Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD)

Adriana Lawrence
April 20, 2012 per. 5
Question of the Day 
What comes to mind when you hear the phrase (OCD)?
Vocabulary Terms of OCD
Obsession- an idea or thought that continually preoccupies
or intrudes on a person’s mind.
Compulsion- a repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior
performed in response to uncontrollable urges or according
to a ritualistic or stereotyped set of rules.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)- an anxiety disorder
in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts,
feelings, ideas, sensations(obsessions) or behaviors that
make them feel driven to so something (compulsions).
Obsessive thoughts usually cross a fine line between
normality and disorder when they constantly interfere with
everyday living and causes the person distress and anxiety.
- ex. Checking to see that you locked the door is normal;
checking 10 times is not.
Associated Features
-involves the repetition of a specific behavior
Washing and cleaning,
counting, putting items in
Checking or requesting
- storing useless items such as
outdated newspapers, mail,
shopping bags and food
Associated Features (cont.)
(repetitive thoughts)
(repetitive behaviors)
1.Concern with dirt, germs, or
1. Excessive hand washing,
bathing, tooth brushing, or
2. Something terrible happens
(fire, death, illness)
Repeating rituals (checking doors
locks, stoves)
3.Fear of causing harm to another
Refusing to shake hands or touch
4. Fear of thinking evil or sinful
Repeating specific words,
phrases, or phrases.
-being stuck on words, images,
thoughts, usually disturbing that
will not go away. (can interfere
with sleep)
Associated Features (cont.)
(repetitive thoughts)
(repetitive behaviors)
5.Fear of making a mistake
5.Repeatedly checking something
6. Need for symmetry, or
6. Needing to perform a task a
certain number of times.
-homework, appliances, car
breaks, eating food in a certain
order, arranging thing is a precise
7. Fear of being embarrassed or
Constant counting, mentally or
behaving in a social unacceptable aloud during the tasks.
8. Excess doubt and the need for
constant reassurance
(constant checking)
Collecting or hoarding items with
no important value.
(newspaper, mail, junk)
Associated Features
DSM-IV-TR Criteria for Obsessive Compulsive
A. Either obsessions or compulsions
Obsessions as defined by (1), (2), (3), and (4)
Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses or images that are
experienced, at some point during the disturbance, as intrusive
and inappropriate and that cause some marked anxiety/stress.
The thought impulses or images are not simply excessive
worries about real life problems.
The person attempts to ignore, or suppress such thoughts,
impulses or images or to neutralize them with some other
thought or action.
The person recognizes that the obsessional thoughts, impulses,
or images are a product of his or her own mind. (not imposed
from with out as in thought insertion).
Associated Features
Compulsions as defined by (1) and (2)
Repetitive behaviors (e.g., hand washing, ordering,
checking) or mental acts (e.g., praying, counting,
repeating words silently) that the person feels driven to
perform in response or an obsession, or according to
rules that mush be applied rigidly.
The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing
or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event
or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts
either are not connected in a realistic way with what
they are designed to neutralize or prevent or are
clearly excessive.
B. At some point during the course of the disorder, the
person has recognized that obsession or compulsions are
excessive or unreasonable. (NOTE: This does not apply to
+ Associated Features DSM-IV-TR continued
C. The obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress are
time consuming (take more than one hour a day), or
significantly interfere with the person’s normal routine,
occupational (or academic functioning or usual social
activities or relationships.)
D. If another Axis I disorder is present, the content of
obsessions is not restricted to it (e.g., preoccupation with
food in the presence of an Eating disorder; hair pulling in the
presence of Trichotillomania; concern with appearance in the
presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder; preoccupation with
drugs in the presence of a substance Use Disorder;
preoccupation with having a serious illness in the presence
of Hypochondriasis; preoccupation with sexual urges or
fantasies in the presence of a Paraphilia; or guilty
ruminations in the presence of Major Depressive Disorder).
Associated Features
E. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological
effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or
a medical condition.
Specify If
-With Poor Insight: If for the most of the time during the
current episode, the person does not recognize that the
obsessions and compulsions are excessive or
Howie Mandel- Deal or No Deal
game show host , OCD advocate, suffered from a germ phobia.
*shaved his head to feel cleaner.
Etiology- Researchers/Scientist Perspective
Researchers/ Scientist Perspective
-Undiscovered a striking correlation between certain kinds
or bodily infections in young people and the development or
aggravation of OCD Symptoms
-Although the relationship between the infection and OCD
symptoms are unclear, scientist speculate that the infection
affect areas in the brain.
Can be hereditary; genes can be partly responsible for
causing the disorder.
However, no one really knows the actual cause. (theories).
Etiology-Behaviorist Theory of
Symptoms of OCD become established through a process of
conditioning, in which their behaviors become associated
with the momentary relief of anxiety.
-Negative reinforcement
Etiology- Cognitive Behaviorist
Individuals with OCD are primed to be over reactive to anxiety
producing events in their environment
Assumed that the patients are disturbed by the thought of the need to
be perfect, the belief that they are responsible for harm of others and
concerns over the possibility of danger.
People with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder have memory deficits. This
causes them to have
Difficulty remembering behaviors
ex. Turning off the stove, locking the door
b. Constant doubting is related to a true inability to remember whether
they have completed these acts.
Affects about 3.3 million adults and approximately 1 million
children and adolescents in the U.S.
Many children who do develop OCD show a unique pattern
of characteristics
ex. Perform their rituals in the right way or else their day will
not go well.
More common in males:
- Between the ages of 6-15
- females tend to develop OCD around the age of 20-29
More common among teens and young adults than older
Treatment- Many clinicians recommend psychological
interventions along with medications to treat OCD.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- the goal of is to teach people
witch OCD to confront their fears
and reduce anxiety without
performing the ritual behaviors
(reducing the exaggerated
thinking that occurs)
Ex. Exposing them to situations
that provoke compulsive rituals
or obsessions
Treatment cont.
Medical therapyantidepressants including
Fluoxetine(Prozac) and
Sertraline (Zoloft) has proven
to be the most effective
biological treatment for
obsessive compulsive
If a patient doesn’t respond to
Prozac or Zoloft, then they can
be prescribed with
Fluvoxamine (Luvox).
If they don’t respond to these
medications they may benefit
from Risperidone(Risperdal)
Some people choose to hide their symptoms of OCD due to
seek help after so many years after the systems have been considered
normal for them.
On average
-70 percent of OCD patients benefit from medicine or cognitive
behavioral therapy
-40-60% reduction of OCD is from medicine
- 60- 80% reduction of OCD symptoms due to (CBT)
Medicine has to be taken on a daily basis and must actively participate
in CBT for the treatments to function properly.
Halgin, R.P., & Whitbourne, S.K. (2005). Abnormal psychology: Clinical perspectives on
psychological disorders. New York, New York: McGraw Hill.
March, J. & Benton, C. (2007). Talking Back to OCD. (pp.10-11). The Guilford Press.
McDonagh, M. (2007, May 8). Mental illness needs range of treatments, says expert. Irish
Myer’s, D.G. (2011). Myer’s psychology for ap. New York, New York: Worth Publishers
Mice provide new clues about obsessive-compulsive disorder. (2007). Harvard Mental
Health Letter, 24(6), 7.
Obsessions and compulsions in youths. (2012). Harvard Mental Health Letter, 28(7), 1-2
What you need to know about: Obsessive compulsive disorder. International OCD
Foundation. www.ocdfoundation.org.
Which treatment is most effective for people with OCD?

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