Organelle Presentations- Orange

Organelle Presentations
Orange Block
October 2012
The Nucleus
Emma Suneby and Elizabeth Young
Orange Block
• What does it look like?
• What is it made up of?
– Nuclear envelope, nucleolus, DNA,
• Eukaryotic- inside both plant and animal
cells, not located in bacteria
• Located at the center of plant and animal
• Localizes the cells DNA
• Tucks away DNA molecules making it easier for
parent cells to copy genetic instructions before
• Outer membrane forms boundary in which cells
control passages of substances and signals to and
from the cytoplasm
• Analogy: Nucleus is like the brain of the cell; it
sends instructions for the rest of the cell.
• Source: Biology Textbook The Unity and Diversity of Life
Chloé Kolbet and Molly Micou
• Inside the nucleus
• Only in eukaryotic cells
• Where a large number of protein and RNA
molecules (chromatin) are constructed
• Houses the basic components of the cell
• Chromatin are Subunits of ribosomes that go out
of the nucleus’ pores to cytoplasm
• Factory of sweaters
Source: Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life by Starr and Taggart
• Each ribosome organelle is made up of 2
• These are assembled inside the nucleolus,
and the ribosome is therefore eukaryotic.
• The ribosome can travel inside of cells if it
is attached to the ER or float around the
• The ribosome is in animal, plant and
bacteria cells.
• DNA is like an old book in a library that you
can’t check out.
• The mRNA is the copy of one specific recipe.
For example, delicious chocolate chip
• The ribosome is the kitchen where these
cookies are made.
• The mRNA or recipe goes to this place
(ribosome or kitchen) and then attracts the
specific enzymes or ingredients.
• The end result is a chocolate chip cookie or
a protein!
• The two subunits (one large and one
small) are like the top and bottom of
a hamburger bun. They sandwich
the mRNA (or hamburger).
• Polypeptide chains for proteins are
assembled on the surface of the
• Ribosomes make these polypeptide
chains by attracting specific enzymes.
• The place where the mRNA (the
instructions) binds to the surface.
The Rough Endoplasmic
• Function:
Part of Cytomembrane system; modifies
polypeptide chains into final protein product and
mRNA from nucleus
Newly forming chains with specific strings of amino
acids enter the space in the rough ER
There, enzymes attach oligosaccharides and other
side chains to the polypeptide, and modify the
polypeptide within the ER into the final protein
Sends out the new polypeptides in vesicles to the
Golgi Body
• Structure:
Arranged in stacks
Made of up space(inside the ER) and ribosomes
• Location:
– Only in eukaryotes
– Surrounds the nucleus
– It is in plant and animal cells.
• Analogy:
– Carpenter sanding and painting the final product.
Golgi Body
by: Ashton Chryssicas and Ellen Kitsos
• Layered, bean-like membranes
• Similar appearance to a series of flattened
• Eukaryotic cells
• ribosomes are found in the pancake-like stacks.
• Found in plant and animal cell
• Floats in the cytoplasm
• Modifies polypeptide chains into mature proteins
• Sorts, packages and distributes proteins and lipids
(macromolecules) for secretion outside of cell
• Absorbs vesicles from Rough ER
• Vesicles form as patches of the membrane bulge out, then
break away into cytoplasm.
– Nutrients enter through the cell membrane and into the cytoplasm
by Endocytosis
• Vesicles gravitate towards cell membranes and are released in
a process called exocytosis
Analogy: The function of a golgi body is similar to that of a
post office.
• Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life
Smooth E.R.
(Endoplasmic Reticulum)
Smooth ER
• FUNCTION: Lipid synthesis; Detoxifies certain
compounds; In sarcoplasmic reticulum:
located in skeletal muscle cells help in muscle
In Eukaryotes; Its in both plants and animal cells;
It is a continuation of the rough ER; the
difference is that it lacks ribosomes.
It is Tubular
It is made up of
• Its is a kitchen because thats where food is
made and its sent out for people to eat it
Taylor Barnhill
• Location: photosynthetic eukaryotic
cells, all over the cell
• Disk shaped, encased by two
• Function: Sunlight energy  ATP
• ATP = chemical energy, used to make
sugars and organic compounds.
• Thylakoid membrane  has lighttrapping pigments, chlorophyll, enzymes,
and proteins which absorb energy and
store it in the form of ATP energy
• Grana = disks of thylakoid membrane
(folded and stacked)
• Stroma  the semi fluid interior where
ATP energy is used to make sugar,
starch, and other organic molecules
• Stromal lamellae = connect the grana
• Analogy: A chloroplast is like a factory with an
assembly line, each stage helps convert raw
materials into useful products.
• Sunlight  ATP  sugars, starch, organic materials.
By Peter and Liam
• The outermost membrane faces the
Inner membrane forms cristae, meaning it
folds back on itself.
The space between both membranes are
where hydrogen ions are stored
Resembles bacteria in biochemistry and
Location & Function
• Mitochondria exist only in eukaryotes, but are
in both animal and plant cells.
There are at least 1 in each cell
They exist anywhere in the cell membrane.
Mitochondria contain their own DNA
They aid cell respiration
• Like the lungs of the cell
• Help the cell to breath
– Used in intracellular digestion
• Contain enzymes that speed the breakdown of proteins, complex
carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and some lipids
– Apoptosis - programmed cell death
• Lysosomes release enzymes which break down cell components
• Cancer cells cannot go through apoptosis, so they can’t kill themselves
– In eukaryotic cells
• All animals
• Some plants
• Some bacteria
– In the cytoplasm of the cell
• Bag-like structures
• Different enzymes
contained by a
single membrane
– This membrane
protects from
apoptosis happening
when it shouldn’t
• Pencil case
• Case – membrane
• Pens and pencils – enzymes
• Pens can explode - apoptosisis
Central Vacuole
• Increases cell surface area
• Storage for amino acids, sugars, ions
(similar to a battery: stores energy and
keeps everything running/moving)
• Gets rid of toxic waste (face wash: gets rid
of the bad parts of skin, keeps/ restores
nutrients and hydration)
• Causes fluid pressure in cell when
• Made up of a fluid (cell “sap”) called
tonoplast that is released into the cell
when enlarges
• Fluid provides nutrients for cell
• Eukaryotic
• Located in the cytoplasm (narrow area
between the central vacuole and the
plasma membrane)
• Can take up to 50%-90% of the cell
• Found mainly in plant cells
Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane
 Function: Controls the material exchanges and cell
environment in interactions, an example of an exchanges is
 Location: the outermost layer of the cell for animal cells, in
plant and bacteria cells it is inside the cell wall
 The cell membrane is found in all three types of organisms
 Analogy: Security Guard
Composition of the Cell Membrane
Phospholipids Bi-layer
Proteins (ion channels and transmembrane
protein channels)
Nuclear Pores
Function of Cell Wall
The cell wall provides protection and
structural support in plant and bacteria
Structure of Cell Wall
Permeable to allow water and solutes to pass through
Middle Lamella-outermost layer, bonds with other cells
Primary Wall-made of gluey polysaccharides,
glycoproteins, and cellulose (in plants) and peptidoglycan
(in bacteria) which form into "rope-like strands" that are
sticky, and cement cells together, it's thin and pliable and
enlarges when water enters
Cuticle (a translucent, protective surface) forms when
cells are exposed to air, keeps water from escaping
Secondary Wall- rigid to reinforce cell shape
- in woody plants, made of lignin ( 3 carbon ring chain
and an oxygen atom attach to 6 carbon ring structure)
Location of Cell Wall
• Found in prokaryotes and some
Wrapped around the plasma membrane
Found in plant and bacterial cells, NOT
animal cells
Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. 9th ed.
USA: Thomson Learning, 2001. Print.
By Ross Halpern & John Wilson
Cytoskeleton in Eukaryotic
The Structures and Functions of the Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton is an organized network of two to three primary protein filaments:
microtubules and micro/actin filaments which are present in Protista, Fungal, Plant, and
Animal cells. Intermediate filaments are found in some animal cells only. The Cytoskeleton is
a rope/ weblike structure found throughout the entirety of the cell that is responsible for
nearly all Eukaryotic cell movement.
Cytoskeleton of Animal
Fibroblast cells. The
microfilaments are tinted
green while the
microtubules are tinted
Function of Cytoskeleton in
Eukaryotic Cells
Establishes cell shape
Provides mechanical structure and internal organization
Intercellular transport of organelles
Gives cells capacity to move
Reinforces the plasma membrane
Microtubules: Long, hollow cylinders made
from monomers of the protein Tubulin. The
largest part of the cytoskeletal system. They
govern the division of cells as well as some
aspects of their shape and many cell
Microfilaments: The thinnest of cytoskeletal
elements. Made from 2 polypeptide chains of
monomers from the protein Actin that are
helically twisted together. Help with cell
movements especially on the surface of the cell
and the development of cellular shape in
Cytoskeleton in Prokaryotic
Recent advancements in Biology have led to the discovery of a Cytoskeleton within
Bacterial cells. Some of the many components that make up the Prokaryotic
Cytoskeleton are...
FtsZ, the first element discovered in the Prokaryotic Cytoskeleton; it forms a filamentous
ring in the middle of the cell and is essential for cell division as it forms the new cell wall
MreB, a bacterial protein which forms a helical network of protein filaments under the
cytoplasmic membrane. It determines the polarity of polar bacteria as well as the structure
CreS or Crescentin is the main element in determining structure. Forms a continuous
protein filament along the inner, concave side of a crescent shaped bacteria cell.

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