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Formative Assessment Module
Kansas State Department of Education
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT
1
Formative Assessment is Important!
• Research shows formative most important assessment
to student learning
• Educators need to understand the importance of
formative assessments
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What is Formative Assessment?
Paul Black, professor emeritus and educational
research King’s College gives us this definition:
“ When the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative
assessment; when the customer tastes the soup,
that’s summative assessment.”
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What is Formative Assessment?
The Council of Chief State School Officers provides the
definition:
“ Formative Assessment is a process used by
teachers and students during instruction that
provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and
learning to improve students’ achievements of
intended instructional outcomes.”
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What is Formative Assessment?
According to Dr. James Popham:
“ Formative Assessment is a planned process in which
assessment-elicited evidence of students’ status is
used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional
procedures or by students to adjust their current
learning tactics.”
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Formative Assessment
is a Planned Process
• Evokes evidence about student learning
• Provides feedback about learning to teachers
and students
• Closes the gap between what the learner knows
and desired goals
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Use of the Assessment
• Results of Formative assessments are used to improve
instruction and learning
• Results of Formative assessment are not used for
making judgments about success or failure
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Title Comparisons
• Formative assessment is used to improve
instruction and learning
• Interim assessments are used to
– Predict summative results
– Warn of learning deficits
– Identify achievement gaps
• Summative assessments are used to render
final judgments
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Inside the Black Box:
Raising Standards
Through Classroom
Assessment
By Paul Black &
Dylan Wiliam
Paul Black & Dylan Wiliam, “Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through
Classroom Assessment,” Phi Delta Kappan Vol. 80 (2), October 1998, pp.139-148.
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Formative Assessments
Make Moment – to - Moment Adjustments
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Classroom Based:
Student Centered Process
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Teachers Need Time
According to Black & William, teachers need:
• Time to reflect upon their assessment practices
• Benefit from observing and
• Consulting with other teachers about the changes they
would like to make.
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Teachers Should Consider
1. Testing new
learning within
about a week of
first exposure
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Teachers Should Consider
2. Do the
assessments
yield accurate,
pertinent
diagnostic
information?
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Teachers Should Consider
3. Is the diagnostic
information being
used to inform and
adjust instruction for
individual students?
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Activity One
1
Review the work of Black
and Wiliam by answering
the essential question:
What is formal
Assessment?
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What we want the student
to know and be able to do
•
•
•
•
Goals
Objectives
Proficiencies
Competencies
• Standards
• Benchmarks
• Curricular Aims
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ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT
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Clarify Curricular Aims
Alignment in SEDL's Working Systemically Model
2004 PROGRESS REPORT TO SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS
Summary Report available online at
http://www.sedl.org/rel/resources/ws-report-summary04.pdf
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Clarify Curricular Aims
Alignment in SEDL's Working Systemically Model
2004 PROGRESS REPORT TO SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS
Summary Report available online at
http://www.sedl.org/rel/resources/ws-report-summary04.pdf
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Highest Level
of
Performance
Students Can
Achieve
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Kinds of Aims or Targets
•
Master Content Knowledge
– Master means know and understand
– Things to know outright
– Know where to find it
•
Use Knowledge to Reason and Solve Problems
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
•
•
Analysis
Synthesis
Comparison
Classification
Inference
Evaluation
Demonstrate Performance Skills
Create products
Develop Attitudinal, Motivational Predispositions
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Students Must Understand
What is to be Mastered
Important whether
student is preparing
for a single lesson
or a month long unit
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Curricular Aims
• Describe how the
curricular aim will
be measured
• Provide examples
of both very good
and very poor
assessment results
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Rubrics Clarify Performance Expectations
A well informed rubric helps students
understand what they are supposed to
be learning
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Teachers Must Provide Students
with the Building Blocks
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Formative Assessment are
Not Used for Grades
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Students as Partners
Stiggins tells us “that the greatest potential value of
classroom assessment is realized when we open the
process up and welcome students in as full partners”
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Activity Two
2
Consider the
Student/Teacher Learning
Partnership by Participating
in Activity Two
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How do we Plan Formative Assessment?
Begin by looking at the best recommended
practices by experts such as Airasian, Fisher,
Frey, Marzano, McTighe, Popham, Stiggins,
Tomlinson, Wiggins, and others
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We Need to Begin with the End in Mind
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We Need to Begin with the End in Mind
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Checking for Understanding
SHOULD:
• Align with enduring understandings
• Allow for differentiated instruction
• Focus on gap analysis
• Lead to precise teaching
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Questioning to Incorporate
into Classroom Practice
• Do I know what misconceptions or naïve
assumptions my students possess?
• How do I know what they understand?
• What evidence will I accept for this understanding?
• How will I use their understandings to plan future
instruction?
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Differentiating Instruction
Checking for understanding presumes that
students are able to demonstrate their
understanding in different ways.
This demands not only that products are
differentiated but also that our ways of analyzing
them are differentiated.”
A model can be found on our next slide…
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Dr. Popham’s book Transformative Assessment
From: Transformative Assessment (p. 141) by W. James Popham, 2008,
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
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First Step:
Identify when to administer a formative assessment
Consider what is important to know and do to reach
enduring understanding of a curricular aim and that will help
you determine when to use formative assessment.
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Second Step:
Select the appropriate assessment to use
Our methods of assessment should be differentiated so
that students can demonstrate their understanding in
different ways.
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Select Proper Assessment Methods
From: Student –Involved
Assessment FOR Learning
Fourth Edition (p. 64)
Richard J. Stiggins, 2005,
Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Education
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Eight Types of Assessment Practices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Criteria & Goal Setting
Teacher Observation
Questioning
Grading
Self-Assessment
Peer Assessment
Student record-keeping
Formative Use of Summative Tests
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1. Criteria & Goal Setting
In order to be successful:
• students need to understand and know the
learning target/goal and the criteria for reaching it.
• Establishing and defining quality work together
• determining what should be included in criteria for
success are all examples of this strategy.
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2. Teacher Observation
Observations assist teachers in gathering
evidence of student learning to inform
instructional planning.
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3. Questioning
Questioning strategies should:
• be embedded in lesson/unit planning
• Ask better questions allows an opportunity for deeper
thinking
• provides teachers with significant insight into the degree
and depth of understanding
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4. Teachers Written and Oral Evaluation
• Should identify what has been done well
• What still needs improvement
• Give guidance on how to make that
improvement.
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5. Self Assessment
Self Assessment is essential to learning.
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6. Peer Assessment
Peer assessment is valuable because students
may accept criticisms of their work from one
another that they would not take seriously if the
remarks were offered by a teacher.
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7. Student Record Keeping
Student Record Keeping helps students better
understand their own learning as evidenced by
their classroom work
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8. Formative Use of
Summative Assessment
Summative Assessment
Through active involvement in the testing process,
students can see that they can be the beneficiaries
rather than the victims of testing, because tests can
help them improve their learning.
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Third Step:
Decide what instructional adjustments
should be made
• Teacher must determine a required level of individual
student performance and a required level of total
group performance
• Predetermined adjustment trigger must be established
prior to collecting assessment evidence from students
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Fourth Step:
Make adjustments in instruction
• This is the time for making decisions that lead to more
precise and effective teaching. What is done at this step
will be up to the individual teacher and will depend on
that teachers’ level of experience and expertise.
• Popham advises us to “revisit the original learning
progression created for the curricular aim or
building block.
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Activity Three
3
This Activity Answers the
Essential Question:
How do we plan the
formative assessment
process?
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The Process of Formative Assessment
Dr. Popham reemphasizes that “Formative
assessment is more about teaching than it is about
testing. At bottom, it is an instruction-enhancing
process. It really is.”
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Five Potential Applications
of Formative Assessment
1. To make an immediate instructional adjustment.
2. To make near future instructional adjustment.
3. To make a last-chance instructional adjustment.
4. To make a learning tactic adjustment.
5. To promote classroom climate shift.
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Application 1: To make an immediate
instructional adjustment
Using immediate instructional adjustment, a
teacher diagnoses, addresses, and corrects
students’ misconceptions instead of letting those
misconceptions remain for another day when
they will probably be far more difficult to remedy.
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Application 2. To make near
future instructional adjustment
A teacher will need to use learning progressions
to break down the subskills that are crucial to
developing the overall learning goal and then
through non-graded formative assessment
exercises determining what needs to be done to
ensure that students are mastering those crucial
subskills before moving on.
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Application 3: Last Chance
Instructional Adjustments
If, near the end of an instructional sequence, a
teacher wants to discover whether students
have mastered the target curricular aim, that
teacher may apply formative assessment for the
purpose of last chance instructional adjustments.
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Application 4: Learning Tactic Adjustments
Students use assessments evidence to monitor
their own progress and decide whether they
need to change the manner in which they’re
attempting to learn.
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Application 5: Promoting a
Classroom Climate Change
The fifth and final application of the formative
assessment process works to shift the atmosphere
of a classroom through theses three significant
changes:
1. A change in learning expectations.
2. A change in the locus of responsibility from teacher
to students.
3. A change in the role of classroom assessment.
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Maximum Instructional Mileage
According to Popham, “Promoting the three
significant changes in classroom climate
identified . . . requires a total, no-holdsbarred effort.”
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Applications of Formative Assessment
The Formative Assessment Process
Immediate
Instructional
Adjustments
Near-Future
Instructional
Adjustments
Last-Chance
Instructional
Adjustments
Classroom
Climate
Shifts
Students’
Learning Tactic
Adjustments
From: Transformative Assessment in Action (p. 21) by W. James Popham, 2011,
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
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Activity Four
4
Take time to do the final
activity within this module
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