Fluorescent

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Energy Efficient Lighting
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– Benefits, Technologies & Services:
Mike Carter and Mark Farrell,
Energy Engineers
2
Lighting webinar benefits
–
–
–
–
Bottom line cost savings today!
Comfortable speaking with customers
Knowledge of terms and pros/cons
Awareness of energy efficiency opportunities
Electric Intensity (kWh/sqft)
Lighting
Cooling
(4.89)
30.4%
Ventilation
Office Equipment
Miscellaneous
Heating
Cooking
Refrigeration
Water Heating
Large Office Building
3
Contents
– Energy Basics
– Fundamentals of Light
– Lighting Technologies
– Lighting Controls
– Lighting Maintenance
– Business Solutions Toolkit
– Incentives/Rebates
4
Energy basics
– Power versus Energy

Kilowatt (kW) is a measure of power, like
the speedometer of your car that records
the rate at which miles are traveled.
Source: stock.xchng
• A bigger engine is required to travel at a faster rate.


Kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a measure of
energy consumption, like the odometer
on your car (miles).
Energy cost = power (kW) x time (hrs) x price
= kWh x $/kWh
Source: Commonwealth of Kentucky
• A 113-watt four lamp light fixture costs about $66 annually
when operating 16 hr/day (113 W x 5,840 hr x $0.10/kWh ÷
1,000 W/kW).
5
Energy basics
– Lights do not consume more energy when they
are first turned on.

Includes high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting.
– Pay the price for improved energy efficiency!

The operating cost over the lifetime of a light fixture
can far exceed the original purchase price.
6
Fundamentals of light
– Lumens—A measure of the perceived
power of light.

Constant output regardless of distance from source.
– Foot-candle—One lumen of light distributed over a
square foot area.



Depends on the distance from the light source.
Does not hold for focused fixtures like flood lamps.
Can be measured using light meter.
7
Lighting comparison
– Lighting has many metrics.




60-watt incandescent ~ 850 lumens (100 CRI) ~ 14 lpw
efficacy
32-watt T8 fluorescent ~ 2,800 lumens (83 CRI) ~ 88 lpw
400-watt metal halide ~ 24,000 lumens (65 CRI) ~ 60 lpw
400-watt high-pressure sodium ~ 45,000 lumens (22 CRI) ~
112 lpw
8
Incandescent / halogen
– 90% heat and 10% light (10 to 17 lumens
per watt)
– Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007
establishes higher minimum efficiency standards for
incandescent reflector lamps
(R lamps).
– Parabolic Aluminized Reflector
(PAR#) lamps

BR# (Bulged) and ER# (Ellipsoidal)
• # —the diameter of the widest part
of the lamp in eighths of an inch
(R20 = 20/8 = 2.5" diameter)
• EISA applies to > 2.25 " diameter
9
Incandescent / halogen
– Flood lights

Beam angle encompasses that part
of the beam that varies from peak |
brightness down to 50% of that intensity
as measured in a plane through the
nominal beam centerline.
– New halogen bulbs offer up to
30% energy savings, instant on,
no mercury, 100 CRI, and
compliance with EISA 2007.



Philips Halogena® Energy Saver/Energy
Advantage (3,000 hrs)
Sylvania Halogen SuperSaver® (1,000 hrs)
GE Edison™ (2,500 hrs)
10
Source: Philips Lighting
Fluorescent
– Historical timeline










1838—Michael Faraday’s glow tubes
1850s—Glass-blower Heinrich Geissler
1880s—Alexandre E. Becquerel coated tubes
1893—Nikola Tesla induction tubes
1896—Thomas Edison patented x-ray lamp
1890s—Daniel McFarlane Moore
1901—Peter Cooper Hewitt mercury vapor lamp
1927—Edmund Germer patent
1936—GE’s George E. Inman patent
1938—First commercial fluorescent tubes
11
Fluorescent
– Nomenclature (FxxT#)






F—fluorescent
Fxx—wattage (rapid start) or
length (instant start)
T- tubular; U—curved/bent
Circline—circle
T#—diameter in eighths of an inch
Ballast Factor (BF)—ratio of output compared to reference ballast
(not energy efficiency measure)
• Affects both watts and lumens
• Ranges from 0.6 to 1.3
– Fluorescent light
emission is a
chain reaction.
12
Fluorescent
– T8 Types (Generations)
Type
Name
Watts
Lumens
CRI
Life
(hrs, 000s)
1G
700 Series,
Basic
32 W
2,800
75-78
15-20
2G
800 Series
32 W
2,850 3,000
82-86
24-30
3G
Super, HO
32 W
2,950 3,200
82-86
24-30
4G
Reduced
Wattage,
Energy
Savers
23 W
25 W
28 W
30 W
2,000
2,400
2,750
2,850
82-86
Temp.
sensitive,
Instant start
only
13
Fluorescent
– Super T8 lamps, with high-efficiency ballasts, are
high-lumen (>3000 versus 2,850 standard) and extended
life (>24,000 versus 20,000 hours standard) products.

Only saves energy when combined with a lower
ballast factor ballast.
Initial
Lumens
T8
Super T8
Type
Watts
Ballast
Factor
Fixture
Lumens
Fixture
Watts
LPW
2,950
33
0.85
2,496
28
89
3,200
34
0.78
2,496
26
96
– T5 series (good for indirect lighting like suspended lighting).
Type
Initial
Lumens
Watts
LPW
Life
T5
2,900
28 W
104
24,000 hours
T5HO
5,000
54 W
93
24,000 hours
14
Fluorescent
– T8 versus T5




T5s (smaller diameter
and shorter) not
interchangeable with T8s.
Six F32T8s equivalent to
four F54T5HO.
T5s have lower mercury
content than T8s.
T5 lumen maintenance
better at higher ambient
temperatures but worse
in cold.
Source: RPI Lighting Research Center
• Holophane IntelliBay™ & IntelliVue™
• Lithonia I-BEAM™ System
15
Fluorescent
– Replace existing T12 fluorescent
lamps with T8 fluorescent lamps
(up to 30% savings).
Four-lamp T12 versus T8 Fixtures
– Start modes

Lamp
Type
Fixture
Watts
Fixture
Lumens
LPW
F32T12
148
9,120
62
F32T8
113
10,600
94
Programmed start (in series)
• Long preheat shuts down after start (up to 50,000 cycles).
• Can be wired in parallel

Rapid start (in series)
• Simultaneous preheat stays on all the time (15,000 to 20,000 cycles).
• Identified by 2-wires from ballast to each end of lamp.

Instant start (in parallel)
• No-preheat; high-voltage start (10,000 to 15,000 cycles).
• Identified by 1-wire from ballast to each end of lamp.
• Not good with occupancy sensors (<30 minute burn).
16
Fluorescent
– Fluorescent ballasts

Magnetic (60 Hz)
• Core and coil

Electronic (20 to 60 kHz)
• 10% to 15% more efficient
• NEMA Premium® Ballasts even better

All ballasts consume power even without lamps (2-lamp example).
• Electronic consumes 6 to 12 watts loaded and 3 to 7 watts open circuit.
• Magnetic consumes 18 to 20 watts loaded and 6 to 10 watts open circuit.
– Regulatory driver for electronic ballasts (T8 and T5 lamps)

No magnetic ballasts manufactured for replacement after June 2010.

2009 DOE Energy Regulations—Beginning July 14, 2012, these regulations
effectively eliminate most 4-ft T12, 8-ft (F96) T12 lamps, and 700 series (1st
generation) T8 lamps
17
Fluorescent
– Metal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent for High-bay

Probe start (PS) MH with low lumen maintenance (<65%) is
best target for replacement.
• EISA2007 imparts higher performance standards for PS MH.
• The lumen maintenance of metal halides can decrease
to 45% during its lifetime, whereas fluorescents maintain 90% to 95%
in optimal conditions.

Comparison
• One PS MH with 20,000 EOL lumens at 320 system watts
• Six F32T8 with 18,000 EOL lumens at 220 system watts

Remember—lumen output of fluorescents declines with
heat/cold.
18
Fluorescent
– Compact Fluorescent Lighting (CFL)









You get the same or more light output (lumens) with a 75%
energy reduction and over six times the rated life!
Up to 9,000 lumen output at 120 watts
(PL-H high 4-pin)
Energy savings far outweigh difference in lamp price.
Power factor is typically 0.6, but power savings
far outweighs low power factor.
Issue of mercury content can be addressed.
Use reflector flood CFLs (R-CFLs) in recessed
can lights.
Consider aluminum reflector CFL PAR lamps.
Source: NREL
Globes
Candelabra
19
Fluorescent
– Compact Fluorescent Lighting (CFL)

Twister

Single, double (T), triple (TR), quadruple (Q)
twin-tube (turns)

Integral ballast screw-in

Modular external ballast pin-based
• Gxx where xx is pin center-to-center dimension
(G23 has 23mm dimension)
» G23q where “q” means quad-pin base
» G23d-x where “d-x” means the number
of tubes (turns)
• 2-pin with integral starter requires
magnetic preheat ballast
• 4-pin (quad) with external starter
usually electronic ballast
20
Fluorescent
– Induction (electrodeless) lighting


High-frequency magnetron microwave power generator,
magnetic field coupling device (antenna), and phosphor coated
tube.
Up to 100,000 hour rated lamp life
• Lumen maintenance 70% at 60,000 hours
• Efficacy of 70 to 75 lumens per watt

Best applications have high labor cost.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Parking garages
Cold-storage rooms
Inaccessible roadway tunnels and underpasses
Illumination of roadway signs and inaccessible
Source: Osram Endura/Sylvania
IcetronTM Electrodeless Lamp
advertisement boards
Lighting over stairs or escalator wells
Open mall atriums or ceilings in "big box" retail areas
Pole-mounted luminaires for dusk-to-dawn illumination on a campus
Industry, petrochemical, and offshore applications
21
High Intensity Discharge
– Low Pressure Sodium



Most energy efficient lighting source
Not an arc source, so no glare
0 to 20 CRI
– High Pressure Sodium



Arc source with (20 to 65 CRI)
310 W and 360 W replacements exist
for 400 W
Electronic ballasts 5 to 20 W versus
50 to 70 W magnetic
22
High Intensity Discharge
– Metal Halide


Arc source with 60 to 95 CRI
Quartz or ceramic transparent tubes
• Ceramic (polycrystalline alumina—PCA) offers better lumen
maintenance, color rendering (95 versus 65 CRI), and color stability.
• Can operate on HPS ballasts (direct lamp replacement).
– Smaller Size <150W HID Ballasts


Generally 50% smaller in size (3" x 1.3" x 1.1") and lighter weight
than standard magnetic ballasts
Self-ballasted PAR30LN and
PAR38 (1,200 initial lumens) CMH lamps
replace 74W and 120W halogen bulbs
Source: Osram-Sylvania
23
High Intensity Discharge
– Sustained arc vs. fluorescent phosphor emission
Watts
Lumens
Lumen
Maintenance
1,000 W
47,500
65%
30
40
24,000
Low Pressure
Sodium
135 W
22,000
>95%
150
10
18,000
High Pressure
Sodium
400 W
45,000
75%
85
30
24,000+
Metal Halide**
452 W
40,000
70%
65
65
20,000
Type
Mercury Vapor*
LPW
CRI
Life
(hrs)
*Ballasts banned by EPAct2005
**Position dependent
– Strike time (minutes)
MV
LPS
HPS
MH Probe
MH Pulse
Warm up
4-7
7-15
1-4
2-15
1-4
Restrike
3-6
1
0.5-1
5-20
2-8
24
High Intensity Discharge
– Radio Frequency Lighting

Luxim LiFi™ or Light Emitting Plasma™ (LEP)
• An ac/dc converter generates an RF signal that is transmitted by a
special cable to a quartz lamp embedded in a dielectric
material.
• Pemco Lighting Products
STA-41-01 luminaire
» 273 system watts
» 23,000 initial lumens
» 5,500K CCT/80 CRI
» 50,000 hour rated life
» Dimmable to 20%
Source: Luxim
25
Solid state lighting
– Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

Electrical current driver circuit instead of ballast.

Relatively low lumens per watt (30 to 35 lpw) historically,
but now 45 to 60 lpw.

Long life; years, not hours.
• 70% lumen maintenance at 50,000 hours of operation.

Frequent switching does not affect rated life for LEDs
as it does for fluorescents.

Directional nature of LED results in
very high luminaire efficacy.
Very compact and low-profile.
Nothing to “break.”
No abrupt failure mode.



Source: NIST
26
Solid state lighting
– Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

Instant on (no warm-up time required).
Does generate harmonics, but no reported problems.
Some built-in surge and noise protection.
Expensive initial cost.

Heat sensitive.

Exit Signs
• Annual operating costs of $5 compared to $30 to $40 for incandescent or
fluorescent.
Compatible with battery backup (traffic lights).




Source: stock.xchng
27
Lighting controls
– Daylighting

Skylights/lightpipes, clerestory windows, or roof
monitors.

Energy savings can range from about $0.25/ft2 to
$0.50/ft2, depending on the building type,
location, office area plan, and local cost of energy.
Photosensor layout is important.

Source: LightLouver LLC

Occupancy sensors
◦ Ultrasonic has wider range than infrared
but is prone to false positives.
◦ Can shorten life of fluorescents with
instant start ballast.
◦ $30 to $150 cost.
◦ 2-year payback is normal.
28
Lighting controls
– Dimming




A solid-state dimmer works by using
silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs).
Radio frequency interference (RFI)
can be a problem.
Greatly increases bulb life for
incandescent/halogens.
Requires special dimming ballast for fluorescents.
• 3-wire, 2-wire, or 4-wire.
• Energy savings fairly linear with fluorescents.
• Continuous or bi-level dimming

HID lighting limited to 50% to 60% dimming.
• Two-level for magnetic ballasts (non-linear energy savings).
• Continuous for electronic ballasts (energy savings linear).
• Lamp life degrades if dimming to less than 60% level.
29
Lighting controls
– Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI)




A royalty-free, non-proprietary, two-way, open and interoperable
digital protocol.
The Gateway broadcasts commands to all digital ballasts across
the
signal cabling that
connects the ballasts
in parallel.
A ballast only responds
when the message
contains its specific
address.
Sixteen programmable
scenarios and groups
stored in the ballast.
30
Lighting controls
– Wireless Mesh Networks

Redundant
• Joining
• Healing

Spatial diversity
• Different routes

Temporal diversity
• Try again later
Source: Dust Networks
31
Lighting maintenance
– Nine components of a good lighting maintenance
program*:









Group relamping
Know your equipment
Focusing and adjustment
Verify lamp types and wattage
Verify color temperature
Confirm that everything is in working order
Watch for compatibility issues
Get rid of dirt
Do not forget exterior lighting
*"Everything You Need to Know About Maintaining Your Lighting System," by Jean Sundin, founder of Office for Visual Interaction, Inc.
32
Lighting maintenance
– Group relamping recommended at 60% to 80% of rated life.

Every 2 to 3 years for 20,000 hour fluorescents.

Can be 30% to 40% cheaper to group relamp due to labor savings.

Easier to schedule and outsource than spot relamping.

Reduces improper mixing of different types of lamps.

Normally done outside working hours.
– Lighting failure modes

Heat

Voltage transients

Vibration

Bad electrical connection

Improper cycling
33
The Business Solutions Toolkit
– Reduce energy expenditures with free, online tools




Energy benchmark data by business segment
Efficiency recommendations by business segment
Lighting, motor and other energy calculators
Facility energy assessment… plus more
– Get energy answers with live Web resources



“Ask an Expert” service supplies direct answers to energy questions
Searchable Energy Library and News resources
Monthly electronic newsletter delivered to your e-mailbox
34
How to access the Toolkit
– Links found on the Pacific Power website
 Can access direct at pacificpower.net/toolkit
– Register to use the Toolkit and you will receive our monthly
e-mail newsletter
35
What is in the Toolkit
36
Online business tools
pacificpower.net/toolkit
37
Pacific Power FinAnswer Express
– FinAnswer Express is for commercial and industrial customers–
either retrofit or new construction
– Pre-calculated incentives for high-efficiency lighting and HVAC
equipment

Custom incentives may be available for other types of equipment
– Incentive process (pre-purchase agreement or post purchase
application) varies by technology and project type

Please understand the process before you purchase!
– Check our website for on-line forms plus trade allies available to
help
– Also check for state and federal tax incentives at dsireusa.org
38
Pacific Power Energy FinAnswer
– Applies to comprehensive commercial or industrial projects–
either new construction or commercial retrofit*

Lighting and non-lighting projects can be packaged
– Starts with an energy analysis to identify options and highest
priority measures

Commissioning is required for most measures
– Incentives are project-based

Payable by one-time lump sum check, per project
– Incentive agreement must be signed before equipment is
purchased
– Check our website for participation steps and online forms
*Commercial retrofit projects must be at least 20,000 sq. ft. to be eligible
39
Contacts
– For more information please phone us:

Call your Business Solutions Team for answers to service and account
questions at 1-866-870-3419
– Visit our website at:


Business program Web page –
pacificpower.net/business
Business Solutions Toolkit –
pacificpower.net/toolkit
– Or contact us directly:



E-mail us at [email protected]
Use our online inquiry form – pacificpower.net/inquiry
Call our business Energy Services Hotline at 1-800-222-4335
– Also visit the Energy Trust of Oregon website at energytrust.org
40
© 2010 Tech Resources Inc.

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