Shelmerdine Chapter 3

Report
C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 3
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Noun formation
The definite article
Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
Noun and adjective accents
Accents of 1st declension nouns
Prepositions
Future active indicative of thematic verbs
(2nd principal part)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Noun formation
The definite article
Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
Noun and adjective accents
Accents of 1st declension nouns
Prepositions
Future active indicative of thematic verbs
(2nd principal part)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about
every Greek noun:
• GENDER
• NUMBER
• CASE
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about
every Greek noun:
• GENDER
– masculine, feminine, neuter
– All nouns in this chapter are feminine
• NUMBER
• CASE
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about
every Greek noun:
• GENDER
• NUMBER
– singular or plural
• CASE
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about every
Greek noun:
• GENDER
• NUMBER
• CASE – grammatical function
–
–
–
–
–
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Vocative
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about every
Greek noun:
• GENDER
• NUMBER
• CASE – grammatical function
–
–
–
–
–
Nominative – subject
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Vocative
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about every
Greek noun:
• GENDER
• NUMBER
• CASE – grammatical function
–
–
–
–
–
Nominative
Genitive = “of”
Dative
Accusative
Vocative
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about every
Greek noun:
• GENDER
• NUMBER
• CASE – grammatical function
–
–
–
–
–
Nominative
Genitive
Dative – indirect object
Accusative
Vocative
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about every
Greek noun:
• GENDER
• NUMBER
• CASE – grammatical function
–
–
–
–
–
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative – direct object
Vocative
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Three items to know and identify about every
Greek noun:
• GENDER
• NUMBER
• CASE – grammatical function
–
–
–
–
–
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Vocative – calling out to someone/something
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
parse/parsing
• FEMININE
• SINGULAR or PLURAL
• NOMINATIVE, GENITIVE, DATIVE,
ACCUSATIVE, or VOCATIVE
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
•
Uses of Cases in Greek
•
•
•
Subject = person or thing who performs the
action of the verb  nominative
Direct object = first person or thing affected
by the action of the verb  accusative
Indirect object = second person or thing
affected by the action of the verb  dative
Genitive = more information about a noun, possession, “of” etc
Vocative = used only for calling out to someone/something
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
•
Uses of Cases in Greek: suppose
someone blows up a water balloon
•
•
•
Subject = person who blows up the balloon
 nominative
Direct object = the balloon  accusative
Indirect object = anyone who gets wet when
the balloon explodes  dative
Genitive = whose balloon it is, whose children are involved, etc.
Vocative = calling out to someone so they don’t get wet!
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
•
Uses of Cases in Greek: suppose X gives
a gift to Y
•
•
•
Subject = X, as the person who does the
giving,  nominative
Direct object = the gift  accusative
Indirect object = Y, who receives the gift, 
dative
Genitive = whose gift it is, etc.
Vocative = calling out to someone
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Noun formation
The definite article
Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
Noun and adjective accents
Accents of 1st declension nouns
Prepositions
Future active indicative of thematic verbs
(2nd principal part)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
2. The definite article
•
Greek has a definite article which corresponds
basically to the English word “the.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
2. The definite article
•
•
The definite article must parse the same (be the
same in gender, number, and case) as the noun it
refers to.
It is as if in English, when we say “the dog,” in
the plural, we added “s” to both words: “thes
dogs.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
2. The definite article
•
Because all the nouns in this chapter are
feminine, only the feminine forms of the article
are given:
singular
Nom. ἡ
Gen. τῆς
Dat. τῇ
Acc. τήν
plural
Nom. αἱ
Gen. τῶν
Dat. ταῖς
Acc. τάς
The vocative never uses
a definite article, but
ὦ regularly precedes a
noun in the vocative.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Noun formation
The definite article
Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
Noun and adjective accents
Accents of 1st declension nouns
Prepositions
Future active indicative of thematic verbs
(2nd principal part)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
As with verbs, nouns in Greek have two parts:
–
–
a stem which tells you the vocabulary meaning of
the noun
an ending which tells you the number and case
(and sometimes a clue about gender).
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
•
•
Not all Greek nouns use the same endings.
A group of nouns which use basically the same
endings is called a declension.
Greek has three declensions. This chapter
presents nouns from the 1st declension.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
All nouns in the 1st declension use exactly the
same endings in the plural, which resemble the
definite article.
plural
– Nom. -αι
– Gen. -ῶν
– Dat. -αις
– Acc. -ας
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
So a noun like τιμή (stem = τιμ) “honor”
would appear:
plural
– Nom. τιμαί
– Gen. τιμῶν
– Dat. τιμαῖς
– Acc. τιμάς
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
A noun like χώρα (stem = χωρ) “country”
appears thus:
plural
– Nom. χῶραι
– Gen. χωρῶν
– Dat. χώραις
– Acc. χώρας
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
A noun like θάλαττα (stem = θαλαττ) “sea”
appears thus:
plural
– Nom. θάλατται
– Gen. θαλαττῶν
– Dat. θαλάτταις
– Acc. θαλάττας
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
A noun like γέφυρα (stem = γεφυρ) “bridge”
appears thus:
plural
– Nom. γέφυραι
– Gen. γεφυρῶν
– Dat. γεφύραις
– Acc. γεφύρας
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
Remember these endings dictate the meaning
and function of the noun:
plural
– Nom. τιμαί = “honors” (subject)
– Gen. τιμῶν = “of honors”
– Dat. τιμαῖς = “honors” (indirect object)
– Acc. τιμάς = “honors” (direct object)
– Voc. τιμαί = “Honors!”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
The endings of 1st declension nouns vary slightly
in the singular. The most common type
resembles the definite article:
singular
– Nom. -η
– Gen. -ης
– Dat. -ῃ
– Acc. -ην
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
The noun τιμή (stem = τιμ) “honor” appears
as:
singular
– Nom. τιμή
– Gen. τιμῆς
– Dat. τιμῇ
– Acc. τιμήν
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
If the stem of the noun ends in ε, ι, or ρ, then a
long α replaces the η:
singular
– Nom. -α
– Gen. -ας
– Dat. -ᾳ
– Acc. -αν
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
The noun χώρα (stem = χωρ) “country”
appears as:
singular
– Nom. χώρα
– Gen. χώρας
– Dat. χώρᾳ
– Acc. χώραν
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
In some nouns, a short α replaces the η in the
nominative, accusative (and vocative) only:
singular
– Nom. -α
– Gen. -ης
– Dat. -ῃ
– Acc. -αν
– Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
3. Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
•
Thus θάλαττα “sea” and γέφυρα “bridge”
appear as:
singular
– Nom. θάλαττα
– Gen. θαλάττης
– Dat. θαλάττῃ
– Acc. θάλατταν
– Voc. = Nom.
γέφυρα
γεφύρας
γεφύρᾳ
γέφυραν
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Looking up a Greek noun
• In a vocabulary, glossary, lexicon, or dictionary,
a Greek noun is listed by its (1) nominative
singular, (2) genitive singular ending, and
(3) the nominative singular article.
–
–
–
τιμή, -ῆς, ἡ “honor”
χώρα, -ας, ἡ “country”
θάλαττα, -ης, ἡ “sea”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Noun formation
The definite article
Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
Noun and adjective accents
Accents of 1st declension nouns
Prepositions
Future active indicative of thematic verbs
(2nd principal part)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
4. Noun and adjective accents
• On nouns, the accent is “persistent” (the accent
wants to persist on a particular syllable). Thus
there are three basic patterns for accents on
nouns, pronouns, and adjectives:
–
–
–
persistent on the antepenult
persistent on the penult
persistent on the ultima
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Noun formation
The definite article
Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
Noun and adjective accents
Accents of 1st declension nouns
Prepositions
Future active indicative of thematic verbs
(2nd principal part)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
If a noun is persistent on the antepenult, it is
effectively “recessive.”
–
–
–
–
–
Nom. θάλαττα
Gen. θαλάττης
Dat. θαλάττῃ
Acc. θάλατταν
Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
•
If a noun is persistent on the antepenult, it is
effectively “recessive.”
Remember the effect of long vowels on writing
the accent.
–
–
–
–
–
Nom. χὸόραα  χώρα
Gen. χὸόραας  χώρας
Dat. χὸόραᾳ  χώρᾳ
Acc. χὸόρααν  χώραν
Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
Two items to note:
–
–
Remember that the ending –αι (here used for the
nominative plural) is short for purposes of accent,
even though it is a diphthong.
In the genitive plural ending the -α-of the other
endings disappears. It has been contracted into the –
ων ending. Consequently, all first declension nouns
have a fixed circumflex accent on the ending: -ῶν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
Thus the accent moves in the plural forms, with
a resulting change in the appearance of the
accent.
–
–
–
–
–
Nom. χόὸραι  χῶραι
Gen. χοοράὸὸν  χοοράὼν  χωρῶν
Dat. χὸόραις  χώραις
Acc. χὸόραας  χώρας
Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
In rare cases where the accent is persistent on
the penult, it simply remains an acute on that
syllable (except for the inevitable genitive plural
contraction):
–
–
–
–
–
Nom. δικαιοσύνη
Gen. δικαιοσύνης
Dat. δικαιοσύνη
Acc. δικαιοσύνην
Voc. = Nom.
δικαιοσύναι
δικαιοσυνῶν
δικαιοσύναις
δικαιοσύνας
Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
For 1st declension nouns with accents persistent
on the ultima:
– the nominative and accusative endings bear
acute accents
– the genitive and dative endings bear
circumflex accents.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
The noun τιμή (stem = τιμ) “honor” follows
the ultima pattern:
singular
Nom. τιμή
Gen. τιμῆς
Dat. τιμῇ
Acc. τιμήν
Voc. = Nom.
plural
Nom. τιμαί
Gen. τιμῶν
Dat. τιμαῖς
Acc. τιμάς
Voc. = Nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
You can use sound effects to remember the
pattern!
singular
Nom. τιμή (bam)
Gen. τιμῆς (squeak)
Dat. τιμῇ (squeak)
Acc. τιμήν (bam)
Voc. τιμή (bam)
plural
Nom. τιμαί (bam)
Gen. τιμῶν (squeak)
Dat. τιμαῖς (squeak)
Acc. τιμάς (bam)
Voc. τιμαί (bam)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
The definite article follows the ultima pattern,
except that the nominative forms do not bear an
accent:
singular
Nom. ἡ
Gen. τῆς
Dat. τῇ
Acc. τήν
plural
Nom. αἱ
Gen. τῶν
Dat. ταῖς
Acc. τάς
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
5. Accents of 1st declension nouns
•
Remember that nouns with an acute on the
ultima change the accent to grave before another
word:
– τὴν τιμὴν ἔχομεν. “We have the honor.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Noun formation
The definite article
Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
Noun and adjective accents
Accents of 1st declension nouns
Prepositions
Future active indicative of thematic verbs
(2nd principal part)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
6. Prepositions
•
Greek prepositions require their nouns to be in
specific cases. Prepositions govern nouns in the
genitive, dative or accusative cases (never the
nominative or vocative).
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
6. Prepositions
•
Greek prepositions at their root indicate
direction. This chart shows the directions each
case generally indicates:
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
6. Prepositions
•
This chapter introduces three prepositions:
εἰς + acc. “into” ἐν + dat. “in” ἐκ + gen. “out of”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
6. Prepositions
•
These prepositions normally do not bear an
accent
–
–
–
εἰς + acc. “into”
ἐν + dat. “in”
ἐκ + gen. “out of”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
6. Prepositions
These prepositions normally do not bear an accent
• εἰς τὴν χώραν “into the country”
• ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ “in the country”
• ἐκ τῆς χώρας “out of the country”
–
but before a vowel, ἐκ becomes ἐξ:
•
ἐξ οἰκίας “out of a house”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Noun formation
The definite article
Feminine nouns of the 1st declension
Noun and adjective accents
Accents of 1st declension nouns
Prepositions
Future active indicative of thematic verbs
(2nd principal part)
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
parse/parsing
• 1st, 2nd or 3RD PERSON
• SINGULAR or PLURAL
• PRESENT or FUTURE
• INDICATIVE
• ACTIVE
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
singular
• -ω (I)
• -εις (you)
• -ει (s/he, it)
plural
• -ομεν (we)
• -ετε (you, y’all)
• -ουσι (they)
the endings for the future are the same
as for present indicative active
verbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
7. Future active indicative of thematic
verbs (2nd principal part)
•
In English, we add the word “will” to a verb to
make it future tense:
–
–
present “we have”
future “we will have”
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
7. Future active indicative
•
Greek verbs do not add an additional word.
Instead, Greek verbs add a σ to the stem:
– “loose” present stem = λυ
– “loose” future stem = λυσ
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
singular
• λύω (I loose)
• λύεις (you loose)
• λύει (s/he, it looses)
plural
• λύομεν (we loose)
• λύετε (you, y’all loose)
• λύουσι (they loose)
present stem = λυ
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
singular
• λύσω (I will loose)
• λύσεις (you will loose)
• λύσει (s/he, it will loose)
plural
• λύσομεν (we will loose)
• λύσετε (y’all will loose)
• λύσουσι (they will loose)
stem with future marker = λυσ
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Looking up a Greek verb
• The 1st sg future indicative active is the
second principal part of a verb
–
–
–
–
–
–
ἄγω, ἄξω lead, bring
γράφω, γράψω write
διώκω, διώξω pursue
λύω, λύσω loose, set free
πείθω, πείσω persuade
πέμπω, πέμψω send
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Looking up a Greek verb
• Remember the rules for adding a σ (cf.
chart on Shelmerdine p.2):
–
–
–
–
–
–
ἄγω (γ + σ = ξ)  ἄξω lead, bring
γράφω (φ + σ = ψ)  γράψω write
διώκω (κ + σ = ξ)  διώξω pursue
λύω  λύσω loose, set free
πείθω (θ + σ = σ)  πείσω persuade
πέμπω (π + σ = ψ)  πέμψω send
ELEMENTARY GREEK
for tomorrow (Monday, September 19, 2005):
• Quiz: vocabulary from Chapter 3
Shelmerdine Chapter 3
Vocabulary
• In Chapter 3 Vocabulary,
–
Omit from nouns: γέφυρα, Μοῦσα
ELEMENTARY GREEK
for tomorrow (Wednesday, September 14,
2005):
• Quiz: given a verb (as in the vocabulary),
write out the six present and six future
forms
• prepare Exercises 12-13 and Biblical
Readings for class
ELEMENTARY GREEK
for tomorrow (Thursday, September 14,
2005):
• Quiz: parsing quiz (given a sentence from
Exercise 12, parse each noun and verb).

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