Building Vocabulary Ch 7

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BUILDING
VOCABULARY SKILLS
Fourth Edition
Sherrie L. Nist
© 2010 Townsend Press
Unit Two: Chapter 7
• concede
• disclose
• conservative
• scapegoat
• contrary
• superficial
• denounce
• sustain
• deter
• transition
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 concede
– verb
• Our aunt hates to admit an error. She will never concede that she
might be wrong.
• After pretending it was easy learning to use the new computer,
Ross had to concede that he was struggling and ask for help.
Concede means
A. to forget.
B. to admit.
C. to prove.
“I concede that the sofa’s a wreck,
but I won’t admit to knowing
how it happened.”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 concede
– verb
• Our aunt hates to admit an error. She will never concede that she
might be wrong.
• After pretending it was easy learning to use the new computer,
Ross had to concede that he was struggling and ask for help.
Concede means
A. to forget.
B. to admit.
C. to prove.
“I concede that the sofa’s a wreck,
but I won’t admit to knowing
how it happened.”
In the first item, the words to admit tell
you what concede means. In the second
item, in order to ask for help, Ross would
have to admit that it really wasn’t so
easy as he had pretended it was.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 conservative
– adjective
• Lauren’s conservative relatives were shocked when she broke
with tradition and wore a rose-colored wedding gown.
• When the mayor suggested a new method of recycling garbage, a
conservative member of the audience called out, “What we’ve
done in the past is good enough. Why change things?”
Conservative means
A. playful.
B. amused.
C. traditional.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 conservative
– adjective
• Lauren’s conservative relatives were shocked when she broke
with tradition and wore a rose-colored wedding gown.
• When the mayor suggested a new method of recycling garbage, a
conservative member of the audience called out, “What we’ve
done in the past is good enough. Why change things?”
Conservative means
A. playful.
B. amused.
C. traditional.
Relatives who are traditional would be shocked when Lauren broke
with tradition. If the audience member is opposed to a new method
of recycling, he or she must want things done in the traditional way.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 contrary
– adjective
• Claire’s father insists that she share his views. He doesn’t allow
her to express an opinion contrary to his.
• Tisha and her husband have contrary ideas on how to spend a
vacation. He wants to sleep on the beach for a week, but she
prefers visiting museums.
Contrary means
A. different.
B. favorable.
C. similar.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 contrary
– adjective
• Claire’s father insists that she share his views. He doesn’t allow
her to express an opinion contrary to his.
• Tisha and her husband have contrary ideas on how to spend a
vacation. He wants to sleep on the beach for a week, but she
prefers visiting museums.
Contrary means
A. different.
B. favorable.
C. similar.
If Claire’s father insists she share his views, he must not allow her to
express an opinion that is different from his. Sleeping on the beach
and visiting museums are two different ways of spending a vacation.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 denounce
– verb
• In Nazi Germany, anyone who publicly denounced Hitler as cruel
or mad risked imprisonment, torture, and death.
• When Eugene said he saw me steal from another student’s locker,
I denounced him as a liar.
Denounce means
A. to imitate.
B. to defend.
C. to condemn.
A protestor’s sign
denouncing former
Vice President Chaney
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 denounce
– verb
• In Nazi Germany, anyone who publicly denounced Hitler as cruel
or mad risked imprisonment, torture, and death.
• When Eugene said he saw me steal from another student’s locker,
I denounced him as a liar.
Denounce means
A. to imitate.
B. to defend.
C. to condemn.
A protestor’s sign
denouncing former
Vice President Chaney
Anyone who publicly condemned
their leader risked punishment and
death. In the second item, the
speaker condemned Eugene for
accusing him of stealing.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 deter
– verb
• No one is sure how much the threat of capital punishment deters
murder.
• Beth’s parents disapproved of her dating someone from a
different culture, but their prejudice didn’t deter her—she still
dated Po-Yen.
Deter means
A. to discourage.
B. to encourage.
C. to change.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 deter
– verb
• No one is sure how much the threat of capital punishment deters
murder.
• Beth’s parents disapproved of her dating someone from a
different culture, but their prejudice didn’t deter her—she still
dated Po-Yen.
Deter means
A. to discourage.
B. to encourage.
C. to change.
No one knows how much the threat of capital punishment
discourages murder. If Beth continued to date Po-Yen, her
parents’ prejudice must not have discouraged her.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 disclose
– verb
• When I applied for financial aid, I had to disclose my family’s
annual income. But it embarrassed me to reveal this information.
• The police don’t disclose all the facts of a murder to the
newspapers. That way, there will be some information which
only the murderer would know.
Disclose means
A. to reveal.
B. to deny.
C. to replace.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 disclose
– verb
• When I applied for financial aid, I had to disclose my family’s
annual income. But it embarrassed me to reveal this information.
• The police don’t disclose all the facts of a murder to the
newspapers. That way, there will be some information which
only the murderer would know.
Disclose means
A. to reveal.
B. to deny.
C. to replace.
Some people would be embarrassed to reveal their family’s
income. If the police don’t reveal all the facts, there will be
some information only the murderer would know.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 scapegoat
– noun
• Several girls put dye into their high school swimming pool. In
need of a scapegoat, they blamed another student who knew
nothing about the prank.
• Because the manager wanted a scapegoat for his own mistake,
he fired an innocent employee.
Scapegoat means
A. a correction.
B. a punishment.
C. someone to blame.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 scapegoat
– noun
• Several girls put dye into their high school swimming pool. In
need of a scapegoat, they blamed another student who knew
nothing about the prank.
• Because the manager wanted a scapegoat for his own mistake,
he fired an innocent employee.
Scapegoat means
A. a correction.
B. a punishment.
C. someone to blame.
The girls needed someone to blame. The word blamed is a clue.
If the manager fired an innocent employee for his own mistake,
he must have wanted someone to blame.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 superficial
– adjective
• Sal and Anita are interested only in appearances. They are so
superficial that it’s impossible to have a deep friendship with
them.
• My teacher said my essay on divorce was too superficial
because I didn’t go into the subject in detail.
Superficial means
A. lacking depth.
B. complicated.
C. satisfactory.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 superficial
– adjective
• Sal and Anita are interested only in appearances. They are so
superficial that it’s impossible to have a deep friendship with
them.
• My teacher said my essay on divorce was too superficial
because I didn’t go into the subject in detail.
Superficial means
A. lacking depth.
B. complicated.
C. satisfactory.
If Sal and Anita are interested only in appearances, they must
lack depth. The word deep is a clue. An essay that does not
go into the subject in detail would lack depth.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 sustain
– verb
• My diets usually last three days at the most. I can’t sustain my
willpower any longer than that.
• An opera singer can sustain a high note for a long period of time.
Sustain means
A. to remember.
B. to delay.
C. to continue.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 sustain
– verb
• My diets usually last three days at the most. I can’t sustain my
willpower any longer than that.
• An opera singer can sustain a high note for a long period of time.
Sustain means
A. to remember.
B. to delay.
C. to continue.
If the diets last only three days, the speaker must not be able to
continue his or her willpower beyond that. An opera singer can
continue a high note. The words for a long period of time are a clue.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 transition
– noun
• Mark’s parents were amazed at how easily he made the
transition from full-time student to full-time employee.
• “The transition from being childless to being a parent is
extreme,” said the new father. “Last week, only two quiet people
lived at our house. Suddenly, we’re sharing space with a third,
noisy person.”
Transition means
A. an explanation.
B. a trip.
C. a change.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 transition
– noun
• Mark’s parents were amazed at how easily he made the
transition from full-time student to full-time employee.
• “The transition from being childless to being a parent is
extreme,” said the new father. “Last week, only two quiet people
lived at our house. Suddenly, we’re sharing space with a third,
noisy person.”
Transition means
A. an explanation.
B. a trip.
C. a change.
Going from full-time student to full-time employee is a change. Adding
a third, noisy person to a house that has two quiet people is a change.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. concede
B. conservative C. contrary
D. denounce
E. deter
F. disclose
G. scapegoat
I. sustain
J. transition
H. superficial
1. The teenagers who smashed the window made an
innocent bystander the __________, claiming he had
thrown the rock.
2. To __________ a high grade-point average throughout
college requires much studying.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. concede
B. conservative C. contrary
D. denounce
E. deter
F. disclose
G. scapegoat
I. sustain
J. transition
H. superficial
1. The teenagers who smashed the window made an
innocent bystander the __________,
scapegoat claiming he had
thrown the rock.
The innocent bystander is blamed for the vandalism of the teenagers.
sustain a high grade-point average throughout
2. To __________
college requires much studying.
If one wishes to maintain a high grade-point average, one must study.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. concede
B. conservative C. contrary
D. denounce
E. deter
F. disclose
G. scapegoat
I. sustain
J. transition
H. superficial
3. The environmental group __________(e)d a local
chemical company for polluting the river.
4. Even after Stuart listed scientific facts that support his
theory, the teacher refused to __________ that Stuart
might be right.
5. A childhood stutter didn’t __________ Leo. He overcame his
speech handicap and reached his goal of being a radio
announcer.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. concede
B. conservative C. contrary
D. denounce
E. deter
F. disclose
G. scapegoat
I. sustain
J. transition
H. superficial
3. The environmental group ____________
denounced a local
chemical company for polluting the river.
An environmental group would openly condemn a company that pollutes.
4. Even after Stuart listed scientific facts that support his
theory, the teacher refused to __________
concede that Stuart
might be right.
In spite of the facts, the teacher would not admit Stuart might be right.
5. A childhood stutter didn’t __________
Leo. He overcame his
deter
speech handicap and reached his goal of being a radio
announcer.
If Leo became a radio announcer, he must not have been discouraged
by his childhood stutter.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. concede
B. conservative C. contrary
D. denounce
E. deter
F. disclose
G. scapegoat
I. sustain
J. transition
H. superficial
6. I try to judge people by their character, not by something
as __________ as physical appearance.
7. When Dawn brought home a boyfriend with a Mohawk and
several body piercings, her __________ parents, who
prefer everything old-fashioned and traditional, nearly
fainted.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. concede
B. conservative C. contrary
D. denounce
E. deter
F. disclose
G. scapegoat
I. sustain
J. transition
H. superficial
6. I try to judge people by their character, not by something
as __________
superficial as physical appearance.
It is shallow to judge people by their physical appearance.
7. When Dawn brought home a boyfriend with a Mohawk and
several body piercings, her __________
conservative parents, who
prefer everything old-fashioned and traditional, nearly
fainted.
A Mohawk and body piercings would upset people who favor traditional
values. The word traditional is a clue.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. concede
B. conservative C. contrary
D. denounce
E. deter
F. disclose
G. scapegoat
I. sustain
J. transition
H. superficial
8. Making the __________ from her own apartment to a
nursing home has been difficult for my grandmother.
9. Though Geena and Tom are happily married, they cast
__________ votes in almost every election—she’s a
Republican and he’s a Democrat.
10. Knowing my passion for chocolate, my mother refused to
__________ the location of the bite-size Hershey bars,
which she was saving for company.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. concede
B. conservative C. contrary
D. denounce
E. deter
F. disclose
G. scapegoat
I. sustain
J. transition
H. superficial
8. Making the __________
transition from her own apartment to a
nursing home has been difficult for my grandmother.
Moving from her own apartment to a nursing home is a change.
9. Though Geena and Tom are happily married, they cast
__________
contrary votes in almost every election—she’s a
Republican and he’s a Democrat.
If she’s a Republican and he’s a Democrat, they are likely to cast
totally different votes.
10. Knowing my passion for chocolate, my mother refused to
__________
disclose the location of the bite-size Hershey bars,
which she was saving for company.
If the mother wants to save the Hershey bars for company, she
would refuse to reveal their location.

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