booklet_for_revision_cake_decorating2014

Report
Equipment, recipes and basic techniques
Aspire: To recognise different techniques which can be used to decorate cakes.
Challenge: To demonstrate some of the techniques learned and use these to
decorate cakes for different occasions.
Match the equipment to the correct description. Draw a neat line to connect.
Smoothers: A pair of smoothers really makes the different
when it comes to smoothing fondant.
Angled spatula: Makes it more easy to apply buttercream
frosting on the cake.
Pizza cutter: To cut off excess fondant.
Modelling tools: A good set of modelling tools will help you
when you are making figures or flowers.
Piping bag and nozzles: Start out with round, star and
leaf.
Colours & dusts: There are different brands of
paste/gel colours on the market today.
Cutters & embossers: lots of different types from rolling
pins to cutters
Fondant icing moulds. Flours animals shapes
Rolling pin: You can get rolling pins in non-stick and wood.
1
TASK
Some ideas for different types of cake which can be decorated are included in the table below:
In the final column give examples of the type of occasion this cake would be suitable for.
Example of cake
Name of cake
suitability
Light fruit cake
Victoria sandwich
cake
Carrot cake
Madeira cake
Rich fruit cake
Rich chocolate cake
gingerbread
Genoese sponge
light chocolate
sponge cake
2
Aspire: to understand the different cake making methods and the ratio of ingredients for each
method.
Challenge: evaluate each method and recognise which cake to use for different decorating
methods
There are 4 main methods of cake making. These are:
Whisking-no fat short shelf life as this relies on the air trapped by the whisking
Creaming –half or more than half fat to flour
Melting – this has a high proportion of sugar ingredients
Rubbing in -this has more fat than flour
LOOK AT THE PICTURES BELOW WRITE UNDERNEATH EACH ONE THE TYPE OF METHOD YOU
THINK HAS BEEN USED TO MAKE THE CAKE.
CREAMING METHOD
Recipe
100g Margarine
100g Caster Sugar
100g SR Flour
2 eggs
Method
Cream the margarine and sugar until light and fluffy,
using a wooden spoon.
Beat the eggs in a measuring jug and add a bit at a
time to the mixture. ADD ALL THE EGG
Sieve and gently fold in the flour into the mixture
and divide into 12 cake cases.
Place in the oven for 15-20 minutes Gas 4
RUBBING IN METHOD
Recipe
150g Flour
75g Margarine
75g Caster Sugar
2eggs
Method
Sift flour sugar together in a mixing bowl.
Rubb in the fat to the mixture using your finger tips.
Beat the eggs in a jug.
Using a palette knife, stir in the eggs a bit at a time. Until
all the egg is used.
Divide the mixture between 12 cake cases and place in
the oven for 15-20 mins gas mark 4.
MELTING METHOD
Recipe
100g Flour
80g Sugar
50g Margarine
1 large egg
Method
Weigh out all ingredients. Melt the margarine in a
sauce pan. Beat the eggs, sugar and melted
margarine in a large mixing bowl.
Stir in the flour and divide between 12 cake cases
and cook in the oven for 15-20 minutes gas mark 4.
WHISKING METHOD
Recipe
75g SR Flour
75g Caster Sugar
2 eggs
Method
Weigh out ingredients.
Whisk eggs in a mixing bowl, add sugar and whisk well
until thick and creamy almost whit in colour.
Sieve flour, fold gently into the mixture.
Divide into 12 cake cases and cook for 15-30 minutes
Gas Mark 4
3
Table to show the ratio of the main ingredients used in the different types of cake methods.
CAKE MAKING
METHOD
RATIO
FLOUR
FAT
SUGAR
EGG
Rubbing in
method
4:2:2:1
200g
100g
100g
1
Creaming
method
1:1:1:1
100g
100g
100g
2
Melting
method
8:4:8:2
200g
100g
50g+150g 1
Whisked
method
1:1:2
Syrup/treacle
50g
none
50g
2
Task: decorating different types of cakes
•
In groups of 4
•
Cook the 4 different recipes for cake making
•
One person in each group uses one recipe
•
The cakes will be made into cup cakes
•
Pre heat oven to Gas 4, 180 C electric.
Draw and annotate ideas for decorating the cakes these need to include the following
themes:
1. Cake for a boy aged 7
2. Cake for a girl aged 7
3. Cake for valentines day
4. Cake for an elderly lady
Draw your designs below:
Boy aged 7
Girl aged 7
Valentines day
Elderly lady
4
EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT CAKE METHODS
In your groups you need to taste test the cakes and record your findings. Answering the following
questions in the spaces provided based on your evaluations of all the cakes made in your group.
1. Which cake has the best / worst texture and why?
2. Which cake is the softest and why?
3. Which cake is the healthiest and why?
4. Which cake would have the longest shelf life and why?
5. Which cake has the best flavour and why?
6. What other sugar substitutes could you use in the cake recipes?
Aspire: To recognise the different ingredients which can be used to make or decorate cakes.
Challenge: develop an understanding of the functions of ingredients used to make and decorate cakes
.To be able to recognise the reasons for faults in cake making
FUNCTIONS OF INGREDIENTS
FLOUR
• forms the structure of the cake.
• As the cake is heated the
protein(gluten) in the flour sets the
framework and shape
• SR flour acts as a raising agent.
• Dextrinisation occurs, starch converts
into sugar. On heating the sugar
caramelises and gives a golden
surface
Sugar
• Sweetens and adds flavour
• When creamed with fat, helps to hold
air in the mixture.
• Caramelisation gives colour
FAT
•
adds colour and flavour
• THolds air bubbles which
creates texture and volume
•
Produces a short crumb or rich
even texture dependent on the
ratio of fat and method used
•
Increases shelf life.
EGGS
•
Trap air when whisked into a
foam
•
Coagulate (set) on heating
•
Emulsify holds the fat in
emulsion and keeps it stable
•
Add colour, flavour and
nutritional value
5
FAULT
CAUSE
Peaked cracked top
Oven too hot
Too much mixture for the size of the tin
Baked too high a shelf in the oven
Too stiff or too wet a mixture
Over mixing of the batter.
Cake sinks
Too much sugar causing collapse of the
structure
Too much raising agent
Undercooking, caused by wrong temperature
and time
Disturbed during cooking causing structure to
collapse.
Sugary speckled crust
Too much sugar
Wrong type of sugar used
Insufficient creaming
Close heavy texture
Too much liquid in the mixture
Insufficient raising agent used
Creamed mixture has curdled and does not
hold enough air
WHISKING METHOD
Eggs and sugar not beaten enough
Over beating when adding flour
Course and open texture
Too much raising agent used
Insufficient mixing of flour
Cake very dry
Overcooking of the cake
Not enough liquid used
Too much raising agent used
Fruit has sunk
Too much liquid used to carry the weight of the
fruit
Too much sugar and raising agent
TASK
Explain in the table below how you could decorate a cake to disguise the faults listed
FAULT
HOW YOU WOULD DECORATE IT.
PEAKED CRACKED TOP
CAKE SINKS
CAKE VERY DRY
6
Icing used for decorating cakes
Some ideas for types of icing when decorating cakes include:
Marzipan
Royal icing
Used for both coating and decorating cakes.
The perfect base for royal icing or
fondant/sugar paste icing. It forms a barrier to
stop moisture from the cake seeping into the
icing. Marzipan can be used for modelling it is
easy to handle and pliable and it can be
coloured by kneading in food colouring.
Examples of the uses of marzipan :
This is a traditional icing used to coat
celebration cakes. It can be used for flat or
peaked icing or piping.
Examples of the uses of royal icing are:
Fondant icing(sugar paste)
Modelling Paste
Ready made fondant is easily obtainable from
the supermarket but is also quick and easy to
make. It can be bought in many colours or it can
be coloured using food dyes. It can be used to
cover all kinds of cakes it is soft and pliable to
be used to make all kinds of sugar decorations.
Examples of the uses of fondant icing:
Similar to fondant icing but more versatile for
making models and decorations because it
contains a substance called Gum tragacanth
which acts as a strengthening agent so it sets
much harder and holds its shape better to
make animals and figures.
Examples of the uses of modelling paste:.
Buttercream
Glace icing
Made with icing sugar and softened butter
A versatile filling, icing or frosting for almost any
type of cake, which can be spread evenly and
patterned with a knife or piped onto a cake.
Different types of flavourings can be added e.g.
vanilla, coffee, citrus, chocolate and liqueur.
Examples of the uses of buttercream:
This is a quick and easy icing made by mixing
icing sugar with a small amount of water and if
required food colouring. It is used mainly as a
simple topping for sponge cakes/buns and
sometimes when making novelty cakes. Add
the water carefully as too much will give a very
runny icing. If you work quickly you can
produce attractive designs such as feathering.
Examples of the uses of glace icing:
7
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ingredients
Ratio 1:2
butter to icing sugar
Place softened butter in a bowl and place icing sugar on top.
With a wooden spoon carefully mix ingredients together
paying attention to the ‘fly-away’ nature of the icing sugar.
Once combined, beat until smooth.
If the butter icing is too stiff a little milk or water can be
added until the right consistency is reached.
Butter icing can be piped with a piping bag and nozzle or spread
either between the layers of a cake or on top as a decoration
Top tip: don’t make icing too wet – it is harder to spread or pipe
(ie 50g butter and 100g icing
sugar)
→
→
→
→
→
→
Fondant icing (also called ready roll or dough
icing) can be
bought from a shop or
supermarket.
It can be bought in plain white or in smaller
blocks of colour.
Two colours can be mixed together to make a
third, or if not completely mixed, to gain a
marbled effect
Colour can be introduced using food dyes, for
stronger colours food dye gels are more
effective as they have less liquid in them.
Fondant icing can be rolled out flat and shaped
over a cake or used to model into designs,
figures and shapes. It can also be cut out using
cutters.
To stick fondant icing to a cake a little apricot
jam is usually used
Top tip: For best results keep the icing cool and dry. Fondant icing is
great for strong colours and graphics
Ingredients
1 tbs of Icing sugar
1 tsp of water
 Carefully mix the icing sugar with the water 1 or ½ tsp at a time until the consistency is
suitable for either spreading on top of a cake or using in a piping bag.
 A fine nozzle can be used for writing or drawing
‘Writing icing’ can be bought from shops or supermarkets ready made in tubes of colours
In the spaces provided Design a cake which shows the use of each of the following types of
icing. Annotate/label each of the designs to show the functions of the ingredients used.
Marzipan
Royal icing
Fondant icing(sugar paste)
Modelling Paste
Buttercream
Glace icing
9
Aspire: investigate the use of other ways than icing to decorate a cake.
Challenge: Recognise the versatility of chocolate and cream when used in cake decorating.
Decorating with Chocolate
Chocolate is a versatile and delicious cake decorating medium. It can be simply
grated, made into curls or cut out shapes and piped or drizzled.
In the space below show how you would decorate a cake using chocolate be sure to annotate your
design
Using fresh cream to decorate cakes
Fresh cream can be used to pipe decoration or to cover a cake but remember only use double or
whipping cream
In the space below show how you would decorate a cake using chocolate be sure to annotate your
design
10
Aspire: To recognise how to adapt cake recipes to suit people with specific dietary needs.
Challenge: To be able to develop and adapt a cake recipe for improvement.
Adapt a traditional Victoria sandwich cake and produce designs to show how to
improve/develop the following.
a) The nutritional value in order to make it a healthier product
b) The flavour and texture
c) The appearance and finish
a) Healthier product
b) flavour/texture
c) appearance/finish
11
Adapt a traditional Victoria sandwich cake and produce designs to show how to make changes for
a person with the following special dietary needs.
a) diabetes
b) Coeliac (gluten intolerance)
c)
Lactose intolerance
Clearly annotate/label your designs to show the type of products you have used.
a) diabetes
b) Coeliac
c) Lactose intolerance
12
Aspire: To recognise how to adapt cake recipes for different occasions
Challenge: To be able to design and develop a cake in the test kitchen to showcase your ideas.
Themes/occasions for cake making can include any of the following topics can you think of any
others if so write them in the spaces provided.
Birthdays
weddings
Festivals e.g. Christmas, Easter
christenings
Mothers day
---------------------------------------Graduations
--------------------------------------Design and make a cake for the following themes/occasions. Draw and label your designs in
the boxes provided.
Mother’s day
Easter
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A child's birthday party age --- you decide ( could be a teenager or a young child)
Aspire: To recognise the type of equipment needed to produce cakes. Demonstrate the use of some of this
equipment in the practical sessions. Recognise the importance of a production plan and quality control when
producing a product
Challenge: To produce a table to show the difference between producing cakes in the kitchen and in
large scale production.
Task: Using the hand-out provided related to large scale production of a chocolate cake compare the
making of a chocolate cake in a test kitchen with large scale production. Produce your findings in the
table below or if you need more room draw it out on a sheet of A4 paper.
process
Test kitchen
Large scale production
Weighing
Mixing
Depositing
Baking
Cutting & creaming
Sheeting
Decorating
Finishing
Completed product
14
Match the names to the equipment used in cake making and decorating
Electric whisk
baking tins
Modelling tools and cutters
balloon whisk
greaseproof paper
piping bags
cake turntable
food processor
rolling pins
piping nozzles
Production specification This gives details of a products characteristics including shape, size and
sensory qualities. A test kitchen works to a product specification in order to produce a consistent
product. The following mnemonic can help you to write a product specification
S
A
T
S
U
M
A
S
Shape
Appearance
Taste
Size
Unit cost
Materials
Age
Storage
15
TASK
Look at the products and write a product specification for each of them that the test
kitchen might have used
S
A
T
S
U
M
A
S
S
A
T
S
U
M
A
S
16
QUALITY CONTROL WHY IS IT IMPORTANT WHEN MAKING AND DECORATING
CAKES?
Customers like to know that each time they buy a product it is identical to the last
one purchased. To make sure this happens food manufacturers put 9in place quality
control checks throughout the making of the product.
A food handler carries out VISUAL checks and computers carry out more scientific
checks.
Some examples of quality checks for a cake might be:
•
Are the ingredients of good quality and well within their best before/use by
date? Is the packaging damaged?
•
Are the storage areas clean, dry and at the correct temperatures?
•
Are the ingredients weighed and measured accurately?
•
Is the mixer at the correct speed. Using the correct attachment, for the correct
length of time?
•
Is the consistency of the mixture correct?
•
Is it the correct depth
•
Are the shapes identical
•
Is the oven temperature correct and is the product in the oven for the correct
length of time?
•
Task
•
Write down 5 quality control checks you could use when decorating cakes
Quality control checks for decorating cakes
17
Using the layout below, complete a plan for making your chosen design idea in the
test kitchen.
Main stages of making
Hygiene safety and quality control checks
18
Aspire: understand the difference between CAD and CAM. Develop an understanding of how
standard food components can be used when decorating cakes.
Challenge: Recognise how CAD and CAM can be used in food production. Demonstrate the use
of standard food components in cake decorating.
TASK: Put the missing words into the sentences below. Choose the words from the list given
below.
Food mathematical
Computer products
safety
packaging
food
images
sensory profiles
CAD is Computer Aided Design.
It is the use of ----------- design programs to produce ----------- or drawings that can be used in the
development of ------------- production.
It can help with
• Product--------------• Nutritional modelling of ------------to meet design criteria
• Model products to meet --------------- criteria
• Produce ------------ and hazard charts
• Help with ---------------- calculations for scaling up
• Help with production of ----------------- for the products
Product program control
mass ingredients
food
CAM is Computer Aided Manufacture
It is the use of computer programs to ------------- and monitor processes during the ---------production of food products. The computer has 3 main jobs.
• To ------------- the machinery to carry out specific tasks e.g. weighing --------------• To prevent ------------- spoilage hazards during the production run.
• To monitor the quality of the food ------------ at various stages of production.
How is computer control and monitoring used in food processing?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Weighing of ingredients to exact amounts
Mixing of ingredients for an exact time at a n exact speed.
Chopping of ingredients to an exact size
Shaping of a product to an exact shape.
Assembling products
Coating products
Cooking of food product for an exact length of time. At an exact temperature.
HOW CAN COMPUTERS MONITOR FOOD SAFELY?
• Sensor detectors for finding metal or foreign bodies
• Microbial level detectors
• Temperature displays on fridges and freezers
• Critical temperature probes for hot food.
TASK:
Use the information from this sheet to list the processes you think CAM
would be used to carry out in the mass production of a decorated cake.
Write your answers on a sheet of A4 paper.
19
Using standard food components to decorate cakes
Remember a standard component is a pre-prepared item/ingredient that is used in the production
of another product.
In the food industry manufacturers buy standard components from other food manufacturers.
Ready roll/fondant icing and marzipan are easy ways to decorate products without having to
prepare everything yourself. A cake business might order in ready-made marzipan in various
colours, but cut and shape it themselves to make the decorations they need.
SOME EXAMPLES OF STANDARD FOOD COMPONENTS USED IN CAKE
DECORATING MIGHT BE:
READY ROLL/FONDANT
ICING
MARZIPAN
CAKE DECORATIONS
BUTTERCREAM
DECORATIONS
RICE /SUGAR PAPER
DECORATIONS
Write down as many advantaged and disadvantages you can think of for using standard
components when decorating cakes
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
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Exam type questions
1. Explain two ways to make a chocolate cake a healthier option.
A) ......................................................................................................................................
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B) ......................................................................................................................................
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2. Why is it important to research existing food products before starting to design new
products?
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3. Describe ways in which a computer could be used to research existing food
products.
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4. Explain why the following ingredients are used when making cake products.
Flour Sugar Fats Eggs
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5. (a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake.
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Sensory profile for a chocolate cake
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EVEN SHAPE
5
......................................................................................he
profile below shows the results of
4
sensory pro(a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake.
3
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2
DARK COLOURED
CHOCOLATE
1 a chocolate cake
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Sensory
SPONGE
FLAVOUR
0
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......................................................................................file for a chocolate cake
CREAMY
FILLING
LIGHT , AIRY
TEXTURE
(a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake.
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(b) Describe ways to make sure that sensory testing is fair.
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6. a)Give one example of a control check that is carried out by computerised equipment
during the production of decorated cakes.
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b)Explain why computers are used for this control check.
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During the production of decorated cakes the following problems were found.
Complete the table below to show a cause of each problem.
Explain how each problem could be prevented.
Problem 1
A hair was
found in the
cake
Cause .
Prevent by ..
Problem 2
Cause .
The cake did not
rise in
the oven
Prevent by ..
Problem 3
The cakes were
different
shapes and
sizes
Prevent by ..
Cause .
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7. a) Complete the chart below to explain two developments that will help each product meet
healthy eating guidelines.
Development ideas for
healthier chocolate éclairs
Development 1
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Reason
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Development 1
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Reason
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Development ideas for
reducing fat levels in a
chocolate cake
Development 1
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Reason
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Development 1
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Reason
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Development ideas for
increasing the fibre (NSP)
content of a sandwich cake
Development 1
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Reason
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Development 1
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Reason
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b) How do food manufacturers inform consumers about healthy eating guidelines?
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...................................................................................................................................... ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------c) Consumers are encouraged to use the ‘Eat well Plate’.
Explain five key features of the ‘Eat well Plate’.
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HOMEWORKS
HOMEWORK 1
1. What does disassembly mean?
2. List three useful things you can find on the packaging of a food product.
3. Name five faults you might find in an existing cake product that you could improve on.
4. a)What is a target group?
b) What features can you use to describe a target group?
c) List five sensible things you could ask a target group if you were making a new kind of decorated
cake.
HOMEWORK 2
1. Describe two ways of coming up with ideas for a new product.
2. What should you do after you’ve come up with plenty of ideas?
3. Sketch and label/annotate three possible ideas for a new decorated cake product.
4. How do you know which of your ideas is the best one to develop?
5. How could you check the nutritional content of your product?
HOMEWORK 3
1. What does modelling mean in food technology?
2. Imagine you are making a new kind of decorated cake product, but your first model’s texture is too
dry. Describe three ways you could try developing your product to improve the texture.
3. What type of specification might change as you make different models of your product?
4. What type of specification stays the same?
HOMEWORK 4
1. List six types of fats and oils
2. Describe three functions of fats and oils in making cakes
3. Name three other ways fats and oils are used in food and cooking.
4. Explain why a diet containing no fat would be unhealthy.
5. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? Give two examples of each.
6. Which is more closely linked with cholesterol-saturated or unsaturated fat? Why can having too
much cholesterol in our diet be bad for our health?
Homework 5
1. What is mass production? What does CAM stand for?
2. What is a consistent product?
3. What is meant by quality control?
4. A manufacturer mass produces a decorated cake product.
5. a) Describe how the manufacturer could use quality control to ensure the product is of a high
standard.
b) Give an example of possible biological contamination during the manufacturing process.
c) How could the risk of contamination be controlled?
HOMEWORK 6
a)Evaluate a range of decorated cake products-from the hand-out given. Comment on the shaping,
finishing, flavourings, ingredients and sensory characteristics of each product . Display your results in a
table form.
25
b) Produce a list of standard food components which could be used in each product.

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