Chapter 1 Transportation and Geography

Report
THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS Chapter 1 – Transportation
THIRD EDITION
and Geography
APPLICATIONS
Copyright © 1998-2015, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography,
Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA.
[email protected]
You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or
redistribution permitted.
For more information: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans
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• Information cited from this document should be referred as: Rodrigue, J-P et al. (2009) The Geography of Transport
Systems, Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography, http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
Strategic Maritime Passages
THIRD EDITION
Application 2
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Maritime Shipping Routes and Strategic Locations
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Potential Impacts of Transoceanic Passages and Canals
Operational Impacts
• Improved capacity, reliability and transit time.
• Lower unit costs.
Substitution Impacts
• Cargo diversion.
• Changes in routing and transshipment.
Induced Impacts
• New and expanded trade relations.
• Development of transshipment hubs and logistics zones.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Capacity of Key Strategic Passages
Panama
Suez
Malacca
Minimum depth
12 meters (40 feet)
16 meters (58 feet)
21 meters (68 feet)
Length
64 km
190 km
800 km
Standard
Panamax
Suez-max
Malacca-max
Ship capacity
65,000 dwt
210,000 dwt
240,000 dwt
TEU equivalent
4,500
12,000
20,000
Transits (day/year)
36 / 14,000
47 / 17,000
210 / 75,000
Average transit time
16.5 hours
10 to 12 hours
20 hours
Share of global maritime
trade
About 4%
About 9%
About 30%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Maritime Chokepoints: Capacity, Limitations and Threats
Chokepoint
Crossings
(2009)
Additional Capacity
Limitation
Threat (disruption
potential)
Hormuz
50,000
Limited
Narrow corridors (two 3
km wide channels)
Iran
Bab-el-Mandeb 22,000
Substantial
Narrow corridors
Piracy / Terrorism
Suez
17,000
Some
200,000 dwt and convoy
size
Political instability in
Egypt, Terrorism
Bosporus
50,000
Very limited
Ship size and length;
210,000 dwt
Restrictions by Turkey;
navigation accident
Malacca
60,000
Substantial
300,000 dwt
Piracy
Panama
14,000
Limited (expansion in
2014)
65,000 dwt (120,000 dwt
after expansion)
No significant
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Distance and Time Deviations from Malacca Strait Route
VLCC (Jubail / Ulsan)
Distance (nautical miles)
Time
Deviation (nautical miles /
hours)
Malacca Strait
12,426
828.4
0/0
Lombok Strait
14,958
997.2
2,532 / 168.8
6,500 TEU Containership (Suez / Busan)
Malacca Strait
14,860
582.8
0/0
Sunda Strait
15,946
625.4
1,086 / 42.6
Lombok Strait
17,348
680.4
2,488 / 97.6
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Dry Canal Projects in Central America
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Tonnage and Number of Transits, Panama Canal, 1915-2014
18,000
350
16,000
300
14,000
Transits
12,000
10,000
200
8,000
150
6,000
100
Millions of Panama Canal Tons
250
4,000
50
2,000
0
1915
1918
1921
1924
1927
1930
1933
1936
1939
1942
1945
1948
1951
1954
1957
1960
1963
1966
1969
1972
1975
1978
1981
1984
1987
1990
1993
1996
1999
2002
2005
2008
2011
2014
0
Transits
Tonnage
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Market Share of Asian Imports by American Coast
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
84.5
85
83
76.5
75.5
75
74
71.5
70.5
81
78
23.5
24.5
25
26
28.5
29.5
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
15.5
15
17
19
22
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
0%
East / Gulf Coasts
West Coast
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Central American Canal Routes Considered
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Interoceanic Ship Railway
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main Component of the Panama Canal
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Shipping Rate from Shanghai to Selected North American Ports for a 40 Foot Container,
Mid 2010
Vancouver
Montreal
$2,300
$2,110
$4,040
$3,950
New York
$3,700
$1,830
Los Angeles
$2,620
$1,400
Houston
$3,510
$2,560
$1,300
$2,100
Inbound
Outbound
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Value Proposition of Panama
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main Trade Routes Using the Panama Canal, 2012
84.3 M tons
Asia
US
US
West Coast East Coast
9.7 M tons
Europe
14.4 M tons
WCCA
12.2 M tons
27.6 M tons
WCSA
WCCA: West Coast Central America
WCSA: West Coast South America
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Main Routing Alternatives between the Pacific and Atlantic
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main Export-Oriented Regions and Shipping Routes Servicing North America
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Conventional
Direct
North
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
South
Atlantic / Gulf
Transshipment
Circum-Equatorial
North
Atlantic
North
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
South
Atlantic / Gulf
South
Atlantic / Gulf
Caribbean
Transshipment
Triangle
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
North
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
South
Atlantic / Gulf
Conventional
Direct
North
Atlantic
North
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
South
Atlantic / Gulf
Transshipment
Caribbean
Transshipment
Triangle
South
Atlantic / Gulf
Circum-Equatorial
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
North
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
South
Atlantic / Gulf
Conventional
Direct
North
Atlantic
North
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
Central
Atlantic
South
Atlantic / Gulf
South
Atlantic / Gulf
Caribbean
Transshipment
Triangle
Transshipment
Circum-Equatorial
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main East and Gulf Coasts Port Infrastructure Developments Associated with the Expansion
of the Panama Canal
PORT
CHANNEL CLEARANCE
PORT INFRASTRUCTURE
HINTERLAND ACCESS
Boston
Plans to dredge the channel depth from 40 to 48 feet under study (no
specific timeline).
New York
Harbor channels dredged to 50 feet (completed in 2014). Clearance
improvement of the Bayonne Bridge (to be completed in 2017).
Expansion of Global Terminal completed in 2014.
ExpressRail improvements (South Hudson
Intermodal Facility). Crescent Corridor (CSX)
Philadelphia
Plans to dredge the Delaware River channel from 40 to 45 feet (to be
completed in 2017).
Baltimore
No plans (currently at 50 feet)
4 super-post Panamax cranes installed in 2013 at
Seagirt Marine Terminal.
National Gateway Project (CSX)
Hampton Roads
Discussions to dredge from the current draft of 50 feet to 55 feet (no
specific timeline).
Craney Island Eastward Expansion project.
National Gateway Project (CSX). Heartland
Corridor (NS)
Wilmington, NC
Plans to dredge the port channel from 42 to 44 feet (to start in 2019).
Charleston
Plans to dredge the port channel from 45 to 52 feet (to be completed in
2018/19).
Savannah
Dredging the port channel from 42 to 47 feet under way (to be completed
in 2016).
Jacksonville
Plans to dredge from the current draft of 40 feet to 47 feet. (expected to
start in 2016 subject to funding).
Miami
Harbor channel dredged from 42 to 50 feet (completed in 2014).
Mobile
Plans to dredge harbor channel from 45 to 50 feet (no timeline specified).
New Orleans
Plans to dredge harbor channel from 45 to 50 feet (no timeline specified).
New Louisiana International Gulf Transfer Terminal (no
specific timeline)
Houston
Plans to dredge access channels to main container terminals from 40 to
45 feet (to be completed in 2016)
Bayport and Barbour Cuts terminal improvements.
National Gateway Project (CSX)
Construction of a new terminal gate (to be completed
in 2015). 8 super-post Panamax cranes to be
purchased.
New container facility at Dames Point opened in 2009.
7 super-post Panamax cranes installed in 2013.
Intermodal Container Transfer Facility (CSX)
(to be completed in 2015)
PortMiami tunnel (completed in 2014).
PortMiami-Florida East Coast (FEC) Railway
connection (completed in 2014).
Intermodal rail terminal adjacent to port
planned (no specific timeline)
Crescent Corridor (CSX)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Panama Transshipment Cluster
Caribbean Sea
1 Gatun Locks
2 Pedro Miguel Lock
3 Miraflores Locks
CCT (Evergreen): 491,000 TEU
MIT (SSA): 1,899,000 TEU
Cristobal (HPH): 981,000 TEU
1
Lake
Gatun
Panama Canal Railway:
355,000 units
Centennial Bridge
Pacific Canal Expansion
Panama International Terminal (PSA):
50,000 TEU
Atlantic Canal Expansion
2
3
Balboa (HPH): 3,232,000 TEU
Bridge of the Americas
Pacific Ocean
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Millions
Container Traffic Handled at the Main Panamanian Ports, 1997-2013
8
7
6
5
Cristobal
Colon
Balboa
4
3
2
1
0
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Container Traffic Handled by the Panama Canal Railway, 2001-2012 (units)
400,000
375,000 380,000
355,000
350,000
350,000
300,000
250,000
225,000
210,000
200,000
150,000
110,000
89,000
100,000
50,000
16,000
32,000
37,000
44,000
2002
2003
2004
0
2001
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Routing Options between Pacific Asia and the American East Coast
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Traffic Transiting through the Panama Canal (in number of Ships)
14,000
12,000
10,000
Other
Passengers
8,000
Vehicle Carriers
General Cargo
6,000
Tankers
Refrigerated
Dry Bulk
4,000
Container
2,000
0
2003
2004
2008
2009
2010
2013
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main Cargo Transited by the Panama Canal
Other Agricultural Products
Canned/Refrigerated Products
Lumber and Products
Machinery and Equipment
Minerals
Iron/Steel Manufactured Products
Nitrates and Phosphates
Miscellaneous
Chemicals and Petrochemicals
Metals and Ores
Coal
Grains
Petroleum and Products
Containerized Cargo
0
10
20
2013
2009
30
Million Long Tons
40
50
60
2007
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main Cargo Transited by the Panama Canal by Direction, 2013
Northbound
Southbound
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Million Long Tons
Containerized Cargo
Petroleum and Products
Grains
Coal
Metals and Ores
Chemicals and Petrochemicals
Miscellaneous
Nitrates and Phosphates
Iron/Steel Manufactured Products
Minerals
Machinery and Equipment
Animal / Vegetable Oils & Fats
Lumber and Products
Canned/Refrigerated Products
Other Agricultural Products
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Average Transit Times for the Panama Canal, 2002-2012
35
13,500
30
13,000
12,500
Hours
20
15
12,000
Number of Transits
25
Time Spent in Panama Canal's Waters
Canal Transit Time
Oceangoing Transits
10
11,500
5
0
11,000
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2011
2012
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Average Panama Canal Water Time, 1999-2007 (hours)
50
45
40
35
30
With Reservation
25
Without Reservation
20
15
10
5
0
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Comparative Characteristics of the Panama Canal Expansion
Panamax (1914-)
New Panamax (2016)
Beam
32 m (106 feet)
49 m (160 feet)
Length
294 m (965 feet)
366 m (1,200 feet)
Draft
12 m (40 feet)
15.2 m (50 feet)
Container Vessel
Capacity
4,500 TEU
12,000 TEU
Bulk Carrier Capacity
52,000 DWT
119,000 DWT
Locks
Miter gates
Three lock systems:
Gatun Locks (3 stages; 85 feet)
Pedro Miguel Lock (1 stage; 31 feet)
Miraflores Locks (2 stages; 54 feet)
Rolling gates
Two lock systems:
Atlantic Locks (3 stages)
Pacific Locks (3 stages)
Cost
$387 million
$5.25 billion
Annual Capacity (# of
ships)
13,500 – 14,000
16,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Challenges to the Expansion of the Panama Canal
Issue
Challenge
Aggregate demand
Potential shift in demand growth patterns (less growth in North America and
more growth in Latin America)
Maritime shipping
Higher shipping costs and slow steaming; Tolls taking a large share of the
benefits of economies of scale
Economies of scale
Less ship calls and traffic concentration
Transshipment hubs
Changes in the transshipment dynamics (hub concentration);
"Funnel effect" towards Panama
West Coast Ports
Improved competitiveness of West Coast ports through better hinterland access
Railways
Improved competitiveness of North American rail corridors;
Emerging dichotomy between East Coast and West Coast railways
Gateways
New points of entry to service markets (e.g. Lazaro Cardenas, Prince Rupert)
Suez Canal
Increasing competitiveness of the Suez Route;
Potential of the Cape Route
Sourcing
Changes in sourcing strategies (e.g. near sourcing)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Panama’s Changing Role in the Global Transport System
Transit
(Pre 1914)
Tollbooth and
Connectivity
Transshipment
Hub
Logistics
Platform
(1914-1990s)
(1990s-2000s)
(2010s-?)
Added Value
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Panama’s Changing Role in the Global Transport System
Transit
Tollbooth
Transshipment
Logistics
Platform
Pre 1914
1914-1990s
1990s-2000s
2010s-?
Trails
Panama Railway (1855)
Panama Canal
Colon Free Trade Zone (1947)
Container Terminals (1995-)
Panama Canal Railway (2001)
Canal Expansion (2016)
Tocumen Airport
Logistics zones
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main East and Gulf Coasts Port Infrastructure Developments Associated with the Expansion
of the Panama Canal
Port
Channel Clearance
Port Infrastructure
Hinterland Access
Boston
Plans to dredge the channel depth from 40 to 48 feet under study (no
specific timeline).
New York
Harbor channels dredged to 50 feet (completed in 2014). Clearance
improvement of the Bayonne Bridge (to be completed in 2017).
Expansion of Global Terminal completed in 2014.
ExpressRail improvements. Crescent Corridor
(CSX)
Philadelphia
Plans to dredge the Delaware River channel from 40 to 45 feet (to be
completed in 2017).
Baltimore
No plans (currently at 50 feet)
4 super-post Panamax cranes installed in 2013 at Seagirt Marine
Terminal.
National Gateway Project (CSX)
Hampton Roads
Discussions to dredge from the current draft of 50 feet to 55 feet
(no specific timeline).
Craney Island Eastward Expansion project.
National Gateway Project (CSX). Heartland
Corridor (NS)
Wilmington, NC
Plans to dredge the port channel from 42 to 44 feet (to start in 2019).
Charleston
Plans to dredge the port channel from 45 to 52 feet (to be completed
in 2018/19).
Savannah
Plans to dredge the port channel from 42 to 47 feet (to be completed
in 2016).
Miami
Harbor channel dredged from 42 to 50 feet (completed in 2014).
Mobile
Plans to dredge harbor channel from 45 to 50 feet (no timeline
specified).
New Orleans
Plans to dredge harbor channel from 45 to 50 feet (no timeline
specified).
Louisiana International Gulf Transfer Terminal (no specific timeline)
Houston
Plans to dredge access channels to main container terminals from
40 to 45 feet (to be completed in 2016)
Bayport and Barbour Cuts terminal improvements.
National Gateway Project (CSX)
7 super-post Panamax cranes installed in 2013.
PortMiami tunnel (completed in 2014).
PortMiami-Florida East Coast (FEC) Railway
connection (completed in 2014).
Intermodal rail terminal adjacent to port
planned (no specific timeline)
Crescent Corridor (CSX)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Proposed Routes for the Nicaragua Canal
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Shipping Lanes and Strategic Passages in Pacific Asia
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Shipping Lanes, Strategic Passages and Oil Reserves in the Middle East
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Development of the Suez Canal, 1869-2007
Item
1869
1956
1962
1980
1994
1996
2001
2007
Width at 11m Depth
(meters)
44
60
90
160
210
210
210
210
Maximum Draft (feet)
22
35
38
53
56
58
62
62
Overall Length (km)
164
175
175
190
190
190
190
190
Doubled Parts (km)
none
29
29
78
78
78
78
78
10
14
15.5
19.5
20.5
21
22.5
22.5
5,000
30,000
80,000
150,000
180,000
185,000
210,000
220,000
Water Depth (meters)
Maximum Tonnage (dwt)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Tonnage and Number of Transits, Suez Canal, 1975-2013
25,000
1000
900
20,000
800
600
Transits
15,000
500
10,000
400
Millions of tons
700
300
5,000
200
100
0
0
1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012
Transits
Net Tonnage
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Suez Canal Toll per Net Tonnage, 2012
$450,000
$400,000
$350,000
$300,000
$250,000
$200,000
$150,000
$100,000
$50,000
$0
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
Toll (Ballast)
80,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
Toll (Laden)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main Routing Alternatives between East Asia and Northern Europe
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Largest Ship Size Handled by the Panama Canal and Suez Canal by Ship Class
Ship Type
Panama (Existing)
Panama (Expanded)
Suez
Container
Panamax (4,500 TEU)
New Panamax (12,500 TEU)
Triple E (18,000 TEU)
Tanker
Panamax (80,000 DWT)
Aframax (120,000 DWT)
Suezmax (200,000 DWT)
Bulker
Panamax (80,000 DWT)
Capesize (200,000 DWT)
VLOC (300,000 DWT)
LNG
Panamax (40,000 DWT)
Post Panamax (200,000
DWT)
Q-Flex (216,000 DWT)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Traffic at the Strait of Malacca
Traffic Type
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
3163
3303
3301
3487
3477
Tanker Vessels
13343
14276
14591
15667
16403
LNG / LPG Carriers
2962
3086
3141
3277
3343
Cargo Vessels
6603
6476
6065
6193
6624
Container Vessels
18283
20101
20091
19575
20187
Bulk Carriers
4708
5370
5754
6256
6531
Other
6895
6702
7091
7879
7071
55957
59314
60034
62334
63636
153
163
164
171
194
VLCC
Total Vessels
Average daily traffic
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Traffic at the Strait of Malacca
70000
60000
50000
Other
Bulk Carriers
40000
Container Vessels
Cargo Vessels
30000
LNG / LPG Carriers
Tanker Vessels
VLCC
20000
10000
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Dardanelles and Bosporus Passages
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

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