Vegetables Roots Beetroot Horseradish Carrot Parsnip Celeriac Turnip Radish •All of these vegetables are roots. All roots are used a lot in soups and salads. •The only exception is the horseradish, which has kind of a bitter taste, and is more used as seasoning, for instance in horseradish sauce. Bulbs • Yellow Onion • Garlic • Red Onion • Shallots • Leek • Spring Onions • Bulbs can be used for their taste in various dishes, usually chopped, minced or sliced. Moreover, onions, leeks and shallots can be used raw in salads. Leafy Vegetable • Lettuce • Chinese leaves • Radicchio • Cress • Spinach • Rocket 1 4 2 3 •Leafy vegetables are often used in salads and as garnish to different dishes. •The leaves are most often used raw, and in some cases never cooked, but in the case of spinach, for example, the leaves are sometimes cooked or used in recipes for warm entrees. Brassicas 1 5 • Broccoli • Brussel sprouts • Cauliflower • Cabbage • Romanescue • Red cabbage 2 3 4 • Brassicas are typical vegetables, which means they are used raw, cooked, pickled or as a an ingredient various dishes. • The cabbages are quite often used in salads while other brassicas are boiled or steamed. • They are nutrient-rich so they are commonly utilized in many different ways. Pods, Seeds and Beans • Broad beans • Sugar peas /mangetout • French beans • Peas • Sweetcorn Beans • Black beans • Chickpeas • Dutch brown beans • Split peas • Red kidney beans • Beans, peas and corn are served cooked quite often and are suitable for soups or stews. • They are also used in a number of cooked recipes, especially casseroles. • Many of them are occasionally found in salads as well. • Sweetcorn is one of the most versatile vegetables in cooking. • As opposed to most vegetables, pulses (another name for beans and peas) are protein-rich. Stems and Shoots • Green asparagus • Celery • White asparagus • Fennel • Artichokes • Bean sprouts • Stems and shoots have a wide range of uses. • Celery and sprouts, for example, can be used raw in salads, while it is common to cook asparagus and artichokes. • Artichoke hearts are also used in various manners. • Asparagus, celery and sprouts are found in assorted stir-fry dishes. Fruiting Vegetables • Fruiting vegetables are actually fruits in various stages of ripeness, so these vegetables have seeds inside them. Some seeds are edible, while other seeds should be removed in preparation for usage. • Each type of fruiting vegetable itself comes in many varieties for instance there are many different squashes and peppers. • Since there is a wide range, grouping them based on how they used can be helpful in remembering them. Fruiting Vegetables: Mostly Raw • Avocado • Cucumber Avocados and cucumbers are often used 5 in starters and salads, on sandwiches and 4 for garnishing purposes. Fruiting Vegetables: Both Raw and Cooked • Bell pepper • Tomato Bell peppers and tomatoes should be considered some the most frequently used vegetables, especially the tomato. They can be used raw in salads, on sandwiches and for garnish. Tomatoes are the basis of many sauces, soups and stews while peppers are commonly used in casseroles or baked and stuffed. Peppers, most often green, yellow or red, are often included in stir-fried dishes. Fruiting Vegetables: Mostly Cooked • Aubergine • Pumpkin • Zucchini • Squash • Aubergine, also called eggplant, is commonly used in vegetarian cooking and is usually heavily seasoned since it has little flavour itself. • Squashes, which actually include pumpkins and zucchini, are used commonly as a vegetable by boiling, steaming or baking them. • Pumpkin is puréed and used in soups and baking products at times. Mushrooms • Button • Porcini • Shiitake • Chanterelles • Portobello Mushrooms serve many purposes in cookery: in soups, stews, salads; as garnishing; and as a typical vegetable. Tubers • Jerusalem artichoke • Sweet potato • Yams Jerusalem artichokes are used in soups and salads. 1 Sweet potatoes and yams are often fried or baked in candied forms. They can also be puréed. Potatoes • • • • • • Potatoes, one of our staple foods, are used for many dishes. They are a very important part of food traditions and have great nutritional value. Potatoes are rich in a number of vitamins and minerals as well as a very good source of starch, a type of carbohydrate, which the body uses for energy. Potatoes are prepared in many ways: baked, fried, deep-fried, boiled and roasted. Potatoes come in many shapes and colors, but are classified based on how firm and floury they are. Potatoes that are firm hold their form at high temperatures are best for frying and roasting. Potatoes that are floury break down when cooked so they are good for mashed potatoes or when the potatoes should be puréed. Pictures in the presentation are taken from the public domain via the Internet. The presentations are used for non-profit educational purposes.