Corn Utilization New Technology for New Uses

Report
Corn Utilization
New Technology for New Uses
Michael Ladisch+
Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering
Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2022
+ Chief
Technology Officer, Mascoma Corporation
Acknowledgements
Indiana Corn Marketing Council
Ryan West
National Corn Growers Association
Gary Niemeyer
Mascoma Corporation
Frank Agbogbo, Kevin Wenger
Purdue University
Youngmi Kim, Eduardo Ximenes, Nathan Mosier
US Agricultural Productivity
3.0
Output
Input
Total Factor Productivity
2.0
1.0
Indices 1948 = 1
0.0
1948
1978
2008
Source: USDA ERS
US Corn Usage by Segment, 2011
Crop value of $ 76.6 Billion
How do we add more value?
1.65 Bn Bu
Examples (from CUTC 2012)
Biotechnology
Enzyme technology
Bioprocessing
Mimetics
Chemical Building Blocks
better corn, better uses
& biorefineries
NCGA, 2012 World of Corn Report
Hydrolysis
Starch
Glucose
Enzymes
Sugars are starting feedstock for biochemical and chemical conversion
INTRODUCTION TO MGT YEAST
MGT
Yeast
Alpha-amylase
Ground corn
Gluco-amylase (GA)
X
CO2
Fermentation
Slurry
Jet cooker
Fuel
Ethanol
Liquefaction
Whole stillage
Distillation
Wet cake
Centrifuge
Thin
stillage
Syrup
Dryer
Backset
Distillers
dried grains
(DDGS)
Evaporator
Preview from CUTC presentation of Frank Agbogbo, Mascoma
6
INTRODUCTION TO MGT YEAST
Polymeric
Sugars
Mascoma CBP
Soluble
Sugars
Ethanol
Yeast
Chemicals
Fuels
Added
Enzyme
Yeast-Secreted
Enzymes
• Yeast makes its own glucoamylase (GA) as it grows
• This leads to less sugar stress on the yeast during fermentation
Preview from CUTC presentation of Frank Agbogbo, Mascoma
7
Glucose Converted to Levulinic Acid
(Precursor for Polymers) via chemical catalysis
Glucose
Precursors,
chemical building blocks
Levulinic
Bozell and Petersen, 2010
Platform Chemicals from Sugars
Sugar derived platform chemicals include
Hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF)
Furfural
Levulinic acid
γ-valerolactone
Chemical building blocks
Hydrocarbon fuels
Catalytic conversion to alkanes, and to precursor molecules for
use in production of polymers, lubricants, and herbicides.
Catalytic conversion uses high concentrations of glucose
Bozell and Petersen, 2010
Achieving high glucose concentrations
Pre-process corn kernels into solid fractions
Starch
Germ (oil)
Pericarp (fiber)
Separate by gravity to concentrate feedstocks
Then hydrolyze and process into value added components
Use enzyme science and engineering derived from biomass
conversion research.
Untreated Corn Kernels
Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University
Enzyme Treated Corn Kernels
Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University
Germs and Starch in Slurry
Germ floating on top
Starch precipitated at bottom
Work is just beginning
Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University
Concept of a Biomimetic Catalyst
for Chemical Catalysis
Cellulolytic Enzyme
Biomimetic Catalyst
Cellulolytic Enzyme
active site
MW 55kD
active site
downsizing
Superior Catalysis with
minimal sugar degradation
Hundred Daltons
Active site only; residue
carboxylate pair retained
Thousands Daltons
Preview from CUTC presentation of Nate Mosier, Purdue University
Partnerships
Chemical enterprise (exports of $ 86.9 billion, 2011).
Possible partnerships based on
1. discovery of new processes based on sugars
2. research on utilization of renewable resources
3. business models based on products from
agricultural (particularly cellulosic) commodities
US Agriculture (net balance of trade of $43 billion, 2011;
projected $24 billion in 2012)
1. design / grow crops for value-add chemicals
2. continue improvements in productivity
3. business models for year round supply
4. Industrial fermentation capacities
CCR, 2012
New technology enhances margins
From 1 bushel of corn (15% MC, 75% starch)
Corn to
ethanol
4
Corn to
levulinic
acid
Assumptions:
Glucose yield:
Enzyme cost:
Corn:
Levulinic acid:
83.
100% from starch; Enzyme: 0.2% w/w of inlet solid;
$15/lb; Water: $0.07/gal;
$6.9/bushel; Ethanol: $2.5/gal; DDGS: $180/ton;
$5/lb; Levulinic acid yield from hexose sugar: 50%
Economic Synergies
Agriculture is market for:
Seeds
Fertilizers
Pesticides / herbicides
Agriculture provides hedge for some feedstocks needed by
chemical enterprise
Oil
Carbohydrates, chemical feedstocks
Cellulosics
Fermentation substrates
Translation of science from discovery to commercial scale is
critical: requires sustained research and development
CCR, 2012
Conclusions
New technology for value-added products from corn opens a new
frontier.
Utilize biotechnology, chemical catalysis and the chemical
enterprise. New tools make the difference.
Resources are available to produce both food and chemicals
through corn:
1. Land
2. Seeds.
3. Productivity
Combined impact could be to reduce feedstock risk for chemical
industry, produce biofuels, and reduce petroleum imports.

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