IID Policy Environment in the Philippines Policies, Programs and

Report
IID Policy Environment in the Philippines
Policies, Programs and Institutions
Prof. E. E. Ricote
ASPAP Inc.
Situational Backgrounder
(Policy Context)
•
Policymaking process (agenda-setting-formulation-formalization- adoptionimplementation) formalized in institutions with policy making mandate (legislative
branch)
•
Executive Branch translates legislation into executive policies (Exec/Admin Orders)
at the sector and/or department levels (Implementing Rules and Regulations, Dept
Order, Memo Circular, etc) and down to local governments (Local Council Provisions)
•
Critical role of institutions with specific legal mandates (policymaking, regulatory,
oversight, implementing, etc) in translating policies to programs, projects and
activities
•
Has provisions for participation by non-state governance actors
•
Politicized and constrained by institutional and fiscal limitations
Public Policy Process in the Philippines
Policy Cycle
POLICY STAGES in the PHILIPPINES
Institutions
Agenda Setting
Public sector’s development requirements;
Amendments to current policies; Sectoral advocacies,
etc.
State actors – legislators,
executive offices,
Non-state actors –
development agencies,
industry, private business,
NGOs/Pos, etc.
Policy
FORMULATON
Policymakers in the legislative and
executive (national and local) take up the
agenda
Policy ADOPTION
Formal enactment of the official and legal
policy instrument after a series of dialogues
and consultations with state and non-state
sectors; presentation of options
Congress (Republic Acts)
Executive (Implementing
Rules and Regulations, Exec
Order, Admin Order, Dept.
Order, Memo Circular, etc)
LGUs (Council
Resolutions)
Policy
IMPLEMENTATION
Translation of the policy into programs and
projects at the executive branch - from the
President to the line agencies and concerned
institutions at the national and local levels;
Mobilization of resources - funds, personnel,
etc.
Executive Branch –
Departments, Agencies,
LGUs, Budget Department
Office, Civil Service,
Regulatory and Oversight
Agencies
Policy Evaluation
Policy Implementation Review and Evaluation towards
Agenda Setting
Policy
FORMALIZATION
The Phil Inclusive Dev Agenda
INCLUSIVE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
OUTCOMES
Reduce Poverty
Increase Employment
PHIL
DEVELOPMENT
PLAN 2011-2016
3 BROAD
STRATEGIES
1.High and Sustained
Economic Growth
2. Equal Access to Dev
Opportunities
3.Effective and Responsive
Social Safety Nets
1) High and sustained economic growth - attain a high and sustained
economic growth that provides productive employment opportunities
2) Equal access to development opportunities – a) better
education, primary health care and nutrition and other basic services; b) equal
access to infrastructure, credit, land, technology and other productive inputs; c)
improve governance and strengthen institutions to promote competition
3) Effective and responsive social safety nets – protect and enable
those who do not have the capability to participate in the economic growth process
Selected Phil IID Policies
Criteria – a) critical inclusive growth driver; b) has a formally adopted
legal/policy basis; b) went through the policy processes; c) under implementation
PDP 20112016 Chapter
Public
Policies
Program
Implementing
Institutions
Chapter 5 –
Infrastructure
RA 7718
EO 8
EO136
Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
Program
NGA, NEDA-ICC
GOCCs, LGUs,
Chapter 8
Social
Development
RA 10354
Reproductive Health Program
DOH, LGUs
EO 221
AO 15
Conditional Cash Transfer
Program (Pantawid Pamilyang
Pilipino Program – 4Ps)
DSWD, DOH, DepEd,
LGUs
RA 8425
KALAHI-CIDDS
NAPCC, DSWD,
HDPRC, LGUs
RA 10121
Disaster Risk Reduction and
Management Program
NDRRMC, LGUs
Chapter 10
Environment
Profiling the Public Policies (1)
Public-Private-Partnerships (PPP) Policy
Policy Cycle
Policy Formulation
Emanated from constitutional provision on the role of private sector in
development; Private sector finance regarded as resource under the development
assistance program
Policy Adoption
RA 7718 – (Amended BOT Law, 1994) - Enacted to provide solid legal basis to
engage private sector financing and technology in critical infrastructure and
development sectors; IRR committee created to develop Implementing Rules and
Regulations (IRR) which was amended in 2012
Executive Order # 8 (2010) – Formalized PPP Program; Established a PPP
Center as main coordinating agency; Mandated implementing agencies
(IAs/GOCCs/LGUs) to develop PPP projects; create PPP units
Executive Order 136 (2013) – Established a PPP Governing Board
Policy
Formalization
Policy
Implementation
PPP Center established to provide project development and capacity building
interventions to IAs/GOCCs/LGUs; DBM mobilized funds for the PPPC and its
Project Development Monitoring Facility (PDMF), DOF (Contingent Liability Fund)
and Infra Agencies (Strategic Support Fund)
Current Pipeline of PPP Projects – 6 Awarded Projects (PhP45 B); 4 Projects
Under Bidding (PhP121 B); 16 Projects Under Review and Structuring; 18 projects
under study
Policy Evaluation
Proposed amendment to RA 7718 submitted to Congress; Certified priority bill
Profiling the Public Policies (2)
Reproductive Health Policy
Policy Cycle
Policy Formulation
Draws historical basis on 1967’s Declaration on Population by 12 countries
including the Phil whereby population be considered a principal element for long
term economic development; Proposed by the health department as a
comprehensive response to guarantee universal access to methods on
contraception; fertility control, sex education and maternal care
Policy Adoption
Republic Act 10354 (2012) – Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health
Act
While there was general agreement about its provisions on maternal and child care, there
remains a huge debate about its mandate that the state and private sector will fund and
undertake widespread distribution of family planning devices, birth control pills and IUDs
and government continues to disseminate information on their use in health centers
Policy
Formalization
Policy
Implementation
Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) has yet to be developed
Funding allocation has yet to be mobilized through DOH and other agencies with
specific roles – FDA, LGUs, etc.
Family planning and responsible parenthood component to be integrated in anti
poverty programs (Chapter 12)
Policy Evaluation
A petition questioning the constitutionality of the RH Law was raised to the Supreme Court
which voted, in March 2013, to issue a status quo ante order halting its implementation
Profiling the Public Policies (3)
Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) Policy
Policy Cycle
Policy Formulation
Drew urgency from old law’s (P.D. 1566) disaster management policy focused only
around the hazard and the impacts of a disaster. It assumed that disasters cannot be
avoided. Most of the plans were on the provision of relief goods and infrastructure.
The DRRM Act came as a response to increasing risk of disasters in the face of
intensified global climate change.
Policy Adoption
Republic Act 10121 – DRRM Act Amending previous policies and
providing a comprehensive DRRM Program. The DRRM Act adopts and
adheres to principles & strategies consistent with the international standards set by
the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), a comprehensive, action‐oriented
response to international concern on disaster impact on individuals, communities &
national development.
Policy
Formalization
Policy
Implementation
Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) – Focus on integrated priorities for
action towards disaster risk reduction – a) disaster preparedness; b) risk
assessment; c) vulnerability reduction; d) knowledge management and, e) governance
Inter-agency National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council
(NDRRMC) with defined roles for government agencies, local governments, civil
society, private sector and the affected local communities
Policy Evaluation
Evaluation of policies, processes and institutional roles reiterated in the light of recent
disasters that highlighted readiness and coordination challenges between national and local
governments
Profiling the Public Policies (4)
Kapit Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan- Comprehensive Integrated
Delivery of Social Services (KALAHI-CIDSS)
Policy Cycle
Policy Formulation
Framed from the National Anti-Poverty Program (Social Reform Act)
Consolidated the lessons and strategies of the two poverty reduction programs –
CIDSS (DSWD) and Kecamatan Development Program (Indonesia)
Policy Adoption
Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act (RA 8125 - 1998)
Embodied in Philippine Development Plan (PDP 2011-2016) and NAPC’s community
driven development (CDD) thrust .
Scaling up of the CDD through the Human Development and Poverty
Reduction Cluster - NAPC, DAR, DA, DepEd, DOE, DILG, DOLE, etc.
Policy
Formalization
Policy
Implementation
First Phase (KC-1) 2003-2010 – 42 poorest provinces (over 50% nationwide)
assisted in small scale but responsive to community-identified needs (e.g.
school buildings, health stations, day-care centers, post-harvest facilities, etc)
By end of 2010, the project funded partially by WB has covered a total of 5,543
barangays (villages) in 200 municipalities
Millennium Challenge Account Phil (MCA-Phil) funded KC-II (Aug 2011)
and benefited 160 municipalities in 24 provinces, as 2,672 subprojects completed
including 249 school buildings, 198 water systems, 117 day-care centers, 99 health
stations, 45 flood and river control systems
Policy Evaluation
Consolidation of lessons and challenges (c/o DSWD) particularly on the role of local
governments - towards policy, process and implementation improvements
Case Study - Conditional Cash Transfer
Guidelines (Pantawid Pamilya Program)
Policy Cycle
Policy Formulation
Evolved from the social development objective of breaking the inter-generational
poverty cycle through investments (health, education) in human capital;
Inspired and adopted from other developing countries’ cash transfer schemes to
selected beneficiaries provided they comply with program conditions
Expected to help fulfill Phil’s MDG Goals – 1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
2) Achieve universal primary education; 3) Promote gender equality; 4) Reduce child
mortality; 5) Improve maternal health
Policy Adoption
Executive Order 221 (2003) - Redirected the functions and operations of the
DSWD to provide assistance to LGUs, NGOs, Pos, etc. effectively implementing
services to reduce poverty; empower poor individuals/families/communities
Administrative Order 15 (2008) – Guidelines on the Implementation of a Pantawid
Pamilya Program (Conditional Cash Transfer Program)
Policy
Formalization
Policy
Implementation
Program Coverage – 79 provinces covering 1,484 municipalities and 143 key cities in
all 17 regions nationwide
Program Cycle – 1) selection of target beneficiaries; 2) supply side assessment; 3)
selection of households; 4) registration and validation; 5) family registry preparation
6) initial payment; 7) verification of compliance; 8) 2nd and succeeding releases
Program Package – Ph6,000 a year or Ph500 per household for health and nutrition
expenses; Ph3,000 a school year (10 months) or PhP300/month/child for educational
expenses; maximum of 3 children per household
Case Study - Conditional Cash Transfer
Guidelines (Pantawid Pamilya Program)
Policy Cycle
Policy
Formulation
CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED
Translation of policy objectives into specific implementing guidelines covering
various sectors (education, health) , levels of implementation (national and
local governments and communities) and the multi-sector participants and
stakeholders (private/NGO conduits, development agencies
Policy Adoption • Clarification of mandates/roles/deliverables of concerned public institutions
Policy
Formalization
and private/non-public actors/participants
• Monitoring and evaluation framework and mechanics
• Accountability mechanisms (systems, processes, institutions, fiscal, etc)
• Local constraints and realities – database/documentation and ICT concerns
Policy
Implementation • Location/distance concerns relative to disbursements, tracking, monitoring
• Political and community considerations relative to selection, verification,
transparency and accountability
• Creativity and Innovation in handling/managing challenges
• Public Communications
Policies
and Programs
Innovations

Public-Private
Partnerships(PPP)



Reproductive Health 
Law

KALAHI-CIDDS



Disaster Risk
Reduction and
Management
Program (DRRM)

The Conditional
Cash Transfer
Program




Inclusiveness Aspects
Creative project structures that tap private sector
financing instead of government budget or official
development assistance
Tapping of private sector efficiencies (i.e.
construction, operations, maintenance, ICT, etc)
Risk sharing arrangements facilitated risks transfer
from government to private partners
The Project Development Facility (PDMF) facilitated
due diligence in project preparation and
procurement at no cost to government

Proper policy context and content that include
social dimensions of reproduction that made the
law take its appropriate social relevance and
urgency
Creative approaches to drive and articulate policy
objectives

Simplification of processes and procedures
The community driven development (CDD)
approach facilitated people empowerment
The sense of ownership among the participants
and stakeholders encouraged by the CDD approach
built up a renewed sense of accountability in them






Clarity in the delineation of roles and tasks by

various national and local institutions
Utilization of ICT-based methodologies/approaches 
Primacy of public communications (i.e. traditional
and social media) as a tool
Creative consolidation of health/nutrition,
education and productivity-inducing interventions
into one program
Customization of similar best practice and


The expanded definition of infrastructure to include
development projects (i.e. social infrastructure such as
education, health, etc)
Generation of jobs and related economic activities that
directly impact on poverty reduction targets
Infrastructure directly impacts on expansion of logistic
chains and integration of multimodal national transport
and logistics systems
Savings generated (Avoided Cost)which can be allocated
to social requirements
Social and economic considerations (i.e. quality of family
life, health and nutrition, women’s health, children
welfare, etc) appropriately captured in all phases of the
policy process and dialogue
Reproductive health’s direct correlation with economic
productivity prudent use of public sector resources
Participation by the entire community, including formal
and traditional leaders, representatives of different
sectors, individuals, groups, and local organizations
Participation of women and indigenous people and
broadening the base of participation prevents elite
capture of project activities and benefits.
Participation by all state and non-state actors both at the
national and local levels
Direct correlation between disaster reduction,
rehabilitation and management and productivity,
employment, resource generation and sustainable
development
Direct benefit to education, health/nutrition targets
Generation of productive activities that bring about
employment, access to opportunities and resources
Lessons and Recommendations
• Innovation can be institutionalized into the policy process.
Diligence in the development and processing of policy inputs is crucial
• Inclusive and innovative development need not always
require new legislation. It can take the form of amendments to
existing legislation or translation of policies into more focused policy
instruments further broken down into specific programs and projects
• Institutions play a central role in the IID policy advocacy.
Their strength or weakness (authority, structure, systems, fiscal/human
resources) spell the difference in making innovation evolve and thrive
in an inclusive manner throughout the policy process, especially at
implementation
• Context is key. The existing and evolving policy, institutional and
socio-political realities are as important as the Content of the IID
policy
Lessons and Recommendations
• Innovations at inclusiveness can be replicated, customized
and expanded. There is a need to document and make available
information and knowledge
• Capacity building for all policy actors – state and non-state
stakeholders – should be continuous and accessible
• Credible institutions (or network of institutions such as UNIIDSEA) should lead the advocacy and action to
–
–
–
–
Build up an IID policy research agenda in the region in a collaborative manner
Forge partnerships with organizations/partners pursuing similar advocacies
Document learning, develop knowledge, disseminate and communicate
Facilitate a thriving venue/platform for continued discourse, learning, sharing and
capacity building of institutions, organizations, persons and other IID champions
Thank you.
www.aspap.org

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