Corn Utilization New Technology for New Uses Michael Ladisch+ Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering Agricultural and Biological Engineering Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907-2022 + Chief Technology Officer, Mascoma Corporation Acknowledgements Indiana Corn Marketing Council Ryan West National Corn Growers Association Gary Niemeyer Mascoma Corporation Frank Agbogbo, Kevin Wenger Purdue University Youngmi Kim, Eduardo Ximenes, Nathan Mosier US Agricultural Productivity 3.0 Output Input Total Factor Productivity 2.0 1.0 Indices 1948 = 1 0.0 1948 1978 2008 Source: USDA ERS US Corn Usage by Segment, 2011 Crop value of $ 76.6 Billion How do we add more value? 1.65 Bn Bu Examples (from CUTC 2012) Biotechnology Enzyme technology Bioprocessing Mimetics Chemical Building Blocks better corn, better uses & biorefineries NCGA, 2012 World of Corn Report Hydrolysis Starch Glucose Enzymes Sugars are starting feedstock for biochemical and chemical conversion INTRODUCTION TO MGT YEAST MGT Yeast Alpha-amylase Ground corn Gluco-amylase (GA) X CO2 Fermentation Slurry Jet cooker Fuel Ethanol Liquefaction Whole stillage Distillation Wet cake Centrifuge Thin stillage Syrup Dryer Backset Distillers dried grains (DDGS) Evaporator Preview from CUTC presentation of Frank Agbogbo, Mascoma 6 INTRODUCTION TO MGT YEAST Polymeric Sugars Mascoma CBP Soluble Sugars Ethanol Yeast Chemicals Fuels Added Enzyme Yeast-Secreted Enzymes • Yeast makes its own glucoamylase (GA) as it grows • This leads to less sugar stress on the yeast during fermentation Preview from CUTC presentation of Frank Agbogbo, Mascoma 7 Glucose Converted to Levulinic Acid (Precursor for Polymers) via chemical catalysis Glucose Precursors, chemical building blocks Levulinic Bozell and Petersen, 2010 Platform Chemicals from Sugars Sugar derived platform chemicals include Hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) Furfural Levulinic acid γ-valerolactone Chemical building blocks Hydrocarbon fuels Catalytic conversion to alkanes, and to precursor molecules for use in production of polymers, lubricants, and herbicides. Catalytic conversion uses high concentrations of glucose Bozell and Petersen, 2010 Achieving high glucose concentrations Pre-process corn kernels into solid fractions Starch Germ (oil) Pericarp (fiber) Separate by gravity to concentrate feedstocks Then hydrolyze and process into value added components Use enzyme science and engineering derived from biomass conversion research. Untreated Corn Kernels Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University Enzyme Treated Corn Kernels Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University Germs and Starch in Slurry Germ floating on top Starch precipitated at bottom Work is just beginning Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University Concept of a Biomimetic Catalyst for Chemical Catalysis Cellulolytic Enzyme Biomimetic Catalyst Cellulolytic Enzyme active site MW 55kD active site downsizing Superior Catalysis with minimal sugar degradation Hundred Daltons Active site only; residue carboxylate pair retained Thousands Daltons Preview from CUTC presentation of Nate Mosier, Purdue University Partnerships Chemical enterprise (exports of $ 86.9 billion, 2011). Possible partnerships based on 1. discovery of new processes based on sugars 2. research on utilization of renewable resources 3. business models based on products from agricultural (particularly cellulosic) commodities US Agriculture (net balance of trade of $43 billion, 2011; projected $24 billion in 2012) 1. design / grow crops for value-add chemicals 2. continue improvements in productivity 3. business models for year round supply 4. Industrial fermentation capacities CCR, 2012 New technology enhances margins From 1 bushel of corn (15% MC, 75% starch) Corn to ethanol 4 Corn to levulinic acid Assumptions: Glucose yield: Enzyme cost: Corn: Levulinic acid: 83. 100% from starch; Enzyme: 0.2% w/w of inlet solid; $15/lb; Water: $0.07/gal; $6.9/bushel; Ethanol: $2.5/gal; DDGS: $180/ton; $5/lb; Levulinic acid yield from hexose sugar: 50% Economic Synergies Agriculture is market for: Seeds Fertilizers Pesticides / herbicides Agriculture provides hedge for some feedstocks needed by chemical enterprise Oil Carbohydrates, chemical feedstocks Cellulosics Fermentation substrates Translation of science from discovery to commercial scale is critical: requires sustained research and development CCR, 2012 Conclusions New technology for value-added products from corn opens a new frontier. Utilize biotechnology, chemical catalysis and the chemical enterprise. New tools make the difference. Resources are available to produce both food and chemicals through corn: 1. Land 2. Seeds. 3. Productivity Combined impact could be to reduce feedstock risk for chemical industry, produce biofuels, and reduce petroleum imports.