Series of Paragraphs

Report
Grade 9 Applied English
What is a Series of Paragraphs?
•A series of paragraphs is nothing
more than a fancy name for an essay
•An essay is a very structured set of
ideas that try to prove a point that the
author has decided to write about
•There are may types of essays but
the one thing that they all have in
common is that they are all
•Your goal as a writer is to pretend
you are writing to someone who
doesn’t believe you, and you are
trying to change their mind about a
specific topic!
How Do I Begin?
Step 1: Brainstorm
 Step 2: Come up with an idea
 Step 3: Come up with an outline
 Step 4: Start to write
 Step 5: Peer edit
 Step 6: Final draft!

The Structure:
The Structure.. The BIG Picture!
(Literally…)
The hamburger
method is the best
way to remember
essay structure. You
have the top bun that
you first “sink your
teeth into”, then the
juicy, delicious
middle where all the
“meat” of your essay
is, and then the bun
on the bottom that
holds the entire thing
together!
Introduction Structure
Hook:
 There are many different types of hooks. The
purpose of the hook is to grab the reader’s
attention and make them want to continue
reading.
 It should relate to the reason why you are
writing the essay in the first place.
 Types of hooks include:
Quotes
Definitions
Statements…
Introduction Structure
Background Information
 You provide background information because
you are always assuming your reader knows
nothing about what you are talking about. You
need to give them CONTEXT
 You include:
 The TITLE and AUTHOR of the work you are
writing about
 Setting
 Important or key characters
 A quick glimpse of key conflicts
Introduction Structure
Thesis Statement
 This is the most important part of an essay. The
purpose is to let your reader know exactly what you
want your reader to learn by reading your paper.
 There are two parts to your thesis statement:
Topic
Opinion
The topic tells
The opinion tells
the reader what
the reader what
the main idea of
your stance is on
your essay is.
that topic.
Ex// Love, war,
Ex// … causes the
friendship…
main character
to lose hope
Introduction Structure
Thesis Statement
 After you have brainstormed and created your thesis
statement, and you know what you are arguing, you
need to create a:
Mapping Statement
 The mapping statement lets your reader know what
your three body paragraphs are going to be about.
 That means you list three ideas in it
 You write it like a list, where you start off by describing
them similarly so it flows well. Make them parallel!
 Ex//…due to physical, emotional and verbal suffering.
Example:
For example:
Pretend your thesis is:

In the story,“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” Andy’s identity is
lost forever because of the couple, the officer and the
jacket.
What is the topic?
What is the opinion?
What are the three parts of the mapping statement?
What would paragraph 1 be about? Paragraph 2?
Paragraph 3?
Body Paragraphs
In a series of paragraphs, you will have 3 body
paragraphs
 Your three body paragraphs are the three things
that you listed in your mapping statement
 The order that you put them in the mapping
statement is the same order you put your body
paragraphs in
 Body paragraphs have a very specific structure.
This ensures that you clearly and concisely
explain your ideas to ensure your reader
understands your thoughts

Body Paragraph Structure
First is the
 The topic sentence connects to your three ideas in
your mapping statement.
 The first point in your mapping statement is your
first body paragraph’s topic sentence, the second
idea from it is your second body paragraph, and
the third will be the topic sentence for your third
body paragraph
 Your topic sentence provides the topic for the
paragraph, and explains how it helps to prove your
thesis
Body Paragraph Structure
Example:
If you remember, the thesis statement was:

In the story,“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” Andy’s identity is
lost forever because of the couple, the officer and the
jacket.
The first topic sentence should include the first idea from the
mapping statement, and it should explain how it proves the thesis.
An example for the first body paragraph would be:
The couple contributes to Andy’s loss of identity since they let him
to die, which takes away his chance to turn his life around for the
better.
(notice the explanation of how the topic proves the thesis)
Body Paragraph Structure
Next you have a
Your point is a supporting detail that helps explain your topic sentence.
 Your point should be clear and concise.
 It should not be a part of the plot.
 For Example:


Good
One reason why the couple contributed to Andy’s loss of identity is
because they acted selfishly.
The point here is that the couple was selfish, which supports the idea that
they took away his chance of a better life. Notice how this point is not
obvious on its own. You need more information as a reader to clarify this
idea.
Bad
One reason why the couple contributed to Andy’s loss of identity is
because Freddie walked Angela home.
This does not show any relationship to the thesis. It does not show any
connection between Andy’s loss of identity and the couple.
Body Paragraph Structure
Next you have a
 A proof comes in one of two forms. It is either a:
or a
 The preferred method is to use a quote because
a quote does not leave any room for
interpretation. We know that a quote shows
exactly how it was said originally.
 The quote should show an example of the point
that you just made in the previous sentence(s).

Direct Quotations

Inserting quotations can be tricky…

Use quotation marks to begin
and end a direct quotation.

In a direct quotation, the
words of the speaker are
quoted exactly, and the first
word of the quotation is
capitalized.

Direct: Mrs. Mallard states
“Free! Body and soul free”
(Chopin 38).

Both parts of a divided
quotation are enclosed in
quotation marks. The first
word of the second part of
the quotation is not
capitalized unless it begins a
new sentence.

Divided: “There would be no
one to live for during those
coming years,” says Mrs.
Mallard, “she would live for
herself” (Chopin 38).
Indirect Quotations

Quotation marks are never
used with an indirect
quotation, which reports
the meaning of the
speaker but not in direct
words.

Indirect: Mrs. Mallard
talks about freedom, in
particular, she exclaims
she is free in both her
mind and body (Chopin
38).
Quotations

Always lead up to your quotation
by giving the speaker and the situation. Do not
assume that the reader knows the exact part of the
story that you are quoting.

Always follow up your quotation by commenting on,
explaining, applying, interpreting, or drawing a
conclusion from your quotation.

Do not leave the reader to do the work! Never move
on to a new point or paragraph immediately after the
quotation.
Quotations

Short quotations of 1 to 4 lines are
put into quotation marks and
included, double spaced, in the
body of the assignment.

They are introduced by a comma (,)
unless they are a continuation of a
body paragraph sentence; the
appropriate punctuation, or none at
all, is then used.

Quotations are followed by the
author’s last name and page
reference in parentheses, with no
punctuation included, except a
period after the closing bracket.

For example: (Chopin 38).
Body Paragraph Structure
Your Topic Sentence:
The couple contributes to Andy’s loss of identity since they let him
to die, which takes away his chance to turn his life around for the
better.
 Your Point:
The couple acts selfishly instead of trying to save Andy’s life.

An Example of a Proof:
When they see him on the ground and realize he is bleeding they say, “I
don't want to get mixed up in this. He's a Royal. We help him, and the
Guardians'll be down on our necks. I don't want to get mixed up in this,
Angela” (Hunter 2).

Notice how the connection between this quote and the point
you made is not necessarily obvious. It requires some
explanation on your part. That brings us to the next part of
paragraph structure.
Body Paragraph Structure
Next you have
 You need to create a sentence, after you have
provided support for your topic sentence, that
takes the time to explain how your point and
proof relate to your thesis statement.
 For Example:
The fact that the couple is afraid to help Andy
shows that they care more about themselves
than another person dying. Since they let him die,
Andy loses his chance to change his life for the
better.

Body Paragraph Structure
Lastly, you have a
 There are two parts to a concluding sentence. First
you need to:

 Restate your topic sentence in a different way

Then you need to:
 Transition into your next topic sentence
For Example:
Although the couple plays a role in taking away Andy’s
chance at a new life, the officer also contributes to
Andy’s loss of identity.

Body Paragraph : Final Product
Thesis:
In the story,“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” Andy’s identity
is lost forever because of the couple, the officer and the
jacket.
First Body Paragraph:
Firstly, the couple contributes to Andy’s loss of identity since they let him to
die, which takes away his chance to change who he is and have a better life.
One reason why the couple contributed to Andy’s loss of identity is because
they acted selfishly. When they see him on the ground and realize he is
bleeding they say, “I don't want to get mixed up in this. He's a Royal. We
help him, and the Guardians'll be down on our necks. I don‘t want to get
mixed up in this, Angela” (Hunter 2). Therefore, the fact that the couple is afraid
to help Andy shows that they care more about themselves than another
person dying. Since they let him die, Andy loses his chance to change his
life for the better. Although the couple plays a role in taking away Andy’s
chance at a new life, the officer also contributes to Andy’s loss of identity.
Conclusion
The conclusion is meant to bring it all
home!
 It is the wrap up section of your essay.
 It follows the following format

Conclusion
First:
Restate
Thesis
(differently from how
it was stated in your
introduction)
Second: Summarize Paragraph 1
Third: Summarize Paragraph 2
Fourth: Summarize Paragraph 3
Fifth: Leave a Final Thought – Like Jerry Springer!
Transitions



Transitions are words or
phrases that connect ideas.
Transitions help the reader
clearly understand
relationships in your writing
such as time, space,
emphasis, example,
contrast, comparison, effect
and addition.
In a proper paragraph,
transitions are incorporated
to create fluency in your
writing and to connect your
ideas/sentences.
For example:

Firstly, Secondly, Lastly,
Finally

For example, For instance,

Thus, As a result,
Consequently

In addition to, Similarly

In contrast, Rather, Yet, But
Transitions
Transitions
Transitions are meant to be like a road map for your
reader.
 They help tell them which ideas are new, and which
ones are connected.
 They also help your ideas flow and sound better
together.
 There are some key places to put transitions in an
essay to really help guide your audience:






At the beginning of each new body paragraph
At the beginning of each new point
At the beginning of each new explanation
At the beginning of each closing sentence
Look at your paragraph again…
Body Paragraph : Final Product
Thesis:
In the story,“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” Andy’s identity is lost forever because of the couple,
the officer and the jacket.
First Body Paragraph:
Firstly, the couple contributes to Andy’s loss of identity since they let him to
die, which takes away his chance to change who he is and have a better life.
One reason why the couple contributed to Andy’s loss of identity is because
they acted selfishly. When they see him on the ground and realize he is
bleeding they say, “I don't want to get mixed up in this. He's a Royal. We
help him, and the Guardians'll be down on our necks. I don‘t want to get
mixed up in this, Angela” (Hunter 2). Therefore, the fact that the couple is afraid
to help Andy shows that they care more about themselves than another
person dying. Since they let him die, Andy loses his chance to change his
life for the better. Although the couple plays a role in taking away Andy’s
chance at a new life, the officer also contributes to Andy’s loss of identity.
MLA Format – The Basics
 MLA Format
is the format used in English
and other Arts programs.
 There are some key elements of MLA
format to remember when you develop an
essay.
 You need to go through them like a
checklist to ensure that your format is
correct.
 It is meant to help guard against plagiarism
MLA Format
STRUCTURE
 The entire essay need to be
double spaced
 There should be no extra spaces between
paragraphs. You simply go to the next
available line to start your next paragraph
(sticking to your double space structure).
 Make sure your line-spacing defaults are all
set to “0”.
 Your entire essay should use 1 inch
margins.
 Indent each new paragraph
MLA Format
You do not
need a title
page.
Instead, the
first page of
your essay
has a very
specific set
up…
MLA Format
ESSAY DETAILS
 At the top of the page, on the
left side, you put the following
information in this order:




Your FULL name
Your teacher’s name
Your Course Code
The date, using the following
format:
○ Day Month Year
For Example:
John Smith
ENG 1P1
Mrs. Jones
○ Do not use commas and do not
write the “4th”
30 May 2012
MLA Format
TITLE
 You need to have a creative title that
connects to the meaning of your essay
 Your title should have no bolding, no
underling and no italics
 It should be centered
 It should go on the next available line
following your name, teacher, course
code and date details
MLA Format
HEADER
 At the top of the page, you have to input a header
 Insert page numbers and choose the option so they
are aligned right
 After that, on the left side of the page number, write
your last name
 The final product looks like this:
MLA Format





The very last part of MLA format is the Works Cited
page
Go to a new page after you have reached the end of
your essay
At the very top of the page, center the words : Works
Cited
At the next available line, you will put your citations for
the books or other works you used.
A book citation uses the following format:

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