AP Seminar Introduciton Power Point 2012

Report
AP English Literature and
Composition
“The third-rate mind is only happy when it is thinking with the majority.
The second-rate mind is only happy when it is thinking with the minority.
The first-rate mind is only happy when it is thinking.”—A.A. Milne (1882-1956)
Welcome to AP Seminar!
This semester-long course is one of two courses designed to not only prepare you for the AP English Literature and
Composition Exam but also offer you a challenging program of literary analysis and composition, which will
prepare you for the rigors of college. To be successful in this course, you will need a commitment to hard work
and a desire for challenge. Through your participation in classroom activities and discussion as well as your
completion of essays, papers, and projects, this course will help you to develop the following literacy skills:
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Analyzing and interpreting literary works through a variety of “literary lenses.”
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Sharing both written and oral interpretations of literary works.
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Developing and demonstrating “close reading” skills.
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Recognizing and using a variety of literary evidence, including both direct references and indirect references,
from a variety of sources, including credible literary criticism, to formulate and defend interpretations of
literary works.
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Using sophisticated diction, syntax, organizational, and transitional skills in writing.
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Developing and practicing procedures for answering objective and subjective test items such as those appearing
on the Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition Exam.
For more information about the AP English Literature and Composition Exam, visit the following website: “The AP
English Literature and Composition Exam.” AP Central. The College Board. 2012. Web. 14 July 2012.
<http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/exam/exam_information/ 2002.html#name11>.
AP Seminar Essentials
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Big Picture Concepts:
Literature serves as both a mirror
and a window—encouraging both
introspection and extrospection,
allowing us to explore the past as
well as predict the future, and
expanding our worldviews.
Literature reflects the human
condition.
Literature expresses many atavistic
and universal archetypes, motifs,
and themes.
Writing and speaking are atavistic
forms of communication.
Big Picture Questions:
 How does the literature being studied
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help us understand ourselves, others,
and the world in which we live?
How does literature being studied
reflect the human condition?
How does the literature begin studied
express atavistic and universal
archetypes, themes, and motifs?
How has writing evolved? How do the
authors’ stylistic choices and use of
literary devices establish tone and
express theme?
What details in the literature being
studied elicit thoughtful reflection,
promote questioning, guide inquiry,
and illustrate “big ideas” (i.e.,
themes)?
About the Exam
The AP program was designed in 1955 to give high-school students the
opportunity to expand their knowledge and prepare for college by engaging in
rigorous and relevant college-level course work.
The AP Literature and Composition Exam will be given the morning of
_____________________; it will last approximately three and a half hours.
Section I of the test consists of approximately fifty-five multiple-choice questions
pertaining to poetry and prose analysis; this section will last sixty minutes.
Section II of the test consists three essay prompts: one based on poetry, one based
on a prose or drama passage, and one open-ended (usually focusing on theme);
this section will last two hours, so you should take approximately forty
minutes per question.
While your essays will be graded as rough drafts, this section of the exam is
designed to evaluate your ability to decipher a writing prompt and respond to
it accurately, insightfully, and stylistically. Remember the three C’s: clarity,
conciseness, and cogency. Also remember quality is more important than
quantity.
There will be a ten minute break between sections.
You can have the College Board send your grades directly to the colleges of your
choice, or you can have your grades “banked.”
About Scores and Grades
The multiple-choice section accounts for forty-five percent of the overall exam grade.
The essay section accounts for fifty-five percent of the overall exam grade; each essay is
weighted equally.
The total number of correct answers on the multiple-choice section is multiplied by a
number (usually 1.23) found by dividing 67.5 possible points (45% of 150 total
points) by the number of multiple choice questions on the test (usually 55).
Each essay is scored using a rubric with a 1 to 9 point scale: a score of 1 through 4 is
considered weak; a score of 5 through 9 is considered acceptable to excellent. You
could look at it this way: 8-9 is an A, 6-7 is a B, 5 is a C, 3-4 is a D, and 0-1 is an F.
Each essay is then multiplied by 3.05, a multiplier which is found by dividing 82.5
possible points (55% of 150 total points) by 3 (the total number of essays) by 9 (the
total rubric point value for each essay).
The College Board arrives at your final grade by adding each score together to get a
composite score, ranging from 0 to 150 points, which is then cross-referenced with
an AP grade on a 1 to 5 point scale:
 5 means exceptionally well qualified
 4 means well qualified
 3 means qualified
 2 means possibly qualified
 1 means no recommendation
Computing Your Grade
Let’s say you have 32 correct answers on the multiple-choice
section, which consists of 55 questions. You would then
multiply 32 by 1.23, which would be approximately 39
points (32 x 1.23 = 39.36).
You then scored 4, 6, and 7 on your essays. Each essay would
by multiplied by 3.05 and then added together. The final
score for the essay section would be approximately 52 points
(4 + 6 + 7 = 17 x 3.05 = 51.85).
Your final composite score would be approximately 91, which
most likely would be converted to a 4 on the AP scale.
Congratulations!
Formulas
 Multiple-Choice Score _____ x 1.23 = Section I Score _____
 Essay 1 Score _____ + Essay 2 Score _____ + Essay 3 Score _____
= _____ x 3.05 = _____ Section II Score
 Weighted Section 1 Score _____ + Weighted Section II Score _____
= Composite Score _____
Composite Score Range*
AP Grade
112-150
95-111
76-94
50-75
0-49
5
4
3
2
1
*This range varies slightly from year to year.
Things to Remember
 Highlight and annotate the text.
 Try to answer the question in your head before looking at the
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responses.
Look up the answer in the text.
Eliminate wrong answers.
Take an educated guess (You are no longer penalized for incorrect
responses.)
Focus on what you know.
Consider how the author’s stylistic choices and use of literary
devices establish tone and express theme.
The AP exam expects analysis (AP = analysis)!
 Analysis is explaining; summarizing and paraphrasing is telling.
 Analysis illustrates a deeper understanding of the text.
 Use summarizing and paraphrasing only in support of your analysis.
The AP Free-Response Questions
 Essays are evaluated not only on content but also on organization, style,
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voice, and mastery of basic writing skills.
While essays are graded as rough drafts, too many distracting errors
that inhibit meaning will negatively affect the grade.
Read the essay prompts carefully and underline the specific tasks
involved; in other words, underline key verbs that tell you what to do
and how to do it.
While you want to avoid merely summarizing plot, you may use
elements of plot to provide a context for you argument and to defend
your interpretations and evaluations.
Make sure to address the “heart of the prompt.” Consider what you are
being asked to analyze and how your are being asked to analyze it.
 The first two questions involve “close reading” of poetry and
prose fiction.
 The third essay question involves analyzing a work of “literary
merit,” usually a novel or a drama.
The AP Free-Response Questions (cont.)
 Since you have a limited amount of time to write, you do not necessarily need to
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worry about a “lead-in.” If you have the time, however, it is a good idea to include a
compelling “lead-in” that is related to the writing prompt and your thesis statement.
Write a sophisticated and compelling thesis statement in your introduction. A good
thesis statement uses strong verbs to present a focused claim. It does not merely
repeat the prompt.
If your thesis statement does not come to you right away, you can leave a few lines
blank at the beginning of your essay and then fill in your thesis after writing your
analysis, or you can build your argument inductively and then state your thesis in your
conclusion.
Develop your thesis statement with adequate support and commentary. Making
ample and relevant references to the text, both direct and indirect, is important.
Keep the direct references short and to the point.
Begin each body paragraph with a topic sentence, and develop each body paragraph
with specific supporting details and commentary. Remember CEW (Claim,
Evidence, Warrant) or MEL-Con (Main Idea, Evidence, Link, Conclusion).
Clarify the “big picture” in the conclusion. Since you have a limited amount of time to
work, you do not necessarily need to worry about writing a lengthy concluding
paragraph; however, you should take time to bring your essay to a close in an
interesting and insightful way.
The AP Free-Response Questions (cont.)
 Use transitions to create a coherent, logical flow to your argument. If, however, you
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forget to make a point, it is better to work it in than leave it out. For example, you
could write something like this: “Let me pause a moment to clarify a previous
point…”
Vary sentence structure, using short sentences to make crucial points and more
detailed sentences to add variety and sophistication to your writing. However, avoid
being too verbose!
Use present verb tense when writing about literature.
Write in the active voice.
Write in a clear and confident voice that illustrates your personality as a writer.
While you do not want to be too informal, your tone can be more conversational.
Be creative but not ridiculous in your approach. Remember, literature is open to
interpretation, so show that you are a perceptive reader and talented writer. Look
for nuances, ambiguities, and apparent contradictions in the literary work to
analyze.
The bottom line, present a well-organized, well-developed, and skillfully written
response to each prompt.
The AP Free-Response Questions: Summary
1. Answer the questions that you are asked.
2. Organize your thoughts.
3. Back up your claims with evidence from the text.
Writing an Effective Thesis Statement
 What literary devices are being used to establish tone and express
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theme?
How are these literary devices being used to establish tone and
express theme?
When considering a thesis for a literary analysis, look for the ironic
center in the literary work that unifies the whole!
In other words, look for ambiguity, contradiction, paradox; explore
the nuances of the literary work, and consider how they lead to a
deeper meaning and understanding of the literary work!
Thesis Pattern: Topic (author and title) + Strong Action Verb +
“Sexy” Adjective + Literary Device (two or three) + Infinitive (to +
strong action verb) + Insightful Observation/Interpretation (e.g.,
shifts in tone) + Theme (introduced with a present participle, an –
ing word).
Thesis Statements
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2.
3.
4.
5.
The Road by Cormac McCarthy begins with a human head on a
stake in the middle of the road; later in the novel, a father and son
swim together beneath a waterfall.
The Road by Cormac McCarthy illustrates extremely graphic
violence juxtaposed with astonishing acts of kindness.
The Road by Cormac McCarthy uses extremely graphic violence
juxtaposed with astonishing acts of kindness.
The Road by Cormac McCarthy uses extremely graphic violence
juxtaposed with astonishing acts of kindness to illustrate
humanity’s constant struggle with the “devil inside.”
The Road by Cormac McCarthy uses extremely graphic violence
juxtaposed with astonishing acts of kindness to illustrate
humanity’s constant struggle with the “devil inside,” emphasizing
that we are more than mere animals struggling to survive.
Close Reading
 Analyze not only what the literary work means but also how a writer’s
stylistic choices express that meaning.
 Consider the small details and the larger ideas those details suggest.
 Ask questions and make observations, highlighting and annotating the
text as you read.
 The texts used for close readings are usually not that long, so read
them several times.
Close Reading (cont.)
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Ask first-impression questions.
Make observations regarding the following elements of style:
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Diction
 Denotation or Connotation
 Formal or Informal
 Abstract or Concrete
Syntax
 Simple, Compound, or Complex
 Cumulative (independent to subordinate) or Periodic (subordinate to independent)
 Traditional (subject-verb-object) or Inverted (e.g., verb-subject-object or object-subject-verb)
Figurative Language (Schemes and Tropes)
Imagery
Tone and Mood
Special Considerations for Poetry
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Rhyme
Meter
Form
Poetic Syntax (e.g., enjambment and caesura)
Sound
Close Reading (cont.)
 First Reading: Highlight (circle and underline) and annotate
interesting or unfamiliar words and phrases as well as elements of
style.
 Second Reading: Make large-scale observations regarding what
was highlighted and annotated during the first reading, paying
close attention to patterns and shifts; highlight (underline) and
annotate important passages that suggest meaning.
 Third Reading: Paraphrase or summarize smaller sections of the
work (e.g., each stanza or paragraph) and then respond to the
work as a whole.
Helpful Mnemonic Devices for Close Reading
 DIDLS: diction (denotation and connotation),
images, details (included and omitted, factual and
figurative), language (style of language and figures
of speech), sentence structure (syntax).
 TPCASTT: title, paraphrase (and analyze),
connotation, attitude (tone), shifts (in tone,
structure, point of view, etc.), title, and theme.
 SOAPSTone: speaker, occasion, audience,
purpose, setting, and tone.
“My Papa’s Waltz” by Theodore Roethke
http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/172103
The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.
We romped until the pans
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother’s countenance
Could not unfrown itself.
The hand that held my wrist
Was battered on one knuckle;
At every step you missed
My right ear scraped a buckle.
You beat time on my head
With a palm caked hard by dirt,
Then waltzed me off to bed
Still clinging to your shirt.
Roethke, Theodore. “My Papa’s Waltz.” Poetry Foundation. 2011. Web. 14 July 2012. <http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/172103>.
Thesis Statements
1. Theodore Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz” is a poem in which
the speaker reflects upon his childhood relationship with his
father, focusing on a specific incident that occurred one
night when his father returned home from work.
2. Theodore Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz” illustrates the
speaker’s paradoxical childhood relationship with his father.
3. Theodore Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz” juxtaposes imagery
of playfulness and violence to evoke an ambiguous tone of
reverence mixed with fear, illustrating the speaker’s attempt
to reconcile his paradoxical childhood relationship with his
father.
“Those Winter Sundays” by Robert Hayden
http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/175758
Sundays too my father got up early
and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,
then with cracked hands that ached
from labor in the weekday weather made
banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him.
I’d wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking.
When the rooms were warm, he’d call,
and slowly I would rise and dress,
fearing the chronic angers of that house,
Speaking indifferently to him,
who had driven out the cold
and polished my good shoes as well.
What did I know, what did I know
of love’s austere and lonely offices?
Hayden, Robert. “Those Winter Sundays.” Poetry Foundation. 2011. Web. 14 July 2012.
<http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/175758>.
Thesis Statements
1. Robert Hayden’s “Those Winter Sundays” illustrates the speaker’s
realization of an overlooked expression of his father’s love—
building fires on cold Sunday mornings in winter.
2. Robert Hayden’s “Those Winter Sundays” uses perceptive
diction, evocative imagery, and a regretful tone to illustrate the
speaker’s realization of an overlooked expression of his father’s
love—building fires on cold Sunday mornings in winter.
3. Robert Hayden’s “Those Winter Sundays” uses perceptive
diction, evocative imagery, and a regretful tone to illustrate the
speaker’s realization of an overlooked expression of his father’s
love—building fires on cold Sunday mornings in winter,
suggesting that a father’s love is often taken for granted.
Comparison Essay
“My Papa’s Waltz” by
Theodore Roethke
The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.
We romped until the pans
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother’s countenance
Could not unfrown itself.
The hand that held my wrist
Was battered on one knuckle;
At every step you missed
My right ear scraped a buckle.
You beat time on my head
With a palm caked hard by dirt,
Then waltzed me off to bed
Still clinging to your shirt.
“Those Winter Sundays” by
Robert Hayden
Sundays too my father got up early
and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,
then with cracked hands that ached
from labor in the weekday weather made
banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him.
I’d wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking.
When the rooms were warm, he’d call,
and slowly I would rise and dress,
fearing the chronic angers of that house,
Speaking indifferently to him,
who had driven out the cold
and polished my good shoes as well.
What did I know, what did I know
of love’s austere and lonely offices?
Comparison Essay
Point by Point
 Introduction
 First Main Point
 “My Papa’s Waltz”
 “Those Winter Sundays”
 Second Main Point
 “My Papa’s Waltz”
 “Those Winter Sundays”
 Third Main Point
 “My Papa’s Waltz”
 “Those Winter Sundays”
 Conclusion
Block
 Introduction
 “My Papa’s Waltz”
 First Main Point
 Second Main Point
 Third Main Point
 “Those Winter Sundays”
 First Main Point
 Second Main Point
 Third Main Point
 Conclusion
Comparing Thesis Statements
Theodore Roethke’s “My Papa’s
Waltz” uses robust imagery and
a profoundly ironic tone to
illustrate the paradoxical nature
of the speaker’s childhood
relationship with his father,
suggesting that a father’s love is
not always expressed through a
gentle caress.
Robert Hayden’s “Those
Winter Sundays” uses
perceptive diction, evocative
imagery, and a regretful tone
to illustrate the speaker’s
realization of an overlooked
expression of his father’s
love—building fires on cold
Sunday mornings in winter,
suggesting that a father’s love
is often taken for granted.
Thesis Statement Examples
 The Road by Cormac McCarthy uses extremely graphic violence
juxtaposed with astonishing acts of kindness to illustrate humanity’s
constant struggle with the “devil inside,” emphasizing that we are more
than mere animals struggling to survive.
 Theodore Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz” juxtaposes imagery of
playfulness and violence to evoke an ambiguous tone of reverence
mixed with fear, illustrating the speaker’s attempt to reconcile his
paradoxical childhood relationship with his father.
 Robert Hayden’s “Those Winter Sundays” uses perceptive diction,
evocative imagery, and a regretful tone to illustrate the speaker’s
realization of an overlooked expression of his father’s love—
building fires on cold Sunday mornings in winter, suggesting that a
father’s love is often taken for granted.
Themes and Motifs
 Theme: a common, recurring topic seen throughout a literary work;
or a prominent and oftentimes abstract idea in a literary work.
 Motif: a recurring element (e.g., object, idea, or character type) or
contrasting elements in a work of literature that help to illuminate
theme.
 When asked to explore how a motif (e.g., a Bar Mitzvah, a Bat Mitzvah,
or a Quinceañera) helps to illuminate a theme, make sure to identify a
prominent idea (e.g., empathy, not age, equals maturity) in addition to
a common, recurring topic (e.g., coming of age).
 Example:
o Motif (Character Foils): Ultima and Tenorio
o Theme (Topic): Good vs. Evil
o Theme (Prominent Idea): For good to truly triumph over evil, we must
learn to forgive those who perform evil deeds.
Archetype
An archetype is a basic model, a prototype, a paradigm, an exemplar.
An archetype is atavistic and universal; it is a product of the “collective
unconscious.”
Character Types
Fundamentals of
Human Existence
 Birth
 Growing up
 Death
 Love
 Family
 Tribal life
 Sibling rivalry
 Generational conflict
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The boss
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The femme fatale (i.e., the seductress)
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The spunky kid
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The free spirit
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The waif (i.e., the good girl)
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The librarian
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The crusader
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The nurturer (i.e., the mother figure)
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The damsel in distress
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The chief (i.e., the godfather, the god-king)
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The bad boy (i.e., the rebel)
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The best friend
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The charmer (i.e., the player)
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The lost soul
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The professor
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The warrior (i.e., the all-conquering hero)
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The traitor
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The self-made man
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The sacrificial scapegoat
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The tragic hero
Creatures and
Symbols
 Lion
 Eagle
 Snake
 Tortoise
 Hare
 Rose
 Paradisiacal
garden
Fourteen Actors Acting. Dir. Solve Sundsbo. The New York Times Magazine. 2011. Web. 17 July 2012.
<http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/12/12/magazine/14actors.html/>.
Actor
1. Javier Bardem
2. James Franco
3. Natalie Portman
4. Jessie Eisenberg
5.Chloe Moretz
6. Matt Damon
7. Michael Douglas
Archetype
Explanation
Fourteen Actors Acting. Dir. Solve Sundsbo. The New York Times Magazine. 2011. Web. 17 July 2012.
<http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/12/12/magazine/14actors.html/>.
Actor
8. Jennifer Lawrence
9. Noomi Rapace
10. Vincent Cassel
11. Anthony Mackie
12. Robert Duvall
13 Lesley Manville
14. Tilda Swinton
Archetype
Explanation

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