORD’s instructions regarding
passover.
11:1-3
Last plague foretold. Israel to start borrowing from Egypt.
11:4-10
All of the firstborn of Egypt will now perish
12:1-2
The new calendar is established for the “congregation”
12:3-28
The arrangements for passover are outlined. Passover is linked
with judgment and deliverance (see also details in v. 42-51)
12:29-30
Tenth plague at midnight, “a great cry in Egypt”
12:31-39
Israel is commanded to leave Egypt
12:40-41
Their sojourning in Egypt ends according to God’s timetable
The Beginning of a New Calendar and the New Feast of Redemption
“This month shall be unto
you the beginning of
months” – Exo. 12:2
Instituted before the Law was given…
The male of the household “acted as a
priest” since the role of the Levites had
not been defined yet. (see Exo. 19:24)
There was no talk of war, no training for the battle, no building of
ramparts or preparing for ambush:
Instead the Lord talked of a yearold lamb or kid, and of the
families of Israel. In this
defenseless yet blemish-free
creature each Israelite was to see
himself, his family and his nation.
The year-old sacrifice was chosen
on a selected day. The eyes of the
taskmasters of Egypt must have
gazed on the sight with wonder
and apprehension. Each family or group had chosen its living sacrifice and
brought it home to be kept there until the moment of killing.
If Egypt expected a sudden uprising of rebel slaves, a bursting forth of the
trapped sea of captive people, to break with fury upon the homes of the
Egyptians, then this act of bringing home a little lamb or kid of the goats must
have seemed a strange and harmless prelude.
– Bro. Harry Tennant
“Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying…” – Exo. 12:3
“congregation” – 5712 – a stated assemblage (specifically, a concourse,
or generally, a family or crowd). First usage of this term in the Old
Testament. Parallels the concept of “ecclesia”, see similar idea in Gen.
28:3-4 with the word “multitude”.
48x in Exodus; 50x in Leviticus; 120x in Numbers & 6x in Deuteronomy
“…In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a
lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house.”
– Exo. 12:3
“Significantly, in accord with this
requirement, the Lord Jesus entered
Jerusalem on the tenth day of Abib for
his final public witness to the people. Six
days before Passover the Lord arrived at
Bethany (Joh. 12:1), and on the following
day, he entered Jerusalem (Joh. 12:12).
The Passover lamb was slain on the
fourteenth day of Abib, which is called
the Day of Preparation (Joh. 19:14), and
the festival was commemorated on the
fifteenth which was celebrated as
sabbathon, a holy convocation, when no
servile work was to be done (Joh. 19:31)
Hence the tenth of Abib was five days
(days of grace) before Passover proper.”
The Christadelphian Expositor: Exodus
“Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year…”
– Exo. 12:5
“For if the blood of bulls and of goats,
and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling
the unclean, sanctifieth to the
purifying of the flesh:
How much more shall the blood of
Christ, who through the eternal Spirit
offered himself without spot to God,
purge your conscience from dead
works to serve the living God?”
– Heb. 9:13-14
“And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts
and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.”
– Exo. 12:7
“and when I see the blood, I will
pass over you and the plague shall
not be upon you to destroy you,
when I smite the land of Egypt.”
– Exo. 12:13
Similar principle in:
Ezk. 9:4-6; Rev. 7:3; 9:4
“For the life of the flesh is in the
blood…” – Lev. 17:11
Previously the Israelites were automatically protected as God divided
between His people and the Egyptians. Now, being an Israelite by
birth is no longer sufficient; there is no automatic immunity.
Hebrew - abar (5674)
To pass over, to pass through, to
pass beyond, to pass by, to pass
along or away
v. 12 – “pass through”
v. 23 – “pass through”
Hebrew – pasah (6452) and pesha (6453)
To leap over, to pass over; more
specifically, to ward off a blow, to bend
or spring forward, as bending or kneeling
on one knee in act and posture to ward
off either a stroke, or to oppose the
threatened entrance of an enemy.
v. 11 – “passover” – h6453
v. 13 – “pass over” – h6452
v. 23 – “pass over” – h6452
v. 27 – “passover” – h6453
v. 27 – “passed” – h6452
Definitions from Wilson’s O.T. Word Studies
“As birds flying, so will the LORD of
hosts defend Jerusalem; defending
also he will deliver it; and passing
over he will preserve it.” – Isa. 31:5
“O Jerusalem, Jerusalem…how
often would I have gathered thy
children together, even as a hen
gathereth her chickens under her
wings…” – Mat. 23:37
The Passover Meal an Act of Unity by Israel in Goshen… (Exo. 12)
• “a lamb for an house” v. 3
• “if the household be too
little for the lamb, let him
and his neighbour next
unto his house take it” v. 4
Focus >> the “lamb” not the “household”
• “the whole assembly of the
congregation of Israel shall
kill it in the evening” v. 6
• “circumcision” by all males required to permit participation, v. 48
• “roast with fire; his head with his legs, and the purtenance thereof”
v. 9, and not to “break a bone thereof”, v. 46
• “And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which
remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire” v. 10. The
remains were not to leave the house, see v. 46
“And none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.”
– Exo. 12:5
Deliverance was provided to those who obeyed and stayed in the house!
Response of Israel:
“And the people bowed
the head and
worshipped.”
– Exo. 12:27
Cp. Exo. 4:29-31…
“And the people
believed: and when they
heard that the LORD had
visited the children of
Israel, and that he had
looked upon their
affliction, then they
bowed their heads and
worshipped.”
The Deliverance of the children of Israel comes at a GREAT PRICE.
“And in came to pass, that
at midnight the LORD
smote all the firstborn in
the land of Egypt, from the
firstborn of Pharaoh that
sat on his throne unto the
firstborn of the captive
that was in the dungeon;
and all the firstborn
of cattle.
And Pharaoh rose up in the
night, he, and all his servants,
and all the Egyptians; and there
was a great cry in Egypt; for
there was not a house where
there was not one dead.”
- Exo. 12:29-30
God has a definite plan. He is in control.
“Now the sojourning of the
children of Israel, who dwelt
in Egypt, was four hundred
and thirty years.
And it came to pass at the
end of the four hundred and
thirty years, even the
selfsame day it came to pass,
that all the hosts of the LORD
went out from the land of
Egypt.”
– Exo. 12:40-41
“Have no anxiety about anything”
– Php. 4:6 RSV
“this Jesus, delivered up
according to the definite
plan and foreknowledge of
God”
– Acts 2:23 RSV
Exodus Chapters 11 & 12
Lessons that we have learned:
 The LORD is known by the judgment
that He executeth
 His people, who are joined to Him in
covenant, will be rewarded
 God provides/makes NEW BEGINNINGS
 Deliverance requires obedience and
sacrifice
 Our lifestyle must mark us as a NEW
people, redeemed of the LORD
 Those delivered will be both Jew and
Gentile
 God has a defined plan; He is in control
Exodus Chapters 1 through 15
Wonderfully describe an exciting and amazing
time of NEW things for Israel:
 See them grow into their new name as the
“children of Israel”, as a NEW creation
 There is the raising up of a NEW deliverer
 The “LORD God of the Hebrews” is revealed
to Israel by a NEW name
 Israel will now enjoy a NEW relationship as
“my son, even my firstborn”
 Israel and Egypt will know the LORD by NEW
wonders
 Their lives will be changed with a NEW
calendar and a NEW feast of deliverance
 This deliverance will be praise and
commemorated through a NEW song
Exodus Chapter 15 – A New Song of
Deliverance is Sung by Children of New Faith
“I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously:
the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. The
LORD is my strength and song: he is become my salvation:
he is my God” – Exo. 15:1-2
Breakdown of Exodus Chapter 15
“through faith he [Moses] kept the Passover” and “by faith they [the
children of Israel] passed through the Red sea” – Heb. 11:28-29
15:1-13
Stanza 1 – God’s great power, mercy, and deliverance are
praised. He is now “my salvation: he is my God”.
15:14-19
Stanza 2 – Conquest of the land is seamlessly foretold, the
LORD’s sanctuary will be established and he “shall reign for
ever and ever.”
15:20-21
Miriam leads the woman who answer Moses’ song.
15:22
Travel 3 days in the wilderness of Shur – Heb. “wall”
15:23-26
Water of Marah is bitter and Israel murmurs. The LORD
professes that he is “your healer” RSV
15:27
The LORD provides abundantly at Elim – Heb. “palms”
A New Song of Deliverance is Sung by Children of New Faith
What, then, are the LORD’s objectives in this final overthrow of Pharaoh?
His defeat must achieve at least the following aims:
•
•
•
•
To remind the Israelites one final time just what the Egyptians were like
To show that Pharaoh would otherwise never let go
To illustrate again that Israel’s salvation depended totally upon God
To show that sin can never be left behind just by walking away: it has to
be destroyed completely
• To set a line in the sand (desert) – a line of demarcation beyond which
Pharaoh (sin) cannot pass, and a line which marks the starting point of
a new life for Israel: it is the water that signals the new start
• To show that God, and only God, is able completely to destroy Pharaoh
and all that he represents
• To teach Pharaoh and the Egyptians Who God is, and to get glory by
triumphing over them
The Exodus: a commentary on Exodus 1-15 – Bro. Mark Vincent, p. 203-204
Principle of Division Shown
• God divides between the camp of Israel and the camp of Egypt by
stationing His pillar between them
• He divides the sea, and its waters part to form a way
• He divides between a way of life for the Israelites and a way of
death for the Egyptians
The theme of the “hand”
Used in: Gen. 71x; Exo. 74x; Lev. 29x; Num. 36x; and Deu. 64x
Started back in the garden…
“And the LORD God said, behold, the man is become as one of us,
to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand,
(Strong’s - 3027) and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live
for ever:” – Gen. 3:22
Exo. 1
Exo. 2
Exo. 3
Exo. 4
Exo. 5
1x
3x (v. 19-20)
8x (v. 21)
1x
Exo. 6
Exo. 7
Exo. 8
Exo. 9
Exo. 10
1x
5x
3x
3x
3x
Exo. 11
Exo. 12
Exo. 13
Exo. 14
Exo. 15
1x
4x
8x
4x
The theme of the “hand” in Exodus 14 & 15
Translated from two Hebrew words:
3027 – a primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power,
means, direction) in distinction from 3709, the closed one). Appears
in Exo. 14:8, 16, 21, 26, 27, 30.
3225 – the right hand or side (leg, eye) of a person or other object
(as the stronger and more dexterous). Appears in Exo. 14:22, 29;
15:6 (2x), 12
Associated with choosing and the offering/receiving of blessings:
•
•
•
•
Gen. 13:9 – Abram and Lot and choose lands
Gen. 24:49 – Eliezer (Abraham’s servant) choosing a wife for Isaac
Gen. 48 – Joseph desires blessings for Ephraim and Manasseh
Exo. 14 & 15 – Connection with 1 Cor. 10:1-2
Songs of Victory and Deliverance in the Scriptures
Oppressed by
In wilderness due to their unfaithfulness – Deu. 31
Jabin king of Canaan and Sisera – Jud. 4
Philistines – 1 Sam. 18
David’s enemies including Saul – 2 Sam. 22
Sin – Rev. 5
Beast, image, his mark, the number of his name – Rev. 14, 15
Delivered by and song led by
The LORD, wrote by Moses for posterity – Deu. 31
Jael and Barak, sung by Deborah and Barak – Jud. 5
Saul and David, sung by women of Israel – 1 Sam. 18
The LORD, sung by David – 2 Sam. 22
The Lamb of God, sung by the redeemed – Rev. 5
Christ the King, sung by his brethren – Rev. 14, 15
Stanza 1 of the Song of Moses – Exodus Chapter 15:1-13
“Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD…
Highlights the operation of the LORD’s “right hand” – v. 6, 12
• Who is like unto thee, O LORD,
among the gods?
• Who is like thee, glorious in holiness,
fearful in praises, doing wonders?
“Thou in thy mercy (first usage in Exo.)
hast led forth the people, which thou
hast redeemed (cp. Exo. 6:6): thou hast
guided (5095 – to run with a sparkle, to
flow, to protect, sustain) them in thy
strength unto thy holy habitation.” v. 13
“And Israel saw that great work which the
LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the
people feared the LORD, and believed the
LORD, and his servant Moses.” – Exo. 14:31
“Pharaoh’s chariots and his host hath he cast
into the sea: his chosen captains also were
drowned in the Red sea. The depths have
covered them: they sank into the bottom as
a stone.” – Exo. 15:4-5
Stanza 2 of the Song of Moses – Exodus Chapter 15:14-19
Israel was led out with a strong hand,
so too would they be led into the
promised land…reaction of Canaanites:
Afraid, sorrow shall take hold, amazed,
trembling, melt away, fear, dread
Routing implied in Exo. 15:16?
“till thy people pass over, O LORD,
till the people pass over, which thou
hast purchased
(Cain – ‘gotten’ in Gen. 4:1; Hebrew
servant – ‘buy’ in Exo. 21:2)”
“Thou shalt bring them in, and
plant them in the mountain of
thine inheritance, in the place, O
LORD, which thou hast made for
thee to dwell in, in the Sanctuary,
O Lord which thy hands have
established.”
– Exo. 15:17
“the place”
• Deu. 12:3, 5, 11, 14, 18, 21, 26
• 2 Sam. 7:10
• 2 Chr. 6:6, 20
“the Sanctuary”
• First use of term in O.T.
• Next used in Exo. 25:8
The Song before the Marriage
Supper of the Lamb…
“And after these things I heard a
great voice of much people in
heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation,
and glory, and honour, and power,
unto the Lord our God.
For true and righteous are his
judgments: for he hath judged the
great whore, which did corrupt
the earth with her fornication, and
hath avenged the blood of his
servants at her hand.”
Rev. 19:1-2 (ref. Rev. 15:3 – “the
song of Moses the servant of God
and the song of the Lamb”)
Old Testament Bible History – Volume II
Destruction of Pharaoh and his Host
– p. 87
According to Egyptian documents,
seventeen years elapsed after the death
of Thothmes II (whom we regard as the
Pharaoh of this narrative) before any
Egyptian expedition was undertaken
into the Peninsula of Sinai, and twentytwo years before any attempt was made
to recover the power over Syria which
Egypt seems to have lost. And thus, also,
it was that Israel could safely pursue
their march through the wilderness,
which had hitherto been subject to the
Egyptians.
The lives of the “children of Israel” have come full circle, but they
are now enriched with faith.
“the righteous shall flourish like the palm tree”
– Psa. 92:12
Elim – 362 – palm trees; plural of 352 – properly,
strength; a pilaster (as a strong support); and oak
“through faith he (Moses) kept the Passover”
“by faith they (the children of Israel) passed through the Red sea” – Heb. 11:28-29
Exodus Chapter 15
Lessons that we have learned:
 We can not just separate from sin, its
operation in each of our lives must be
destroyed
 To each of us, the LORD needs to
become our strength, our NEW song,
our salvation, and in our lives we must
glorify him
 We can trust that God will bring us into
our inheritance by the example of Israel
 Trials are an integral part of our ongoing
development in this life
 Ultimately, we will each be individually
watered/washed and made righteous
Exodus Chapters 1 through 15
What we have benefitted from considering together this
week…
 Seen Jacob’s seed grow into their new name as the
“children of Israel”, as a NEW creation
 Watched the raising up of a NEW deliverer
 Saw “The LORD God of the Hebrews” revealed to
Israel by a NEW name
 Witnessed Israel enjoy the start of a NEW relationship
as the LORD’s “son, even [his] firstborn”
 Observed how Israel and Egypt came to know the
LORD by NEW wonders
 Saw how their lives were forever changed with a NEW
calendar and NEW feast of deliverance, the Passover
 Witness their redemption from Egypt by the LORD,
commemorated through a NEW song
“Now it came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, even the
selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD (cp. Psa. 103:17-22)
went out from the land of Egypt.” – Exo. 12:41
430 YEARS FROM THE PROMISE TO THE LAW (Gal 3:17)
86
66
ALTERNATE 400 YEAR PERIOD
120
“this Jesus,
delivered up
according to the
definite plan and
foreknowledge of
God”
– Acts 2:23 RSV
Death of Isaac
Receives Gen. 15
85, which would have been
18thpromise
EgyptianatDynasty
at Passover time. Ishmael born one
year later when Abraham is 86.
At 40 he
flees to
Midian
History of Iron
The Egyptians called iron “the metal of heaven” or ba-en-pet, which indicates
that the first specimens employed were of meteoric origin.
3,500 years ago, the metal was produced in larger amounts, as amongst the lists
of tributes received by Thutmose the Third there is also the new metal. Iron is
one of the most frequent metals in the terrestrial crust.
At the beginning, it was achieved by heating the ore, placed alternatively with
charcoal. But the temperatures achieved during those times were not enough to
melt the iron and it resulted only a spongy mass which had to be cleaned of
dross and hammered.
As it could not be molten, the iron
was shaped by hammer. This
technique required bellows. Before
the bellows, there were the fan and
blowing tube.
“Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of
Israel…Behold, I have refined thee, but not with silver; I have
chosen thee in the furnace of affliction” – Isa. 48:1, 10
‘affliction’ – 6040 – depression, i.e. misery, sense of looking down
or browbeating – Cf. Act. 14:22 “though much tribulation”
Same Hebrew word found in:
Exo. 3:7 – “And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of
my people which are in Egypt”
Exo. 3:17 – “And I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction
of Egypt”
Exo. 4:31 – “And the people believed: and when they heard that the
LORD had visited the children of Israel, and that he had looked upon
their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.”
Law and Grace, W.F. Barling
The Covenant Token – p. 38-39
Circumcision as a rite was, like many others, a “carnal ordinance”;
yet how misguided Israel were in regarding it as confirming or
witnessing to some intrinsic right on their part, as lineal
descendants of Abraham, to the privileges of the Covenant.
By divine irony the rite, though made in the flesh, was by its very
nature—being a cutting off of flesh—a veritable disowning of
flesh and fleshly descent. Far from establishing any hereditary
right it did the very opposite: it stressed that their fleshly descent
in no way qualified them for enjoyment of Covenant privileges,
and was a ground not for pride, but rather for humility.
The Law of Moses, Robert Roberts
The Court of the Tabernacle – p. 147
Consider what those conditions are as involved in circumcision.
Literally, circumcision was a cutting-off of the flesh of the foreskin
in token of the accepted covenant of God, to choose Abraham’s
posterity as a people for himself (Gen. 17:9-14). In virtue or
efficacy, it was “nothing” in itself, except as a commandment (1
Cor. 7:19). Its significance was everything; and this was double:
first (as a token of the covenant) that rejected man had no
relation to God except by Divine choice; and second, that this
choice was based upon submission to the Divine will.
Law and Grace, W.F. Barling
The Covenant Token – p. 38-39
Circumcision as a rite was, like many others, a “carnal ordinance”;
yet how misguided Israel were in regarding it as confirming or
witnessing to some intrinsic right on their part, as lineal
descendants of Abraham, to the privileges of the Covenant.
By divine irony the rite, though made in the flesh, was by its very
nature—being a cutting off of flesh—a veritable disowning of
flesh and fleshly descent. Far from establishing any hereditary
right it did the very opposite: it stressed that their fleshly descent
in no way qualified them for enjoyment of Covenant privileges,
and was a ground not for pride, but rather for humility.

similar documents