Understand what a periodized program is To be able to manipulate the training variables to achieve the desired muscular conditioning effect (ex: endurance, strength, power, etc) Aware of the adaptations that occur when performing a strength training program Distinguish the differences between the spectrum of strength / power and mm endurance How to progress a resistance training program based on client goals and previous training status Strength / fitness: Has different meaning for different people depending on: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Age ADL’s and IADL’s Occupation Severity and type of injury Healing capacity Force: mass x acceleration Strength is defined as the maximal amount of force that a muscle or muscle group can generate at a specific velocity Work: force x distance Power: strength x speed (work/time) What is periodization? Periodization is a method of planning periods or cycles in which training specificity, intensity, and volume changes within an overall training program (Baechle and Earle 2000) Manipulation of key strength training variables that includes number of sets, reps, intensity, repetition speed, rest periods, frequency or order of exercises For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1–12 RM in a periodized fashion… For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1–12 RM be used in periodized fashion… Why periodize your training programs? Prevent overtraining Decrease the onset of staleness Promote the development of specific physical performance parameters Allows for “peaking” of key performance variables that are specific to an individuals function Why should a physical therapist understand the concepts of periodization Three sets of 10 will only get you so far!! You must have an understanding of what the goals of exercise are for your patients based on the type of tissue involved, the stage of healing and the co-morbid conditions that your patients may have that influence their ability to train successfully Physiological basis for periodization Based on the concepts of: ▪ Endocrinology ▪ Biomechanics ▪ Neurology ▪ Muscle physiology ▪ Metabolism Types of Muscle Fibers: Fast & Slow Twitch Fibers: Not really just two types but a continuum between the two. Both are present in varying mixture in most muscles. Classically divided into: Type I Type IIA Type IIB Types of Muscle Fibers Type I: Characteristics Slow acting myosin isoform Contract more slowly with less force Rely primarily on oxidative metabolism Many mitochondria Myoglobin Highly vascularized Contain little glycogen Small diameter Resistant to fatigue Type IIA: Characteristics • • Fast acting myosin isoform Contract rapidly with greater force Have high oxidative capacity Highly vascularized Many mitochondria Have myoglobin Intermediate amounts of glycogen and anaerobic capacity Intermediate size Not very common in most people : Class switching • • • • • • • Type IIB: Characteristics Fast acting myosin isoform Contract rapidly with greater force Rely on anaerobic metabolism Few mitochondria Less well vascularized Lack myoglobin High glycogen content Large diameter IIb IIab IIa IIac IIc Strength training converts the IIb mm fibers to the more oxidative IIa mm fiber type by as much as 93% Muscle Energetics: Energy (ATP) Requirements for Muscular Contraction Movement of myosin head chain: Requires ATP hydrolysis for each stroke; majority of energy requirements are here Mobilization of Calcium stores: Calcium must be pumped back into the SR at the end of each contractile pulse. Calcium pumps on SR require ATP. Reestablishment of membrane potential: Contractile stimulation requires an action potential, so the Na/K pump must be used which requires ATP. Hydrolysis of ATP stores: allows for ~1-2 seconds sustained contraction Phosphocreatine: High energy phosphate to quickly rephosphorylate ADP. 5-8 seconds sustained contraction Glycogen and glycolysis: Muscular store of glycogen undergoes glycolytic cycle to yield ATP, lactic acid and 2 molecules of pyruvate. Glycolysis also yields such molecules as NADH and FADH2 to be used to generate ATP or used in later reactions such as the Krebs cycle. Rapid, does not require oxygen. One minute sustained contraction Muscle Energetics Oxidative metabolism: In the mitochondria. Slow, but capable of supplying a large amount of energy.. Electrons are transported from NADH, FADH2 molecules down a transport chain to the terminal electron receptor O2. The end product is a large amount of ATP (larger than any other metabolic process) and H2O > Three minutes sustained contraction Hans Selye: Canadian Endocrinologist described the physiological basis of why periodization is effective based on three stages General Adaptation Syndrome: Periodization programs are divided into smaller cycles of training with each cycle of training devoted to a particular performance variable Microcycle: smallest period of time in the model usually one week long Mesocycle: intermediate period in the training cycle that consists of multiple microcycles usually from 3 weeks to 12 weeks (6-8 weeks common) Macrocycle: long term program that last for several months to a year. This cycle represents the entire training cycle towards the overall goal Periodization may minimize the various forms of neuromuscular fatigue Central: fatigue occurs proximal to the motor units at the brain and / or spinal level ▪ Occurs due to prolonged duration exercises, with decreased intensity and high volume ▪ Need CNS activation to activate the motor units Peripheral fatigue: Present at the motor neuron, NMJ or mm fibers Occurs with more high intensity, short duration activities Glycolytic metabolism produces fatigue due to: ▪ Increase metabolites such as lactate, H+, AMP, phosphate ▪ Decrease substrates such as creatine, ATP and glycogen Because of the varying nature of intensity and volume, periodization allows for reduced tendency towards fatigue by both mechanisms Allows for preservation of anabolic stimulating hormones such as testosterone while maintaining cortisol levels Utilization of the SAID principle to allow for specific training of mm fibers towards their use for functional activities Supercompensation refers to the desired, beneficial training effect that occurs in direct response to the applied training stress, and following a recovery period Supercompensation is the return of the performance level from a point of reduced capacity that follows a training episode, beyond the pre-training level and to a new, higher performance baseline Positive Adaptation Negative Adaptation Figure 1 - note that the training effect brings the performance capacity back to a higher level Figure 2 - note the inadequate recovery stage and its’ effect on adaptation Linear: progressive systematic decrease in volume while increasing intensity between each mesocycle specific time intervals to focus on a particular physical attribute Undulating / non linear: the volume and intensity vary within each micro or mesocycle. To be discussed later Stages of periodization Preparation ▪ Muscle endurance ▪ Hypertrophy Transition period 1 ▪ Basic Strength ▪ Power Competition (Peaking period) Transition period 2 (Active Rest) Preparation Stage: Muscle endurance: ▪ 2 – 3 sets of 20 – 25 reps, rest periods 30 – 60 seconds, frequency 2 – 3 days per week Hypertrophy: ▪ increased volume, (3-6 sets of 10-20 reps) per muscle group, rest periods 60-90 seconds, frequency 3-4 days per week, 50% to 75% 1RM Muscle fiber conversion of type IIB to type IIAB / IIA Due to increased / stable concentrations of testosterone, growth hormone, IGF to allow for mm fiber hypertrophy Increased Type I fiber recruitment Increased capillary density Increased utilization of Free Fatty Acids Increased skeletal mm mitochondria Reduced capacity for Type II fiber recruitment Strength gains are due to combination of Type I fiber hypertrophy and increased neural recruitment Increased Type II A activation Conversion shift from Type IIB to Type II A Increased reliance on glycolytic metabolism Increased lactic acid production Improved buffering of lactic acid via production of lactate Increase myofilament production Increase satellite cell proliferation / mitosis Strength gains are due to increased CSA Takes 8 – 12 weeks to occur Preparatory stage: Technique is not emphasized due to the high volume of training Goal is to build a base through increased mm / strength endurance Must be cautious to avoid overtraining with increased cortisol production Transition Period 1 : Basic Strength: volume decreases from the hypertrophy phase, intensity increases (3-5 sets of 4-6 reps at 80-90% 1 RM), frequency is 3-5 days per week, rest periods are 2-3 minutes Muscle fiber emphasis are IIB fibers Anaerobic glycolysis to creatine phosphokinase metabolism Primary response to training is enhanced neuromuscular efficiency Strength training can have a profound effect on the hormonal, nervous, and immune systems Hormonal adaptations What type of strength program increases Testosterone? ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Large mm group exercises Heavy loads > 85% 1RM Moderate to high volume: multiple sets and / or exercises Short rest 30 – 60 seconds What is Cortisol?: stress hormone produced from the adrenal cortex assists in remodeling of connective tissue acute exercise that involved high volume, large mm groups increased cortisol production excessive production can result in mm catabolism, and adverse immune responses What kind of training program increases Growth Hormone?: high volume (10RM) for multiple sets (3) with short rest periods (1 minute) that promotes mm soreness (lactic acid) Closed chain movements done first: Compound Strength Exercises: Neuromuscular / balance Bench press Power Military press Strength exercises Rows Open chain exercises Lat pulldown Endurance activities Squat Lunges Deadlift Increased recruitment of Type IIB muscle fibers Improved mm recruitment via myotatic stretch reflex Improved mm recruitment via length – tension relationship Motor learning effects Power exercises Powerclean: http://media.crossfit.com/cf-video/cfj-nov-05/hangpower-clean.wmv Push press: http://media.crossfit.com/cf-video/SPPPPJ155.wmv Snatch: http://media.crossfit.com/cf-video/cfj-nov-05/powersnatch.wmv Transition Period: Volume is decreased dramatically while intensity increases Technique and functional development is emphasized Power and explosive compound movements are the basis of this stage Variables: 3-5 sets, 2-5 reps, 3-5 days/week, rest periods 3 minutes ▪ 85-95% of 1RM (strength) ▪ 80-90% 1 RM (power) 1 – 2 reps (single events) ▪ 75-85% 1 RM (power) 3 – 5 reps (multiple events) Transition Period: Creatine phosphokinase metabolism is primary Goal is to increase neuromuscular components of strength and power ▪ Increase recruitment of larger motor units ▪ Increase motor unit firing ▪ Increase motor unit summation Transition Period: Modifications for the orthopedic patient For power development, safer to use lighter loads with emphasis on speed of the contraction for the development of power (~50% of 1RM) for 12-15 reps Competition / Peaking Phase Emphasis is on preparing for the event Maximizing technique Volume is low to prevent injury and fatigue Variables are: 1-3 sets of 1-3 reps, 90-95% of 1RM, 1-5 days per week, rest periods 3-5 minutes Done for usually one week to prevent fatigue, overtraining and injury Transition Period 2 (Active Rest) Variables are 80-85% of 1RM, 2-3 sets of 6-8 reps, 2 days per week Client pursues other fitness interests Cross training (cycling, swimming, rowing, inline skating, etc) This period is continued until approximately 3 – 4 months before the start of the next season or event, then cycles repeat FREQUENCY INTENSITY POWER 1-2 week 85-95% STRENGTH 3-4 week 75-85% HYPERTROPHY 4-6 week ENDURANCE 5-7 week VOLUME REST 1-4 reps 4-6min 1-2 sets 4-8 reps 2-3min 3-4 sets 60-75% 8-12 reps 4-6 sets 30-90s <60% 12-15 reps 5-7 sets <30s Depends on the training intensity / volume Previous exercise status of the patient Other physical demands: Job Sport Recreational pursuits Beginner: (< 2 months of strength training): 2 times per week Intermediate: (2 to 6 months): 3 – 4 times per week Advanced: (> 1 year): 4 - 6 times per week Candow, D.G., and D.G. Burke. Effect of short-term equal-volume resistance training with different workout frequency on muscle mass and strength in untrained men and women. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(1) RCT of 29 untrained volunteers (27–58 years; 23 W, 6 M ) group 1: 2X /wk @ 3 sets of 10 RM for 9 ex group 2: 3X/Wk @ 2 sets of 10 RM for 9 ex Outcome measures: lean mass whole body DEXA strength (1 rep max squat and bench press) Both groups increased lean tissue mass (2.2%), squat strength (28%), and bench press strength (22–30%) with training (p 0.05), with no other differences. Classic strength/power periodized training superior for increasing: maximal strength (e.g., 1 RM squat) cycling power motor performance jumping ability. Short term training has shown similar performance improvements between periodized and multiple-set nonperiodized models Periodic variation in training variables is necessary for long term resistance training. ACSM Position Stand : Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults - 2002 Vary the intensity and volume within the microcycle: Daily Undulating Periodization Vary volume and intensity each workout day Example: ▪ Monday: Heavy: 85-90% 1RM ▪ Wednesday: Medium: 70-75% 1RM ▪ Friday: Light: 60-65% 1RM Weekly Undulating Periodization Vary volume and intensity each workout week Example: ▪ Week 1: Heavy: 85-90% 1RM ▪ Week 2: Medium: 70-75% 1RM ▪ Week 3: Light: 60-65% 1RM Patient / Task % of maximum power to complete Time to complete the task Energy System Used 63 y/o sedentary female with hx of diabetes who has a BMI of 40 who has difficulty with sit to stand 95% 7 seconds Phosphagen 37 y/o fireman with 80% a one year hx of a quadricep tendon repair c/o weakness in the quads after climbing 3 flights of stairs 25 seconds ???? 16 y/o male with BMI of 38, 40% BF desires a program ??? ??? ??? Patient / Task % of maximum Time to complete power to complete the task Energy System Used 14 year old female 70% 800m runner c/o right hip abductor weakness with a 3month hx of left LBP and changes in her running gait at the last 100m of the race 2min and 20 sec ??? 50 year old male long distance cyclist with c/o muscular fatigue in his lumbar paraspinals while 15 minutes ??? 25% Thank You!