Presentation 10.9.2013 - 2013 International Metropolis Conference

Report
China’s Global Talent Movement &
its Implications & Impacts
Huiyao WANG
PhD
王辉耀
Director General, Center for China and Globalization
President, China Global Talents Society
Vice Chairman, China Overseas Returned Scholars Association
Senior Fellow, Harvard Kennedy School
September, Tampere, Finland
September 10, 2013
CV of Dr. Huiyao Wang
Dr. Wang is a Director General of Center of China and Globalization, a
Senior Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School and Asia Pacific Foundation
of Canada. He was also a Visiting Fellow at Brookings Institution. He
has taught at Peking University, Tsinghua University in China and
University of Western Ontario in Canada. He has been a senior advisor
to the Chinese government at both central and local levels and has
served as a Task Force Leader for Global Talents Strategy Study Group
of Department of Organization of Central Government. He has also
participated in drafting China’s National Talent Development Plan 20102020. Dr. Wang is also the Vice Chairman of China Talent Research
Society and the President of China Global Talents Society as well as an
Economic Team Leader for Overseas Experts Advisory Committee of
China State Council Overseas Chinese Affairs Office.
Dr. Wang has researched extensively on China’s talent issues and
published over 30 books and 100 papers and articles on the subject,
including his recent English book Globalizing China, Strategy, Influence
and Success of Chinese Returnee Entrepreneurs and also
Entrepreneurial and Business Elites of China: The Chinese Returnees
Who Have Shaped Modern China.
Dr. Wang is a Board Member of Richard Ivey Business School in Asia
and also a Board Adviser of Association of Executive Search
Consultants, a worldwide headhunters association based in New York.
OUTLINE
I. China’s Global Talent Movement
II. China’s Global Talent Trend
III. China’s Talent Policy Development
IV. Some Policy Recommendations
V. Further Ideas on Global Talent Cooperation
Ⅰ. China’s Global Talent
Movement
Three Waves of Globalization--A New Framework
First Wave: globalization of trade -- goods
movement;
Second Wave: globalization of finance -- capital
movement;
Third Wave: globalization of talent – talent
movement
High-Speed Flow of Global Migrants
Million
600
International Migrants
405
400
200
191
214
0
2005
(UN DESA, 2009)
2010
2050
Between US & China
 According to the report of Chinese Embassy to the U.S. , the
daily personnel exchange between US-China is up to 10,000;
 US issued 1.08 million visa in China in 2011 ,and 1.38 million in
2012;
Eight Transformations in China on Talent
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
From Population Dividend to Talent Dividend
From “Made in China” to “Created in China”
From Attracting Financial Capital to Attracting
Human Capital
From Hardware to Software
From Investment-Driven Economy to Talent-Driven
Economy
From Resources Driven Economy to KnowledgeDriven Economy
From emphasis on Science & Technology
Innovation to both S & T and Social Innovation
From rely on domestic talents to rely on both
domestic and international talents
ⅰ .Chinese Overseas Students
Largest Overseas Students “Source Country” in the World
• In 2012, China students went abroad to study reached 399,600.
• The number of Chinese students study abroad account for 17% of
the total of the world.
Number of Chinese Students Went Studying
Overseas Each Year (0000)
60
40
28.47
20
0
3.9
2000
33.97
39.96
11.85
2005
2010
Source: Annual Report of China’s Study Abroad 2013
2011
2012
ⅰ . Chinese Overseas Students
US-China Students Movement
Chinese Students in US
US Students in China
250000
194029
200000
150000
100000
50000
67723
11,064
81127
98235
13,188
13,674
2008
2009
127628
13910
157558
14,596
0
2007
2010
2011
2012
 According to the newest Open Doors 2012(IIE), Chinese
student enrollments increased by 23 % from previous year,
from 157,558 in 2010-2011,to 194,029 in 2011-2012.
Source: Open Doors 2012(IIE),Ministry of Education of China
Students Exchange Deficit of China
2011 Data
Total foreign students study in
China
292,611
Total Chinese Students Suty
Abroad
1,108,800
0
Source: Ministry of Education of China
400,000
800,000
1,200,000
ⅱ .Chinese Global Migration
Chinese Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident
Status just in 3 countries 2010-2011
Canada ,
30,197, 21%
Australia ,
29547, 20%
America,
87016, 59%
Total 146,760
Source: Annual Report of Chinese International Migration (2012)
US-China Migration
Asian rights groups union’s report
– In 2011, the Chinese population has reached 4.025
million in USA, is the biggest Asian descent in US
– More than 60% of Chinese immigrants ,that is 2.415
million ,have already got US citizenship.
Application of Chinese Mainland for I-526 Visa
6000
Application
Approved
5121
4000
2000
1281
2902
2909
934
0
864
2010
2011
Source: Bloomberg Businessweek ,March 29,2013
2012
ⅲ .Foreign Experts in China
The Foreign Expert Working in China by Main
Source Country :2008-2012
Source :State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs
ⅳ .Returnees
Returnees Are Rapidly Increasing
Mllion
Total Cumulative Number of Students Studying Abroad
Total Cumulative Number of Returnees
Return Rate
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
38.20%
24.30%
28.00%
0.34
0.13
Source: Annual Report of Chinese Returnees Development 2013
50%
41.27%
40%
2.64
30%
1.09 20%
10%
0%
Reasons of Chinese and Indian Returnee
Entrepreneurs Back to the Home Country
I have co-authored a new study with Vivek Wadhwa,
Sonali Jain, AnnaLee Saxenian, Gary Gereffi on Chinese
and Indian returnee entrepreneurs .
Findings Include:
• More than 60% of Indian and 90% of Chinese respondents cited
economic opportunities in their countries as a very important
factor in motivating the return home.
• The returnees took pride in contributing to economic
development in their home countries. More than 60% of Indians
and 51% of Chinese rated this as very important.
• 56% of Indians and 59% of Chinese said their quality of life
back home was better or equal to what they had experienced in
the United States.
• Salaries were the only advantage the respondents attributed to
the United States.53% of Chinese respondents said that
salaries were higher in the United States.
Migration reason
Career Development
Receive Education
Living quality
Better Infrastructure
Fator Drawing Chinese and Indian Home
Domestic Economic Enviroment
Economic opportunities
Domestic Market
Lower Business Cost
Government Incentives
To Contribute to Home Economics
Development
Career Development
Better Specialty Opportunity
Better Career Opportunity
Increase Demand of His Speciality
Better Living Qulity
Higher Payment and Salary
Personal Comparisons
Family Benefcial
Take Care of Old Parents
Short Distance to Family and Frends
Children’s Emotion Growth
Children’s Education
Living Qulity
China
91.6
90.5
84.3
82.6
91.8
77.8
38.0
22.6
52.3
84.0
87.3
86.8
55.5
57.1
67.0
78.8
76.8
24.9
17.6
33.5
Returnees are changing
China in various ways
1. Education and Science Areas
Talent Type
Returnees Ratio
University Presidents
University Advisers
Directors of Key laboratory
78%
63%
72%
Winners of National Award for
Technological Invention
40%
Winners of National Award for Science and
Technology Progress
30%
Source: Annual Report of Chinese Returnees Entrepreneurship 2012
• 2. In Chinese Government
• In history, the cabinet of Dr. Sun Ya-San,
returnees took 15 of the 18 ministers and vice
minister positions in the nine government
ministries
• Today China still faces numerous challenges in
terms of science and technology innovation.
Encountered with a variety of domestic and
international complexities, China has to employ
high-quality talents with modern professional
knowledge and international views, especially
those who have studied overseas.
• 3. Key Players in China’s Hi-Tech
Industries and Entrepreneurship
High-end
Others
equipment 13.20%
manufacturing
5%
Environmental
Protection
5.80%
New Materials
7.40%
Service Industry
10.70%
Electronic
Technology
39.70%
Biologycal
Medicine
18.20%
Source: Survey of Annual Report of Chinese Returnees Entrepreneurship 2012
• 4. Pioneering Enterprises Listed
Overseas
 In 2009 alone, a record 33 Chinese companies
were listed on the NASDAQ.
 Most of the NASDAQ-listed Chinese companies
are either funded or run by Chinese returnees
• 5. Managing Multinationals in China
The new waves of Chinese overseas graduates
who had already returned, or who work for
MNCs or leading companies abroad, have filled
many of the top management positions in
MNCs, often as in-country directors or
managers.
• Google, Microsoft China, UBS, Alcatel,
News Corps, Siemens, Hewlett Packard,
Ernst and Young, BP and General
Motors.……
By Huiyao Wang, Emerald Publishing, 2011, 2012 United Kingdom
Ⅱ. China Global Talent Future
Trends
• Talent Movement Speeds up
– More Going Abroad
– More Coming Back
– More New Comers
Lowering Ages of Chinese Students
Going Abroad
Students going to study in secondary schools in US
2005-2006
2010-2011
65
6725
Source: US Department of Homeland Security
The number of mainland students participated SAT in
Hong Kong in 2013 is expect to be 60,000. Asia WorldExpo has been used as SAT examination hall since 2011 .
60000
40000
40000
28000
20000
0
7000
2007-2008
15000
2008-2009
2009-2010
2011-2012
Source: Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority
Lowering Ages of Chinese Students
Going Abroad
Students in High-School Intention
to Study Overseas
No, 29%
Yes, 71%
Performance in the Class of
the Youth Intending to Study
Overseas
68.2%
Most Students in China’s HighSchool want to study abroad.
Most of them are top students.
Top 25%
51-75%
26-50%
After 76%
Source: The Survey for Study Abroad of High School Students ,by CCG,2013
China is Becoming the New Study
Destination of World Students
100,000 Strong China
• Secretary of State Hillary Clinton officially
launched the initiative ,100,000 Strong China ,in
May 2010 in Beijing. The Chinese government
strongly supports the initiative and has already
committed 10,000 “Bridge Scholarships” for
American students to study in China.
China is Becoming the Biggest Driver
of International Tourism Growth
• Over 83 million Chinese tourists spent $102 billion
overseas in 2012, almost double the amount
recorded in 2010 (UN/WTO). Chinese are becoming
one of the biggest overseas travelers spending
countries.
• Chinese President Xi Jinping spoke at the Opening
Ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia 2013 --- the
number of China’s outbound tourists may well
exceed 400 million in the coming 5 years!
III. China’s Talent Policy Development
ⅰ. The 18th CPC National Congress:
Establish an talent system advantage with
international competitiveness
Implement the strategy of
revitalizing China through
talents.
Speed up the system and
mechanism reform of talent
development and policy
innovation
ⅱ. China’s National Talent Development
Plan (2010-2020)
• 2001 APEC conference on human capacity building
in Beijing.
• 2003 national conference on human resources
development
• Establishment The Central Talent Work Coordinating
Group
• 2007 CCP adopted talent development as a strategy
to revitalize the country and put this into the Party
Congress Report and Party Charter
• 2010 passing China’s National Talent Development
Plan (2010-2020)
Main Indicators of China’s National
Talent Development Plan
Target
Total Number of Talent
Ratio of R & D talent in Labor Force
Unit
2008
2015
2020
10
11385
Thousand
15625
18025
1/10000
24.8
33
43
Ratio of High Skilled Talents in Labor
%
24.4
27
28
Ratio of Labor Force who Have Higher
%
9.2
15
20
Ratio of Human Capital Investment of GDP
%
10.75
13
15
Ratio of Talent Contribution to
GDP
%
18.9
32
35
ⅲ. Thousand Talents Program
•
•
•
•
•
2008 Thousand Talents Program (千人计划)
2010 Thousand Young Talents Program
2011 Thousand Foreign Experts program
2011 Special Talent Zone (人才特区)
2012 Ten Thousand Talent Plan (万人计划)
By now ,more than 3,300 overseas high-level talent has
been recruited under Central Government Thousand
Talents Program and 20,000 under local programs
ⅳ Policy Breakthrough
1. China Talent Visa
• In July,2012, China revised the Law of Exit
and Entry, established a Talent Visa under
the ordinary visa type.
• In July 2013, China has introduced new“
talent visa ” .
2. China Green Card
In Aug, 2004,China implemented “Green Card”
system.
By the end of 2011, the number of foreigners who get
Foreigner‘s Permanent Residence Card is 4752.
According to the newest official statistics, this data
has nearly 6000 by now.
According to official of Bureau of Exit and Entry
Administration ,China will lower the requirement of
obtaining Chinese Green Card in the near future ,to allow
more talent living permanently .
3.Measures of Foreigners Permanent Residence in
China ‘s Relevant Treatment (Sept, 2012)
• Foreign residents enjoy the same rights and bear the same obligations
as Chinese citizens in principle, except political rights and some rights
and obligations not entitled in laws and regulations;
• Their period of stay in China is unrestricted; they could enter and exit
China with valid passport and foreigners permanent residence card ,
without having to make a separate visa and other formalities;
• If they are under employment in China, they don’t have to apply the
“Foreign Employment Permit;
• They can found foreign-invested enterprises with technology shares
or capital shares, and develop Foreign Direct Investment with lawfully
RMB in China;
• They can participate in the social insurance procedures by the valid
identity certificate, Foreign Permanent Residence Permit .
4. China’s New Exit-Entry Law
New law went to effect at
July 1,2013
New exit-entry regulation
for foreigners was released
in July 23 and went to
effect at Sep 1,2013
IV. Some Policy Recommendations
 China needs to improve its global talents movement
 Should further enhance its policy on overseas talents
 Attract more foreign students coming to China
 Lower Chinese green card requirements
 Adopt dual nationalities to attract the diasporas
 Put emphasis on global entrepreneurs and innovators
 Increase China’s global talent population percentage
 Set up a Chinese Immigration Bureau
V. Further Global Talent
Cooperation Ideas
Bilateral and Multilateral Cooperation
on Global Talent Movement
Establish mechanism, to promote the talent
development and talent use cooperation ,to
cultivate more internationalized talent, and to
promote the talent circulation in area.
•FTA : Free Talent Agreement between Governments
•Talent Exchange Platform set by Governments or NGOs
•Government Talent Dialogue
Second Track Bilateral Talent
Movement Roundtable
Roundtable on Sino-US Global Talent Movement
in Aug, 2013 , Beijing
Organized by Center for China and Globalization
Second Track Bilateral Talent
Movement Roundtable
Sino-Canada Human Resources
Dialogue June 2013,Beijing
Co-organized by CCG,CAPS , SAFEA and AFPC
Multilateral Discussion on Global
Talent Movement
International Roundtable
Forum on Global Talent
in Singapore in
June ,2013
IOM Roundtable in
Beijing, China Sep,2,2013
with Mr. Swing, Director
General of IOM
Capacity Building For Migration
Management in China Project Phase II,
Sept. 5-6, 2013,Beijing
• The Capacity Building for Migration Management in
China Project (CBMM-China) Phase II is a joint
undertaking involving the close cooperation and
coordination of IOM, ILO, and the Government of the
People’s Republic of China (PRC), the European
Union (EU), and various EU Member States (MS). The
forum is to further promote the development of
Europe-China cooperation and exchange on
migration management issues, as well as to
decrease the talent movement barriers.
Global Summit on Migration and
Development ,Oct 3 ,2013,New York
• Next month, the UN General Assembly in New York
will host a two-day global summit on migration and
development beginning on 3 October.
• This second high-level dialogue will aim to
identifying concrete measures to strengthen
coherence and cooperation at all levels, with a view
to enhancing the benefits of international migration
for migrants and countries alike and its important
link to development, while reducing its negative
impacts.
Thank you !
王辉耀
Wang, Huiyao PhD
Senior Fellow
Harvard Kennedy School
Email: [email protected]
Director General
Center for China and Globalization
Web: www.ccg.org.cn
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 86-10-65611038, 65611039

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