The Proposal Resource Center: Tips and Techniques for Starting in

Report
Creating Business Processes in
SharePoint
AGENDA
• An introduction to Business Processes
• Workflow Vs. Business Processes
• The 4 Steps of Business Process Mapping
• Techniques to Collect Business Process information
• Introduction to a system to Map, Analyze and Document your process
for use in SharePoint
AGENDA
• Common Pitfalls to Avoid
2
An introduction to Business
Processes
3
What is a Business Process?
It is a set of coordinated tasks and activities, involving both people and
equipment, to accomplishing a specific organizational goal
It is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a
specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular
customer or customers. It often can be visualized with a flowchart as a
sequence of activities
In Short – it is the work that we do!
4
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
Business process reengineering (BPR) is an approach aiming at improvements
by means of elevating efficiency and effectiveness of the business process that exist
within and across organizations. The key to BPR is for organizations to look at their
business processes from a "clean slate" perspective and determine how they can
best construct these processes to improve how they conduct business
Identify
Processes
Review, Update
and Analyze “AsIs”
Design To-Be
Test and
Implement
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Buzz Words and More Buzz Words!
Business Process Management is a systematic approach to improving processes
Business Process Automation is the process a business uses to contain costs. It consists of integrating
applications, restructuring labor resources, and using software applications throughout the organization
Business Process Mapping refers to activities involved in defining exactly what a business entity does,
who is responsible, to what standard a process should be completed and how the success of a business
process can be determined.
Business Process Modeling in systems engineering and software engineering is the activity of
representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed and improved in
future
Business Process Modeling Language, an metalanguage for modeling business processes
Business Process Modeling Notation is a graphical representation for specifying business processes in a workflow.
BPMN was developed by Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI)
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What’s Wrong with Processes
Process
Evil
Process
Good
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Abstract
• Process thinking requires a lateral view of the
Organization
• Process thinking requires generalization from day
to day business activity
• Process thinking Is expressed in (semi-)formal
notation
8
Restrictive
Try modeling the following:
• Manufacturing can start anytime after payment from the
customer has been received
• An inventory check, Credit check and a regulatory check
have to be performed – in any order
• After quotes from ¾ of the eligible suppliers have been
received or after 3 days (which ever comes 1st) a
selection is made
Users tend to think in “If-Then” Scenarios
9
It is not Excel
Feeling of losing personal control
Feeling of being a target
Forced March thinking
10
Workflow Vs. Business Processes
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Workflow
Workflow (management)
software aims to provide
end users with an easier
way to orchestrate or
describe complex
processing of data in a
visual form
The term workflow is used
in computer programming
to capture and develop
human-to-machine
interaction.
The automation of a
business process, in
whole or part, during
which documents,
information or tasks are
passed from one
participant to another for
action, according to a set
of procedural rules
A business
process
may have
any number
of workflows
12
The 4 Steps of Business Process
Mapping
13
What is a Process Map?
Process Maps are a hierarchical method for displaying
processes that illustrates how a product or transaction is
processed.
• It is a visual representation of the work-flow either within a process - or an image
of the whole operation.
• Process Mapping comprises a stream of activities that transforms a well defined
input or set of inputs into a pre-defined set of outputs.
They Show…
• A detailed map of the flow of items (documents, forms, email, spreadsheets,
databases...) that make up a business process.
• What happens to each item, step by step, and where items affect each other.
• Who does the work and where the work is done.
• Where value is added, where decisions are made and where the work is
delayed.
14
A GOOD PROCESS MAP
Allows people unfamiliar with the process to understand the
interaction of causes during the flow
Contains additional information relating to the process
metrics i.e. information per critical step about input and
output variables, time, cost
Software programs utilized to create Process Maps include
Microsoft Visio, SigmaFlow and iGrafx. For those individuals
who may not have access to these packages, Process Mapping
may be performed in Excel or Power Point.
15
Four Major Steps of Process Mapping
Identification -• Attaining a full understanding of all the steps of a process.
Information gathering
• Identifying objectives, risks, and key controls in a process
Understand the importance to organizational goals
Interviewing and mapping
• Understanding the point of view of individuals in the process and
designing actual maps
Analysis
• Utilizing tools and approaches to make the process run more
effectively and efficiently.
16
Techniques to Collect Business
Process information
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Collect Real Information
Go to the work location and observe the process
Always gather data from the person who is the top authority in the organization with respect
to that data, that is, the person doing the work,
•Observe more than one work
cycle and worker when
applicable
•Do not try to chart every variation
•Represent a NORMAL work
cycle
Walk the path that each
process follows ‐ with a
clipboard in hand
Work quickly ‐ use
charting Symbols as a
note taking shorthand
•Be methodical ‐ follow and list
steps in order
•Do not look for faults
•Once charted, walk the path
again for verification
•Do not trust detail to memory,
write it down
•Clarify uncertainties ‐ err to the
side of too much information
Be accurate and legible
‐ so the data can be
audited/reviewed
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Document the facts
• Note WHAT is done at each step
• Note WHERE the work is located at the start of the process and with each
transportation note where it goes
• Note WHEN the process begins and the amount of time with each delay as
well as any other time‐consuming steps
• Note WHO is doing the work each time the person doing the work changes
• Avoid getting into detail of HOW each step is performed
• Save WHY for analysis
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Going About it
Respect work schedules and job‐related interruptions
Assume the role of fact finder ‐ the people are the
experts
Make sure people understand what you are doing and
why they are involved ‐ because they are the experts
Observe & interview the people who do the work, not
managers
Observe & interview at the work area
20
Introduction to a System to Map,
Analyze and Document your
process for use in SharePoint
21
The System
Observe
Interview &
validate
Create &
Analyze the
Flow Map
Define
Data
Map to
SharePoint
Features
Document
it
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1st step: - Symbols
Do: Represents a value-added step in a production process. It
adds value to the product by physically changing it in the
direction of being completed
Origination: used the first time information is entered on a
document or system. This Symbol adds value to an Item by
completing or partially completing it
Origination Symbols help us to spot the numerous Items
required to complete a transaction and often lead to major
productivity improvement accompanied by proportional error
reduction by reducing the number of times that information
must be rewritten
23
1st step: - Symbols
A
The Add/Alter Symbol is used any time information is added to or
altered on an Item after the first entries. The Add/Alter Symbol
and the Origination Symbol cover all of the times information is
changed and thus, they cover all of the value-added steps
associated with Items in an information process
Handling Operations represent make ready and put away,
loading and unloading and all sorts of activities that do not
involve information change. It includes physical “paper
shuffling” and “electronic paper shuffling” (i.e. keying through
electronic documents, application screens, etc.) and there are
usually more of these Symbols on charts than any other
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1st step: - Symbols
The Transportation Symbol represents movement from one work
area to another. It is not used for small movements that occur
within a work area. Its purpose is to show movements that take
the Item to a work area that is physically separated, such that the
employees are not in direct contact with each other as they work.
These movements are often time-consuming and costly
The Inspection Symbol represents checking the Item to see if it
is “right”. The Inspection Symbol is not used when checking is
limited to normal conscientious work. The purpose of this
Symbol is to show tasks that are specifically checking the work
for correctness
25
1st step: - Symbols
The Storage/Delay Symbol represents time when nothing
happens to the Item being charted. How small a period of time we
choose to display on our charts is a matter of judgment. We
should show occurrences of storage and delay that consume
significant amounts of time and what is significant will vary for
different processes
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Collect Real Information
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Validating the Process
Once the process has been laid out it is important to review it and
identify possible exceptions or variations to the process.
Ask additional questions about the process:
• Are users able to resubmit a request for leave in excess of their available time?
• Can any of the roles modify a request being processes or would this invalidate the
process?
• What Security needs to be applied to the roles?
• What reports will need to be generated for this system?
It is important to know these exceptions and requirements before
going further in the process.
• Even if they cannot all be addressed in the initial version of the solution, knowing
that they are potential areas were the process can be expanded to cover such
exceptions will assist in planning out the next steps.
28
Analyze the Process
What are the
Hard Costs ?
What are the
Soft Costs?
Time
Bench
Time
Resources
Customer
Wait time
Can Straight Through steps aid?
Can Batch steps aid?
What is the process ramp up time?
Money
Error
Correction
time
Quantity
Retooling
What is the New Employee cost to proficiency?
29
Organize the facts with a flow chart
The Graham Method
• Chart the items of the process as horizontal lines
• Each item line begins with a Label for identification
• Each work step is identified by a Symbol that represents what happens to the
item at that point in the process
• The Symbols appear in sequence along the item lines
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BPML
• Chart the items of the process as connected flow lines
• Allows creation of sub processes
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The Annotated Visio
• Chart the items of the process as connected flow lines
• Each item line begins with a Label for identification
• Each work step is identified Title that represents what happens to the
item at that point in the process
• The annotations appear in steps
(1)Leave Request
Submitted
(2)Timesheet
Manager
(2a)Is Time
Available
Yes
(3)Supervisor
Review
(3a)Approved
No
Yes
(7)End
(6)Resubmit
(5)Mail
Notification
Yes
(4)Leave
Calendar
No
No
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Determine the Metadata
For each Step Define the Data that is collected or need to be acted upon
Element
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Step
1
9
2
Data
Time Manger Reviewer
Type
Text
Text
Date
Date
Text
Text
Date
ID
Relation
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
Date Actioned (Approved/Notified)
Date
1 to 1
Last Name
First Name
Start Date
End Date
Location
Emergency Contact Number
Request Submission Date
10
11
12
13
2
2
2
3
Request Status
Time Manager Comments
Time Avaible
Supervisor Reviewing
Choice
Text
Number
ID
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
14
3
Date Actioned (Approved/Declined)
Date
1 to 1
15
16
17
18
19
3
3
4
4
4
Request Status
Supervisor Comments
Empoyee
Start Date
End Date
Choice
Text
ID
Date
Date
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
1 to 1
20
21
22
4
4
5
Covering emplyee
Notes
To
ID
Text
ID
1 to Many
1 to 1
1 to 1
23
5
From
ID
1 to 1
24
25
26
5
5
5
CC
Subject
Body
ID
Text
Text
1 to Many
1 to 1
1 to 1
Notes
Approve
Reject
Under review (default)
Approve
Reject
Under review (default)
Employee
Supervisor or Timesheet
Manager
CC = Timesheet Manger and
Supervisor
33
Map SharePoint Features
34
Document It!
Process
Request Submission
Workflow
Manual entry of request into form that will populate the custom MOSS list Leave
Requests
Time Manager Review
Initial manual review process for time manager to compare request to time available.
Supervisor Review
Update approved leave calendar
Potential area for automation moving forward however the tools available would still
require coding to fully automate this task.
Manual review by supervisor of request
Automated move of request item from leave request to approved calendar.
Notification E-Mail
SharePoint Designer provides a feature where moving items from one list to the other
can be easily automated without the use of additional code.
Automated notification of declined requests and assignment of tasks.
This can be accomplished through the features in the SharePoint Designer workflow and
MOSS. Notification of declined requests can be setup as an action result in SharePoint
Designer so users are notified that their request has stopped and be provided the
reason for its decline.
Task Processing
MOSS support the notification of users assigned tasks through native functionality
Through the development of a Custom or SharePoint Designer workflow we can
establish the tasks and roles associated with approving leave requests to allow users to
initiate the workflow and have items routed to the appropriate reviewers and approvers.
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What’s Next
Process
Placement
Process
Initiation
Navigation
Site
Templates
Wireframes
Reporting
Workflow
Design
Dashboards
36
Common Pitfalls to Avoid
37
The first step is process identification
Many companies think they
know their processes
• manufacturing, sales,
accounting, building services.
• This silo mentality that causes
processes to lose their
customer-centric approach
Instead of defining processes
based on the company's
understanding, they must be
defined by the customer's
understanding.
• Walking through customer
experiences helps the
reviewer identify those trigger
points that can make or break
success.
• The most painful process in
the company is most likely
NOT the most impactful
Because a job is difficult does
not mean you should try to
automate it
• It is very rare to achieve
100% automation
• People often forget the 80/20
rule
38
Know Your Resources
The right information is in the heads of the PEOPLE WHO DO THE
WORK - These people know WHAT HAPPENS in their part of the
process better than anyone else because it is what they do
If two or more experts are present – interview each separately
Always complete the flows as is before analyzing and modifying
Maintain a version history of your flows
If a Manager starts a project off with “let me tell you my vision of
this process”… stop them!
Everyone has a view of where a process is broken – during the observation
do not engage in these conversations. (do this at validation and analysis)
39
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