Overview of CBT / Using PowerPoint Tools

Overview of CBT /
Using PowerPoint Tools
Dr. Steve Broskoske
Misericordia University
EDU 533 Computer-based Education
• About the course.
• What is CBE/CBT?
• Using PowerPoint tools for creating CBT.
Meet the Course Instructor
Dr. Steve Broskoske
Assoc. Professor of Education
Specialty: Educational Technology
PA Certification: K-12
• Educational Technology
• Freshman/Transfer Seminar
• Student Teacher Supervision
• Secondary Education classes
• Graduate Program Instructor
Introduction to Course Web Site
Course Web Site
Mark down this Web site:
• You will need to access the course Web site in
order to read and print course materials.
• If you need a computer…
– Mercy Hall 3rd Floor (2 computer labs)
– Science Building (1 computer lab)
– Borrow laptops from library.
Explore Course Web Site
Explore Course
Web Site
About the Course
Logistics of the Course
• EDU 533 – Computer-based Education
• Scheduling:
– Meet 7 Monday nights, from 6:00-8:30.
– Other 7 meetings will be class, group, or individual
activity online or conducted independently.
• Each class meeting:
– Hands-on.
Course Home Page
View the Course Home Page
We will also be using course tools found in My
Courses in e-MU.
Logistics of the Course
• Many activities will be conducted online using
various synchronous and asynchronous
distance learning media.
• Students need to have:
– Access to PowerPoint (either 2003 or 2007).
– An online connection (ideally a broadband
– A headphone with a microphone.
Attendance and Participation
• “This is a hands-on course. Students are
expected to attend and actively participate in
all course meetings and activities. Because
this is a blended course, many activities will be
conducted online using various synchronous
and asynchronous distance learning media.”
Attendance and Participation
• Realize that some synchronous online
activities will involve meeting online in
addition to the in-person class meetings.
These times will be arranged with students as
a group, and every effort will be made to
accommodate everyone’s schedule.
Attendance and Participation
• Students who are absent must contact the
instructor by e-mail or voice mail.
• Students are responsible for course material
that was covered.
• Students are responsible for completing and
submitting any projects that were completed
at the time of their absence in a timely
Snow Cancellation
• Due to the blended nature of this course, even
if the university cancels classes due to
inclement weather, the instructor may still
hold class online using synchronous and
asynchronous technologies.
Course Catalog Description
• This laboratory course allows students to
experience first-hand the effects of computerbased educational programs and create an
awareness of how CBT can be used in schools.
Focus of the Course
• Will be using PowerPoint as the platform for
creating and delivering CBT.
• Will be exploring how to add VBA (Visual
Basic for Applications) coding “behind the
scenes” in PP to add interactivity and power
to CBT.
Course Objectives
As a result of this course, students will be able to...
1. Discuss the background and use of computer-based
2. Identify ways that a CBT application could enhance
delivery of classroom instruction.
3. Use traditional elements of PowerPoint to create a
CBT application: hypertext links, action buttons,
action settings applied to graphics and text boxes,
controlling navigation with kiosk mode.
Course Objectives
As a result of this course, students will be able to...
4. Create scripts in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to
add extended capabilities to a CBT application created
in PowerPoint.
5. Utilize the following elements of VBA: local and form
variables, looping, arrays, manipulation of text in
objects, changing properties of objects, random
numbers, arrays.
6. Utilize PowerPoint and VBA to develop the following:
embedded formative assessments, summative
assessments, interactive instructional screens.
Overview of the Course
Overview of CBT / Using PP Tools
Advanced PP Tools for CBT / Introduction to VBA
Creating Embedded Formative Assessment
Creating Summative Assessment
Advanced Instruction with Variables, Conditional
Statements, and Object Properties
6. More Advanced Instructional Techniques
7. Finishing Touches / Presentations
Proposed Schedule of Topics
• Week 1: Overview of CBT / Using PP Tools
– Topics:
Introduction to CBE/CBT
Review of PowerPoint tools for CBT
Creating a CBT product with PowerPoint
Choosing a topic for CBT
• Week 2: Class 2: Advanced PP Tools for CBT / Introduction
to VBA
– Topics:
Setting up a menu using action buttons
Setting up PowerPoint for use with VBA
Orientation to VBA
Opening a message box
Working with basic variables
Proposed Schedule of Topics
• Week 3: Creating Embedded Formative Assessment
– Topics:
• Working with variables
• Working with conditional statements
• Working with object properties
• Week 4: Creating Summative Assessment
– Topics:
• Looping
• More advanced work with variables
• Week 5: Advanced Instruction with Variables, Conditional
Statements, and Object Properties
– Topics:
• Arrays
• Using random numbers
Proposed Schedule of Topics
• Week 6: More Advanced Instructional Techniques
– Topics:
• Debugging techniques
• How to evaluate a CBT product
• Creating templates to ease instructor workload
• Week 7: Finishing Touches / CBT Presentations
– Topics:
• Testing the product
• Protecting coding from students
• Presentation of projects
Recommended Reading
• Title: Powerful PowerPoint for Educators:
Using Visual Basic for Applications to Make
PowerPoint Interactive
• Author: David M. Marcovitz
• Copyright: 2004
• Price: $38 at Amazon.com
Grading and Assessment
Participation in lecture and activities conducted in class
and online.
Completion of weekly VBA coding projects.
Final project: Creation and in-class presentation of a
computer-based training lesson utilizing PowerPoint
and VBA as the delivery system.
Introduction to CBE
What Is CBE?
• Computer-based education:
– Involves using the computer to deliver instruction
to learners.
– May be created to be interactive or mostly passive
on the part of learners.
– May be authored into a software product, placed
on the Web, or delivered through PowerPoint.
Other Names for CBE
• Computer-based instruction software.
• CBT (computer-based training) software.
• CAI software.
– Computer-aided instructional software.
– Computer-assisted instructional software.
• Instructional software.
2 Types of CBE Tutorials
1. Movie tutorials:
– Non-interactive tutorial that you passively watch.
2. Interactive tutorials:
– Provides instructional information that includes
reading text and possibly watching videos.
– Instruction may involve interaction with the program
(manipulating something, or simulation).
– Includes formative assessment with feedback, and
summative assessment.
– May include practice exercises.
• CBE (computer-based education): Original
name for computer-based instruction, based
on broad concept of education.
• CBT (computer-based training): Current name
for computer-based instruction, based on
concept of specific (many times vocational)
Training vs. Education
• Training: Acquisition of knowledge, skills, and
competencies as a result of the teaching of
vocational or practical skills and knowledge that
relate to specific useful competencies
• Education: Act or process of imparting or
acquiring general knowledge, developing the
powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally
of preparing intellectually for mature life
• How do people learn?
– Learn by doing, and through reinforcement.
• What are learners like?
– Learners are passive and reactive.
• What is knowledge?
– Knowledge consists of stimulus-response bonds.
• What is education?
– Teaching consists of carefully arranging stimuli, set up for
inducing proper responses, and reinforcement. During
learning, minimize the effect of distracting stimuli and
eliminate competing stimuli.
• Educational strategies?
– Teach in small steps/blocks of instruction, use drill and
Pavlov’s dog
• How do people learn?
– Learn by constructing your own knowledge (schema).
• What are learners like?
– Learners are active and play an important role in learning process.
• What is knowledge?
– Knowledge consists of individual schemata constructed by individuals.
• What is education?
– Teaching consists of helping students to recall what they already know
about a topic, providing new information to students, and they
construct (add/remove/reconnect nodes) in their individual schema.
• Educational strategies?
– Concept formation, problem solving, decision making, lifelong
Behaviorism vs. Constructivism
• Learning deals with changes
in overt behavior.
• Tie response to stimulus.
Use knowledge of both
Constructivism and
Behaviorism in
planning, teaching, and
• Learning entails
construction (and
reshaping) of mental
• Emphasize teaching how to
• Focus on concept
formation, problem solving,
decision making, lifelong
Taking Behaviorism
into Instruction
• State objectives of the instruction as learner
behaviors. (Learning is inferred from student behavior.)
• Use cues to guide students to the desired behavior.
(Behavior is determined by the stimuli that precede it.)
• Select consequences that will reinforce the desired
behavior, and have them immediately follow
behavior. (Whether a behavior will be repeated depends on the
consequences that follow it.)
• Teach in small steps/blocks of instruction.
• Use drill and practice to teach skills that require
instantaneous recognition of signals or require
extreme proficiency (prerequisite info.).
Taking Constructivism
into Instruction
• Begin instruction by helping students recall
prerequisite knowledge.
• Use thoughtful discussion.
• Use metaphors to build bridges to new knowledge.
• Use graphic organizers.
– Show how new material fits in with previously presented
• Provide hands-on experience, esp. in areas in which
students have little experience.
Active vs. Passive Learning
• Students actively construct
knowledge by listening
carefully, conversing, and
performing meaningful
• Students are engaged
mentally, emotionally, and
sometimes physically.
• Teacher-centered
• Students sit at desks and
memorize, take notes,
recite, and drill as primary
instructional methodology.
Employ this test: Are your students actively involved in the
thinking/learning process?
Active vs. Passive Learning and CBT
1. Movie tutorials
2. Interactive tutorials
3. Web-based tutorials:
– Made interactive through Web 2.0 online tools:
Discussion boards, WIKI, blogs, podcasts.
Good CBT utilizes Behaviorist and Constructivist
techniques, involves active learning, may utilize Web
2.0 tools, and includes embedded and summative
Authoring Tools for Developing CBE
• Expensive Authoring Systems
– Toolbook
– Lectora
– Kaplan STT Trainer
Authoring Tools for Developing CBE
• Expensive Authoring Systems (cont’d)
– Adobe Authorware
Discontinued production.
– Adobe Director
[free trial on bottom]
Authoring Tools for Developing CBE
• Tools for Teachers
– HyperStudio $90
– Wink
[freeware to create PC software tutorials]
Authoring Tools for Developing CBE
• Flash (Tools for the Web)
– Easy FlashMaker $50
– Flash Demo Builder 2.0 (shareware)
Authoring Tools for Developing CBE
• PowerPoint
– Action buttons and hyperlinks.
– VBA (Visual Basic for Applications).
Using PowerPoint as a Medium
to Deliver CBT
New Way to Use PowerPoint
• Another way to use PowerPoint is to
create a computer-based training
application (CBT).
Actions buttons
+ Action settings (objects)
Computer-based training (CBT)
About CBT
• Stand-alone application.
• Individual student or a small group can
• Remedial work / drill & practice / advanced
• Teacher can be freed up to work with
students as needed.
Add Universal Design
• Use a touch screen to make the
application accessible to all users.
To create a CBT…
Add Action Buttons
1. Add action buttons:
PP 2003: Select slide show--action buttons
from menus.
PP 2007: Insert—shapes—action buttons.
2. On every slide create next slide, previous
slide, and other buttons as needed.
3. Select appropriate button type:
Buttons with arrows.
Custom button with typed description.
To create a CBT…
Turn Off Normal Navigation
1. Select:
PP 2003: Select slide show-set up show from
the menus.
PP 2007: slide show—set up slide show (in set
up group).
2. Select browse at a kiosk (full screen).
 Be sure to have buttons for navigation on
every slide.
3. Place an “end show” button on last slide.
Before You Begin…
• Create a folder (on desktop or stick) where
you will save the PowerPoint file, and
where you will place all of your resource
Illustrating Using Drawing
Tools in PowerPoint
Using the Drawing Toolbar
• Use the drawing tools (design tab OR
drawing toolbar) to illustrate concepts, and
to add interest (give the “feel” of the
– Select an object: rectangle, oval, line, arrow.
– Select colors: fill, line, font.
– Select line parameters: thickness, style, arrow
– Select effects: shadow OR 3-D.
Drawing with the Drawing Toolbar
Creating Slide Backgrounds
Decorating Text Boxes
Adding Your Own Text Boxes
Creating and Using Action
Buttons and Settings
What can action buttons do?
• Navigate to a particular URL (Web address).
• Navigate to a particular slide in current or
other PowerPoint presentation.
• Open a data file (document, spreadsheet,
• Run a program.
• Play a sound.
With action buttons you can…
• Incorporate other technologies (other
programs, Web sites, movies).
• Open Word to use as a whiteboard.
• Incorporate interactivity: prepare for use with
• Build in flexibility (vs. linear presentation).
Create an action button
1. Select slide show--action buttons from menus.
2. Select button type.
Suggestion: Use the custom button. You can type a
description on it.
3. Click and drag on the slide to create button.
4. Specify action settings to make the button
In PP 2007: select the insert tab, then select shapes
from the illustrations group, then select action
Create an action button
Change appearance
of an action button
• TYPE A LABEL: Highlight the button and type.
• FORMAT FONT: Highlight text and format.
• COLOR: Use the fill color and line color tools
from the drawing toolbar to change
In PP 2007: select the drawing tools format tab,
then select options.
Work with buttons
as you would with graphics
• MOVE: Click and drag.
• RESIZE: Drag a handle.
• DELETE: Highlight and press delete key.
Duplicate an action button
• You can quickly duplicate a button by
copying and pasting it on the current slide
or another slide.
Duplicate an action button
• Paste the buttons below. Notice that the
button appears the same, appears in the
same location on the slide, and has the
same function.
Making Action Buttons Work
Navigate to Another Slide
• You can make action buttons navigate to a
particular slide within the current presentation.
– Next slide, previous slide, first slide, last slide,
particular slide, last slide viewed.
Navigate to a URL
• You can make action buttons navigate to a
particular URL (Web address).
• TRICK: If you will be offline for the
presentation, select file--save from Internet
Explorer, and then open the HTML file with an
action button.
Change settings after-the-fact
• You can change the action settings of a
button “after-the-fact.” Right-click the
button (not text) and selecting action
In PP 2007: click to highlight an existing action button,
then right-click the button and select edit hyperlink from
the pop-up menu to edit action settings.
Misericordia Home Page
Careful: When changing button settings
“after-the-fact,” make the button hot, not
the text on the button!
Text is hot, not the button.
Experiment with
this button.
Button navigates to previous slide.
Open a Word Document
• You can make an action button open a Word
document or any other data file located on the
Open a Word Document
Open Another PowerPoint File
• If you open another PP presentation, you
can specify which slide to open to start.
Open another PowerPoint file
Link to a Video
• Navigate to www.teacherTube.com
• Find a video, and copy its URL.
• Create a button, and paste in the URL.
Play a Sound
• You can make an action button play a
Hear a sound played.
Downloading Sounds to
Use with Custom Animation
1. Using a search engine, search for sounds
2. Custom animate a graphic (or other screen
element) as usual.
3. Take the drop-down for the play-listed item,
and select “effect options” to add a sound as
4. Instead of selecting a standard sound, select
“other sound.”
“Mouse over” buttons
• You can assign an action setting to a button to
occur when the student/teacher rolls the mouse
over the button. (The button can still have
another action setting to occur when the button
is pressed.)
Roll over this button with mouse
“Mouse over” buttons
• You can assign existing sounds or
downloaded sounds to play on “mouse
over” to give a hint to students.
Response A (Correct)
Response B (Incorrect)
“Mouse over” objects
• Action settings don’t only apply to buttons.
They can be applied to graphics or text
boxes, too!
Text box mouse over.
1. Select a topic for which you can prepare a
CBT using PowerPoint and VBA. On our class
discussion board, let's post and discuss our
potential topics.
– Post by the weekend.
– Next week, read and respond to discussion board
– Instructor will also weigh in on input.
What topic will you teach?
• The final project:
– Use PowerPoint and VBA to deliver an
interactive CBT application.
– Will include embedded (formative)
assessment, and summative assessment.
– Instruction will be interactive (vs. just passive
reading as in a simple tutorial).
What topic will you teach?
• Topic should be…
– Definable.
– Narrow in focus.
– Task/procedure that can be taught.
– Plan to include embedded and summative
2. Develop a video-type tutorial that allows a
student to learn something by watching the
presentation. This presentation will not be
interactive. Utilize action buttons, action
settings for a graphic, and turn off navigation.
Next Week
• Advanced PowerPoint tools and techniques
for creating CBT.
• Introduction to VBA (Visual Basic for

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