The Gender wage gap - Center for the Education of Women

Report
THE GENDER WAGE GAP:
& HOW NOT TO GET STUCK IN IT
Sponsored by the Center for the Education of Women,
The Career Center, and the Women’s Studies Department.
What You’ll Learn
1.
2.
3.
4.
Why does the gender wage
gap matter?
What causes it?
What can I do about it
on a political level?
How can I avoid it on a
personal level?
Comparable Worth vs. Equal Pay
Comparable Worth: Refers to equal pay for work of
equal value. Tries to resolve the inequities that are
rooted in sex-segregated jobs. EX: Janitors and Maids
do work of equal value and should therefore be paid
equally.
Equal Pay: Advocates for equal pay of men and women
in the same position. EX: Male and female Janitors should
be paid equally. This is the focus of the
Gender Wage Gap & Negotiation Workshop.
Measuring the Gender Wage Gap


The average American
woman working
full-time year-round
earns about 77%
of a man’s earnings
The size of this gap
hasn’t changed in a
decade!
Michigan’s Gap
•
•
In 2011, Michigan ranked 43 out of all states in
average female to male earnings ratio of 74%
The average Michigan woman working full-time
made $37,117 last year compared to $50,053
for a man
That’s a $12,936 difference in earnings!
Educational Choices Affect Wage Gap

Women bachelor’s degree recipients working
full-time year-round earn 82% of what their
male counterparts earn
within just one year of graduating

Female dominated areas of study often have
lower pay than male dominated fields
Bachelor’s Degrees by Gender
Arts, Humanities, Education,
Health & Welfare
Women
Men
Science, Math &
Technology
Women
Men
Average Annual Earnings One Year after College
Graduation, by Undergraduate Major and Gender
Women
Men
$60,000
$55,142
xx%= Women’s earnings
as a % of men’s
No significant gender
difference in earnings
$51,296
$50,000 $48,493
$45,143
$45,582
$39,618
$38,634
$38,034
$40,000
88%
$34,989
$30,000
$10,000
$0
$31,382
$33,180
$31,015
84%
$20,000
$31,924
$36,208
77%
87%
83%
For Example: Social Work
The raw difference in
average salaries for
men and women
working full-time in a
social work job is
$12,045
Social work salaries by gender: Occupational profile. (2011). In NASW Center for Workforce
Studies & Social Work Practice.
Choices Made After Entering the
Workforce Affect Women’s Earnings

10 years after graduation, 81% of men work
full-time compared to 61% of women.

Out of those working full-time, women are
earning 69% as much as men and are equally
as likely to be married and have children
The “Mommy Penalty”


Moms with one child earn
7% less than women
without children.
A woman with 2+ children
earns 14% less than a
woman without children.
Women & Social Security
Because women are
paid less than men
when they work, &
Often work fewer
hours for some years,
They receive smaller
Social Security
benefits when
they retire.
Discrimination Factors into the Gap
Unconscious Bias & Accumulation of (Dis)Advantage
Virginia Valian:
Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women
•Gender schemas = intuitive beliefs about
behaviors and traits, by gender
•John’s resume rated higher than Jane’s
Implicit Assumptions
Harvard research on unconscious bias
Test your own assumptions about gender, race,
sexual orientation, etc.
YOU’LL BE SURPRISED how deeply bias is ingrained
in all of us!
https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/takeatest.html
What Can YOU Do to Create Change?
Stand Up for Pay Equity
Tell Congress to support Paycheck Fairness Act
 house.gov
 senate.gov
 pay-equity.org/cando-indiv.html
Write an editorial, blog or social media post
 action.citizen.org/pickMedia.jsp?letter_KEY=199
Create Awareness


Organize an online petition to show high level
support for pay equity legislation.
 Change.org is easy & free to use!
Use Social Media
 Post a Facebook status or Tweet to create
awareness about the wage gap.
Avoiding the Pay Gap on a Personal Level
• Consider long-term financial implications
of career & family choices you make
• Seek out union jobs, which typically
offer better pay & benefits
• Develop negotiation skills to ask for
higher pay & other resources

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