NCSA Presentation PARCC Advances June 30

Report
Advances in Large-Scale Assessment:
A PARCC Update
National Conference on Student Assessment
New Orleans
June 26, 2014
1
Introductions
Presenters:
Luis Saldivia, Senior Mathematics Advisor, ETS
Michelle Richard, Technology Solutions Manager, Pearson
Lora Monfils, Senior Psychometrician, ETS
Laurie Davis, Director, Solutions Implementation, Pearson
Discussant:
Mike Russell, Senior Associate, Center for Assessment
Moderator:
Kit Viator, Senior Executive, ETS
2
Advances in Large-Scale Assessment:
A PARCC Update
Innovations in the Measurement of
Mathematics Content
Luis Saldivia
Educational Testing Service
3
PARCC Related Innovations
• Innovations explicitly sought by PARCC
• Additional innovations required to
properly measure mathematics
performance as required by CCSS and
PARCC’s Evidence-Centered Design
specifications
4
PARCC Math Innovations
1. Quality assessment of individual content
standards with machine scoring of responses
entered by computer interface
2. Practice-forward tasks
3. Tasks assessing conceptual understanding
with machine scoring of responses entered by
computer interface
4. Integrative tasks with machine scoring of
responses entered by computer interface
5
PARCC Math Innovations
5. Fluency assessment with machine scoring of
responses entered by computer interface
6. Expressing mathematical reasoning
7. Modeling / application
8. Technology-enhanced tasks
6
PARCC: Sample Mathematics Items
URL: http://practice.parcc.testnav.com/#
• Sample Set HS Math: # 9
• Sample Set Grades 6-8 Math: # 4
• Grade 3 Math EOY: # 17
• Geometry EOY/Calculator Section: # 18
• Algebra I EOY/Non-Calc Section: # 6
7
Summary
• We will need to be responsive to PARCC states’
needs as they develop over time
• Two major purposes associated with use of
technological innovation:
– Improve the precision of measurement of
the intended constructs
– Improve tools available to students during
the assessment process to support student
engagement
8
Advances in Large-Scale Assessment:
A PARCC Update
Innovations in Item Functionality and Scoring
Michelle Richard
Pearson
9
Innovations in Functionality
• Use a class inside standard QTI interaction to give it a different
context
• Expresses functionality specific to current system, but would
default to basic interaction in other systems
– matchInteraction / Table Grid
• class=“table-grid” changes interaction from Drag and Drop functionality to
a matrix with checkboxes or radio buttons
• Scores exactly the same with or without class
– textEntryInteraction / Equation Editor
• class=“tei-ee” changes a text response box to a box embedded with
palettes that can be used to create mathML-based responses
• Scoring via rubric in both representations
10
Match
Interaction
with class
“table-grid”
added
Match
Interaction
with no
class
attribute
11
textEntry
Interaction
with class
“tei-ee”
added
textEntry
Interaction
with no
class
attribute
12
New Item Types
• Fraction Model
– Allows for equivalent fractions to be modeled
• Function Graph
– Appearance of graph is driven by button selections
– Evaluated against an equation and other parameters using record
cardinality
• Interactive Numberline
– Evaluates solution plotted on a numberline
• Select in Passage / Text Highlighting
– Allows for text to be selected directly from passage as answer to
question without need for alternate source file
13
Multiple Delivery Formats
• Standard Computer/Laptop
– Uses mouse controls
– Differing monitor sizes
• Tablet/iPad
– Uses touchscreen controls
– Limited screen size (7” to 10.1”)
• Cross-Browser / OS compatibility
– Functionality of interactions can differ across browsers / OS
• Accessibility
– Delivery of items that are both accessible and innovative is a
fine line to walk
14
Innovations in Scoring
• Composite Items
– Multi-part items that appear on a single screen.
– Item parts can be single interaction or multiple interactions
– Part scores are summed for total score
• Partial Credit
– Single-part item that is worth multiple points, or composite items
– Use scoring logic to evaluate the total correctness of item ( at least
half correct, or one less than fully correct) and assign partial credit
score
• Dependent scoring
– Score from one part of item is dependent on correctness of other part
– Used to evaluate if student can both respond and support response
15
Innovations in Scoring
• Custom Operators
– QTI/APIP allows for customized scoring logic to built within the scoring
engine and called in the XML
– Allows for more complex scoring models to be authored
• A few PARCC customOperators
– stringToNumber = Converts a string that contains commas to a float value
(ex: 14,342 to 14342)
– SubstringBefore and SubstringAfter = takes characters before or after
specific character(s) and splits for evaluation (ex: ‘3/5’ to ‘3’ and ‘5’)
– CountPointsThatSatisfyEquation = takes text-based equation provided by
author and evaluates student-entered points against it. Output is count of
points that were correct, which can be used to provide full or partial credit
(ex: 0 3, and -2 -5 against the equation y=4*x+3)
– IsCorrectByQuantity = Counts cloned sources in a target for correctness
16
Advances in Large-Scale Assessment:
A PARCC Update
Field Test Design and Analysis
Lora Monfils
Educational Testing Service
17
Overview
• Background on Field Test
– Purpose/goals
– Constraints
• Field Test Design
• Sampling
• Psychometric Analysis
– Item Analysis
– Scoring and Scaling Studies
– Comparability Studies
18
Purposes and Constraints
• 3 primary purposes of the Field Test:
1) To obtain data to assemble alternate or parallel forms for operational
use in subsequent years;
2) To evaluate methods for scoring and scaling the PBA and EOY (including
vertical scaling) such that the resulting student scores are appropriate for
intended purposes and are comparable across forms, administrations and
years; and
3) To yield data that are appropriate and sufficient to support the required
psychometric and item research studies.
• Constraints:
– Testing time for individual students must be kept at a minimum.
– Field test items will be used for operational forms so security must be
maximized.
19
Field Test Design
• To the extent possible, the Field Test was designed to reflect
future operational administrations
– 2 separate administrations – PBA in March, EOY in April/May
– Dual mode administration
– PBA and EOY field test forms constructed to full operational test
blueprints and requirements
• Data collection design
– 2 conditions:
1) Full summative (PBA+EOY),
2) PBA or EOY but not both
– Linking through common items across forms and conditions, and
randomly equivalent groups
20
Additional Design Considerations
• Timing of PBA FT and EOY FT relative to State operational testing
• Individual State participation requirements
• Test burden for participating districts/schools and students
• Number of FT forms – construction, administration
• Data collection for special studies
• Initial FT design modified to address considerations
– Trade-offs between ideal and practical, advantages and disadvantages
21
FT Design: Condition 1
• Description
– Students participate in both the PBA and EOY FT administrations. Each Condition 1
form has 2 parts (1 PBA + 1 EOY); each student takes pt 1 & pt 2 of assigned form.
Assignment to forms is through spiraling at the student level .
• Purpose
– This condition most closely replicates the operational summative assessment.
Data for scoring and scaling studies, and other research studies. Data will also
contribute to item statistics for operational form construction.
• Notes on Linking Items
– Forms include common items, on-grade items for within-grade linking and
adjacent-grade items for vertical scaling
• EOY and math PBA forms include external matrix sections with off-grade items
• ELA PBA forms share internal items cross grades
– HS math EOCs, common items link Traditional and Integrated
– Designated CBT-PBT pairs to link across modes
22
FT Design: Condition 2
• Description
– 2A : Students participate in PBA administration only. PBA FT forms are spiraled
at the student level.
– 2B: Students participate in EOY administration only. EOY FT forms are spiraled
at the student level.
• Purpose
– By administering test components separately, statistical data can be generated
while limiting testing time for individual students. Data will be used to obtain
item statistics for operational form construction.
• Notes on Linking Items
– EOY and PBA forms include common on-grade items linking within and across
conditions
• PBT forms also include adjacent-grade items for vertical scaling
• Int Math forms also include adjacent-grade and Trad Math items
23
Field Test Design
N Forms per Grade or Traditional Math EOC
Number of Forms per Grade or EOC
Field Test Administration
Condition
ELA/Literacy
Mathematics
March
April
CBT
PBT
CBT
PBT
1
FS1
PBA portion
EOY portion
62 FS
1 FS
6 FS
1 FS
2A
PBA/MYA
PBA
n/a
18 (16)
62
12 (10)
6 (5)
2B
EOY
n/a
EOY
9
5
9
6
1 The
Full Summative (FS) test consists of two parts – Part 1 is the PBA portion and Part 2 is the EOY portion.
Grade 3, where there will be five forms..
2 Except
24
Form Type
Field Test Design
N Forms per Integrated Math EOC
Number of Forms per EOC
Field Test Administration
Condition
IM 1
IM 2
IM 3
March
April
CBT
PBT
CBT
PBT
CBT
PBT
1
FS1
PBA
portion
EOY portion
2
1
1
1
2
1
2A
PBA/MYA
PBA
n/a
2
2
2
2
2
2
2B
EOY
n/a
EOY
2
3
2
2
2
2
1 The
25
Form Type
Full Summative (FS) test consists of two parts – Part 1 is the PBA portion and Part 2 is the EOY portion.
Sample Size
• To support IRT scaling, target minimum sample size of 1,200
valid cases per item (test form)
– To achieve target, oversampled by approximately 50% for Cond 1 and 20%
for Cond 2 to allow for attrition, non-response, etc
– Separate samples drawn for each content/grade and test mode
– Students to test in one subject only – either Math or ELA/Literacy
– Where targets not met, some adjustments in number of forms
• Note: Linking items/tasks appeared in more than one form,
therefore targeted 1,200 valid cases per form to support wellestimated item parameters from each form for common item
linking.
26
Sampling Overview
• Targets established for each state
– Based on proportional representation with 2% minimum
– Grade level enrollments from 2012 NCES data
– Reflected state special participation requests – impact distributed
proportionally
• For each content/grade, schools placed into 5 strata based on %
Proficient reported in NCES data for the content/grade (% Proficient
Math or % Proficient ELA)
– New schools (e.g., those that opened subsequent to the 2012 NCES data)
formed a sixth stratum
– Test-level targets were distributed across strata – proportional to number of
schools in each stratum
– Within strata, schools were sampled to meet designated sample size
requirements
27
Sampling Overview, cont
• Schools were randomly selected within strata to meet test target
sample size.
– Each sampled school contributed two classes (estimated as 20 per class, thus
40 students) if grade-level enrollment permitted
– In the case of states that required that all classes participate, the sampled
school contributed the number of students in that grade.
• Sampling of schools continued until targets were met for strata and
test overall
– Assuming sufficient number of schools to sample from, because selection
within schools entailed groups of students (2 classes or entire grade), rather
than individuals, meeting targets resulted in some overage
– If insufficient number of schools, sampling resulted in not meeting targets
• Samples evaluated at State and PARCC level
– ELA Prof, Math Prof, Econ Dis, SWD, LEP, Gender, Ethnicity
28
Sampling Overview, cont
• Adjustments to standard procedures implemented in certain cases
– To reduce over-sampling when selecting entire grades, an algorithm was
implemented to minimize the size of the last school randomly selected to
meet target
– When there were limitations on number of schools available to sample
from for a given test due to special requests, and/or low volume
curriculum as in the case of Integrated Mathematics, targets used were
adjusted to allow sampling of students for all conditions and modes, albeit
in smaller numbers
• Sampled schools were sent to States for approval
• Replacements identified for schools not approved and schools that
declined to participate
– Iterative process, with 3 rounds of recruitment
• Major collaborative effort
29
Field Test Analyses Overview
• Research questions to inform operational assessments
– Innovative items
• Evaluate item/task performance
• Implications for future operational forms
– Scoring
• Combining PBA and EOY to yield summative score
• Subscore reporting
– Scaling
• IRT model selection
• Feasibility of vertical scale
– Special studies
• Mode/device comparability
• HS Math EOC comparability
30
Field Test AnalysesClassical Item and Test Analyses
• Evaluation of Field Test Item/Task Performance
– Classical Item Analyses
•
•
•
•
•
Classical item difficulty indices (or p-value; SR and CR items)
The percentage of students choosing each response option (SR items)
Item-total correlation (SR and CR items)
Distractor-total correlation (SR items)
Score point distribution (CR items).
– Differential Item Functioning
• Groups determined based on policy considerations
– Gender, ethnicity, special populations (SWD, ELL, EconDis)
• Mantel-Haenzel procedures, Logistic Regression
– Reliability
• PBA, EOY, FS (PBA+EOY)
• Total sample, plus subgroups of interest
31
Field Test AnalysesDimensionality Analyses
• Prior to IRT scaling, dimensionality studies will be conducted within
each summative test component (PBA and EOY) and grade, across the
PBA and EOY within each grade, and across grades.
• Dimensionality analyses are necessary for determining a) evidence of
essential unidimensionality for IRT scaling, b) the score aggregation
method for PBA and EOY tests, and c) the feasibility and structure of a
vertical scale.
• Both exploratory and confirmatory analyses
32
Field Test AnalysesIRT Model Selection Considerations
• Analyses to inform IRT model selection considerations
– Underlying assumptions for different IRT models.
•
•
•
•
Dimensionality
Equal discrimination in Rasch/PC
Minimal guessing in Rasch and 2PL
Local independence/Minimal testlet effect
– Model simplicity or parsimony
– Model fit
• Goodness-of-fit tests
• Plots of empirical data vs model-based ICCs
– Implications for vertical scales
33
Field Test Analyses –
Explore Viability of Vertical Scale
• Issues related to VS for Mathematics EOCs
– Ideally, if sufficiently large representative samples, use Integrated Math 1, 2, 3
• For Traditional Math, progression Gr 8 -> Alg1 -> Alg2; Gr 8 -> Geom
• Common ES statements/items Integrated & Traditional EOCs (EOC comp study)
• Integrated Math samples smaller than planned, will provide preliminary results
• Implications of rates of CCSS implementation in Spring 2014
– Variation in grade to grade performance within and across states
• Due to state transition timelines
• Due to district/school implementation and other factors
– Impact on relative difficulty, discrimination of items
• From grade to grade in vertical linking sets
• Within grade on “operational core” items
– Suggests results may differ substantially in 2015 and beyond until CCSS are
fully implemented
34
• Consider periodic evaluation of scale stability
Field Test Analyses –
To Inform Operational Scores
• Analyses to inform operational summative scores
– For Math, analyses to investigate combining the PBA and EOY into a single
summative Math scale score
– For ELA, analyses to investigate production of separate scale scores for
Writing and Reading, and a single summative ELA/L scale score
– Considerations for choice of score scale
• Investigation of estimation procedures to support subscore reporting
• Comparability across mode/device
• Comparability across HS Math EOCs for Trad, Int courses
35
Questions?
• Questions?
• Thank you!
36
Advances in Large-Scale Assessment:
A PARCC Update
PARCC Mode and Device
Comparability Research
Laurie Davis
Pearson
37
Why Conduct Comparability Research?
• PARCC’s ultimate goal is digital delivery of the ELA/Literacy and
Mathematics assessments using the widest variety of devices that
will support interchangeable scores.
• Initially to include:
– Desktop computers
– Laptops computers
– Tablets (9.7” or larger)
• Strict comparability (score interchangeability) across computerbased tests and paper-based tests is not a PARCC goal
• However…paper will be provided as an option for schools where
technology infrastructure is not ready for digital delivery
38
Mode vs. Device Comparability
• Mode Comparability
– TEIs on computer only
– Score interchangeability
not expected
• Device Comparability
– TEIs on all devices
– Score interchangeability
expected
39
Mode: Computer vs. Paper and Pencil
• Initial comparability studies planned as part of PARCC
field test analyses
• All grades and subjects
• Schools assigned to either paper or computer mode
• Goal: Evaluate the degree to which comparability can
be obtained through scaling items onto a single metric,
linking or concordance
40
Mode Comparability:
Item and Test Level Analyses
• Classical item analysis
– Differences, rank order p-values
• DIF
– CBT reference, PBT focal
• Factor structure, dimensionality
• Reliability
• IRT analysis – informed by dimensionality analysis
– Separate calibrations
– Link PBT to CBT with S-L procedure
• Score adjustment
• Evaluate resulting score distributions
41
Device: Computer vs. Tablet
• 2-part research effort
• Part I: Cognitive lab (qualitative)—summer 2013
• 72 students in grades 4, 8, and 11 from CO and AR
• Part II: Comparability study (quantitative)—2014
using field test data
• Goal: Determine the statistical and practical
significance of any device effects
42
Device Comparability:
Item and Test Level Analyses
Item/Task Level Analyses
1. Comparison of task p-values/means across conditions
2. Comparison of Item Response Theory (IRT) item difficulties
across conditions
3. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis
Test Level Analyses
1. Reliability
2. Validity—Relationship of PARCC scores to external measures
3. Score Interpretations
• Differences in estimated scale scores across device conditions
• Statistically significant difference =
Greater than 2 SEs of the linking
43
Device Comparability
Grades and Subjects Studied
• 2014 Device comparability study will include:
• Grade 4 ELA/Literacy
• Grade 4 Mathematics
• Grade 8 ELA/Literacy
• Grade 8 Mathematics
• Grade 10 ELA/Literacy
• Geometry
44
Device Comparability Study
What we Planned
• Used data entered by states/schools into Technology
Readiness Tool to evaluate tablet availability
• Results indicate fewer than 5% of devices in classrooms
are tablets
• If randomly distributed across forms within the field
test, approx. 60 students per form on tablet
• Targeted sampling for tablet sample is needed (n=600
per grade/subject)
• Computer sample will come from field test
• Groups will be matched prior to analysis
45
Device Comparability Study
What we Got
• Grade 8 and high school studies use random assignment
(computer and tablet) of students from Burlington, MA
• Approximately 250 students per grade/subject
• ~125 students per study condition
• Grade 4 study uses matched sample from LA, AR, & MA.
• Students assigned to tablet condition matched to
students who tested on computer in the field test
• Approximately 300-400 students per subject
46
A Sampling of Student Survey Results
PARCC PBA Field Test Administration
Burlington, MA
Grade 8 Students
47
48
49
50
51
Advances in Large-Scale Assessment:
A PARCC Update
Discussion: Five Thoughts
Mike Russell
Center for Assessment
52
1. Perspective
Freedom 7
1961
Science Fiction
Space
Colonization
53
Alan Shepard
1. Perspective
Gaming
Testing
54
2. Innovation & Measurement Value
SS Savannah, 1819
First Trans-Atlantic
Steamship Crossing
55
3. Informed by Research
56
4. Interoperability
57
5. Competing Tensions
CCSS/Content
Innovation
Interoperability
58
Time

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