Race in Whatcom County - Community To Community Development

Report
RACIAL
PROFILING IN
WHATCOM
COUNTY
A TACTICAL CARTOGRAPHY
A BRIEF HISTORY OF WHITE
SUPREMACY IN WHATCOM
COUNTY
Rural society in Whatcom County has been characteristically insular,
xenophobic and white supremacist over the long twentieth century.
A strategy of expelling entire labor forces in competition with each
other for jobs, in order to drive down wages, has plagued the region
since the turn of the twentieth century.
In 1885 Bellingham civic leaders expelled Chinese residents and
celebrated their removal with a torchlight parade. In 1907, race riots in
Bellingham, WA occurred when five hundred white men brutalized and
expelled South Asian immigrants over the course of five days. These
blatant acts of hatred were followed by decades of Ku Klux Klan activity
that focused on seeking out members of the Communist Party and
culminated with the internment of Japanese farmers during World War
II.
This reign of terror against those who are deemed outsiders and
agitators has persisted in this region and a major side affect has been
to drive down wages, specifically when it comes to agricultural labor. In
Whatcom County, labor, race and immigration have been the intertwined
since the introduction of industrialized agriculture to the region.
WHATCOM COUNTY
LAND USE IN ACRES
NON LABOR INTENSIVE CROPS
Source: USDA Census of Agriculture 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007
WHATCOM COUNTY
LAND USE IN ACRES
LABOR INTENSIVE CROPS
What this data
shows is that
there has been a
per capita
decrease in non
labor intensive
crops such as
wheat, and a
steady increase
of labor intensive
crops which
require large
pools of skilled
agricultural labor.
Source: USDA Census of Agriculture 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007
MARKET VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTS ($1,000) IN WHATCOM
COUNTY
Source: USDA Census of Agriculture 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007
RACIAL PROFILING
DEPARTMENT OF
JUSTICE DEFINITION OF
RACIAL PROFILING
“any police-initiated action that relies on
race, ethnicity, or national origin rather
than the behavior of an individual or
information that leads the police to a
particular individual who has been
identified as being, or having been,
engaged in criminal activity”
(Ramirez, McDevitt and Farrell, 2000:3)
WASHINGTON STATE
LEGISLATURE’S DEFINITION
OF RACIAL PROFILING
“Racial profiling is the illegal use of
race or ethnicity as a factor in
deciding to stop and question, take
enforcement action, arrest, or search
a person or vehicle with or without a
legal basis under the United States
Constitution or the Washington State
Constitution.”
(Lovrich et al., 2003:15)
RACIAL PROFILING IS
PROHIBITED IN WASHINGTON
Source: Amnesty International
WASHINGTON STATE LAWS
BANNING RACIAL PROFILING
“In the year 2000, Washington State
Legislature passed a law requiring the
State Patrol to collect and report semiannually on ‘the number of individuals
stopped for routine traffic enforcement’
(Washington State Patrol, 2000).”
(Lovich et al., 2003:30)
Engrossed Senate Bill 5852, Washington
State Legislature, 2002 led to RCW
43.101.410
EVIDENCE:
Qualitative:
Quantitative:
All of the evidence collected by
Community
to
Community
Development,
One
America
and
independent researchers on racial
profiling and harassment used in this
presentation is qualitative evidence
including
ethnography,
archival
research,
interviews,
and
oral
histories.
Most of the law enforcement
agency statistical data (CBP,
ICE, WSP, WCS, Bellingham
PD,
Lynden
PD),
governmental
and
Civil
departments (DSHS and
WCHD)
used
in
this
presentation is quantitative.
QUALIFICATIONS:
Because the burden of evidence is not met by qualitative evidence in
the court of law, and because quantitative evidence is minimal and
self-reported by law enforcement agencies, most studies find “The
likelihood of being stopped by the Washington State Patrol is not
effected by the race or ethnicity of the drivers on Washington’s roads
and highways.”(Lovrich et al., 2003:2)
TRAFFIC STOPS AND RACIAL
PROFILING – THE EFFECT OF
MANDATORY REPORTING
WSP TRAFFIC STOPS IN
BELLINGHAM, WA (20002002)
PERCENT OF “DAYLIGHT”
CONTACTS BY RACE
PERCENT ISSUED
CITATION BY RACE
White
White
Black
Black
Native
Native
Asian
Asian
Hispani
c
Hispani
c
Source: Lovrich, Nicholas et al. “WSP Traffic Stop Data Analysis Project: Data
Analysis Project Report” June 1, 2003, Table 3 and Table 11.
WSP TRAFFIC STOPS IN
BELLINGHAM, WA (20052006)
PERCENT OF “DAYLIGHT”
CONTACTS BY
RACE/ETHNICITY
White
PERCENT ISSUED
CITATION BY RACE/
ETHNICITY
White
Black
Black
Native
Am.
Asian
Native
Am.
Asian
Hispani
Hispani
c
c
E.
E.
Indian
Indian
Source: Lovrich, Nicholas et al. “Report to the Washington State Patrol” 2007,
Table 9
WSP “DAYLIGHT” TRAFFIC STOPS IN
BELLINGHAM FINDINGS, NO BIAS
The percentage is about the same in regards to “Daylight” traffic stops by WSP
between 2002 and 2005-06, the main difference is a significant increase in East
Indian and Asian stops in this region.
2002 WSP NON DISCRETIONARY
SEARCHES BY RACE/ETHNICITY
YEILDING NO
CONTRABAND
YIELDING
CONTRABAND
White
White
Black
Black
Native
American
Asian
Native
American
Asian
Pacific
Islander
East
Indian
Hispanic
Pacific
Islander
East
Indian
Hispanic
Source: Lovrich, Nicholas et al. “WSP Traffic Stop Data Analysis Project: Data
Analysis Project Report” June 1, 2003, Table S-4.
2005-06 WSP LOW DISCRETIONARY
SEARCHES BY RACE/ETHNICITY
NO CONTRABAND
CONTRABAND
White
White
Black
Black
Native
Am.
Asian/P
ac
Hispani
c
E.
Indian
Native
Am.
Asian/P
ac
Hispani
c
E.
Indian
Source: Lovrich, Nicholas et al. “Report to the Washington State Patrol” 2007,
Table 20.
LOW DISCRETIONARY SEARCHES BY
WSP IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON
KEY FINDING: Mandatory reporting appears to have lowered the amount
of unwarranted low discretionary searches by the WSP in Washington
State within five years of the policy.
UNLIKE THE WSP, LOCAL POLICE
DEPARTMENTS ARE NOT HELD TO THE
SAME STANDARD IN REPORTING WHEN
IT COMES TO RACE AND ETHNICITY.
LYNDEN POLICE DEPARTMENT
TRAFFIC STOPS (2006-2010)
Lynden PD Traf ic Stops
3000
Number of Stops
2500
Traf ic Incidents (Total
excluding Warnings)
2000
Traf ic Infractions
1500
Warnings
1000
DWL/R
500
0
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Source: Lynden Police Department Annual Report (2011)
INCIDENTS
OF RACIAL
PROFILING
HARASSMENT
AND
EXCESSIVE
FORCE IN
WHATCOM
COUNTY
REPORTED TRAFFIC STOPS LEADING TO
DHS DETENTION BY INITIATING AGENCY IN
WHATCOM COUNTY (2006-2012)
30
25
20
15
PD
10
Sheriff
CBP
5
as
Su
m
Ly
nd
en
le
rn
da
Fe
so
n
er
Ev
Cu
st
er
Bl
ai
ne
Be
lli
ng
ha
m
0
Source: Field Notes, C2C Intake Forms, One America 2012 Report
NUMBER OF REPORTED INCIDENTS OF
HARASSMENT BY CITY (2004-2012)
[EXCLUDING ICE RAIDS]
Incidents of Harassment (2004-2012)
25
20
15
Number of Reported Incidents
10
5
0
Bellingham
Blaine
Custer
Everson
Ferndale
Lynden
Maple Falls
Nooksack
Source: Field Notes, C2C Intake Forms, One America 2012 Report
REPORTED LOCATIONS OF
HARASSMENT IN WHATCOM COUNTY
(2004-2012) [EXCLUDING ICE RAIDS]
Places that Harassment Occurs
Bus Station
School
Jail
Street
Traffic Stops
Border Crossing
Store
Workplace
Court
Home
Source: Field Notes, C2C Intake Forms, One America 2012 Report
NORTHWEST HEALTH CARE LINEN –
AUGUST 30, 2006
Bellingham, WA – ICE Raid results in 26 workers arrested. Some of the women are
released on humanitarian grounds, mothers with young children who are citizens under
the order to not work or face deportation, the majority are taken to the Northwest
Detention Center in Tacoma, WA.
YAMATO ENGINE SPECIALISTS –
FEBRUARY 4, 2009
Bellingham, WA – Approximately 75 agents in full riot gear, SUV’s, Buses and a Helicopter raid
this business at 9:00am. 28 workers are arrested in hand cuffs and ankle chains and loaded on
to buses. Three women in the group are released on humanitarian grounds, the rest are taken
to the Northwest Detention Center in Tacoma, WA.
CBP STAFFING HAS INCREASED
Source: U.S. Customs and Border Patrol
APPREHENSIONS HAVE DECREASED
Border Patrol Apprehensions
by Fiscal Year
FY 2001
FY 2003
Northern Border (Mexicans)
FY 2005
Blaine (Mexicans)
FY 2007
Blaine (Non Mexicans)
FY 2009
FY 2011
0
2000
4000
6000
8000 10000 12000
Source: U.S. Customs and Border Patrol
WHY MORE CBP OFFICERS IF
APPREHENSIONS ARE LOWER?
We are exploring the possibility that these officers are helping to create a culture of fear and following the law
enforcement model of Target Enforcement, “Increased patrols where targeted communities live and socialize,
which requires greater numbers of officers to be present at all times, thus the need for interdepartmental
collaboration.
TARGET ENFORCEMENT
IS A PREVENTION MODEL
Lower apprehensions
and increased staff at
CBP can be linked to a
shift from an aggresive
enforcement
strategy
(ICE RAIDS) towards a
deterrent
model
centered around Everify
and
Secure
Communities
Programs.
Source: Progressive States Network
Source: National Immigration Law Center
APRIL 3, 2012 - WHATCOM COUNTY
WAS ONE OF THE LAST JURISDICTIONS
TO ACTIVATE SECURE COMMUNITIES
BY CONGRESSIONAL MANDATE
OCTOBER 2011 - OPERATION SHAKE,
RATTLE, AND ROLL
A Joint task force “gang sweep” of 30-35 Whatcom County youth targeted for
active warrants, two police teams, 30 law enforcement officers, resulted in 21
arrests.
OPERATION FAIR GAME – AUGUST 2012
Identified “Gang Members” were targeted by a joint task force raid in Lynden,
resulted in the arrest of 16 youth mostly Latino.
A CAMPAIGN TO END
RACIAL PROFILING IN
WHATCOM COUNTY

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