Taxonomies of Learning Learning how to learn: • Aware of one’s learning • Inquiring • Selfdirected Caring: Developing new: • Feelings • Interests • Values. Human Dimension: • Learning about oneself and others. Foundational Knowledge: • Understanding and remembering information and ideas. Application: • Skills • Critical, creative, and practical thinking • Managing projects. Integration: Connecting: • Ideas • People • Realms of life Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Skills • Knowledge: Remembering or retrieving previously learned material. • Comprehension: The ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. • Application: The ability to use learned material, or to implement material in new and concrete situations. • Analysis: The ability to break down or distinguish the parts of material into its components so that its organizational structure may be better understood. • Synthesis: The ability to put parts together to form a coherent or unique new whole. • Evaluation: The ability to judge, check, and even critique the value of material for a given purpose. Anderson & Krathwohl Anderson & Krathwohl’s Dimensions of Kowledge: • Factual Knowledge - The basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems. • Conceptual Knowledge – The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. • Procedural Knowledge - How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods. • Metacognitive Knowledge – Knowledge of cognition in general, as well as awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition. The Two-Dimensional Model • A dynamic version A Taxonomy in the Affective Domain: (Krathwohl, et al.) Level Receiving Responding Valuing Organizing Internalizing Definition Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention Active participation on the part of the learners. The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. Organizes values into priorities comparing, relating, and synthesizing. Has a value system that controls their behavior. A Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy: (Dave) Level Imitation Manipulation Precision Articulation Naturalization Definition Copy the action of another. Observe and replicate. Reproduce activity from instructions or memory. Execute skill reliably, independent of help. Adapt and integrate expertise to satisfy a non-standard objective. Automated, unconscious mastery of activity and related skills at strategic level. Learning how to Foundational Knowledge: learn: • Aware of one’s • Understanding and remembering learning information and • Inquiring ideas. • Self-directed Caring: Developing new: • Feelings • Interests • Values. Human Dimension: • Learning about oneself and others. Application: • Skills • Critical, creative, and practical thinking • Managing projects. Integration: Connecting: • Ideas • People • Realms of life Course Goals that Reflect Significant Learning • Understand and remember key concepts, terms and relationships • Know how to use the content • Be able to relate this subject to other subjects • Understand the personal and social implications of knowing about this subject • Care about the subject and desire to learn more about it • Know how to keep learning about the subject My goals for today: • Explain what is meant by a “taxonomy of learning” and give a couple of examples. • Draft learning outcomes for a class you teach that address several different types or levels of learning. • Describe what a student might do in your class that would demonstrate learning that falls within particular categories of a taxonomy. • Evaluate specific learning outcomes for their usefulness in designing learning experiences and assessing student performance. • Feel that well-crafted learning outcomes are a valuable guide for designing and evaluating your courses. • Want to learn more about describing significant learning in your field or program. Take a break Writing Effective Learning Goals Effective learning outcomes should: • Clearly express the type or level of learning you want students to get from your course • Help you design learning experiences that foster the kinds of learning you want • Help you design assignments and evaluation tools that will let both you and your students know how well they are achieving those goals. It’s all about the verbs The CBC Method • Condition: Under what conditions? • Behavior: What should they be able to do? • Criterion: How (well) must it be done? • Example: When encountering a new painting, students should be able to identify the era or style of the work based on the main elements of design. A word on “measurability” Exceptional Good Adequate Poor Explanation Issues are stated of issues clearly and described comprehensively. Issues are described and clarified so that understanding is not seriously impeded by omissions. Some terms left undefined, ambiguities unexplored, boundaries undetermined. Issues are stated without clarification or description. Use of Evidence Knowledge claims are supported by good evidence that is relevant, and reliable. Evidence not always directly relevant, or quality and reliability may be questionable. Evidence lacking, or of questionable relevance, quality, or reliability. Knowledge claims are supported by relevant, high quality evidence from reliable sources. This is hard work! So let’s get started.