AP Human Geography Week #12

AP Human Geography Week #12
Fall 2012
AP Human Geography 11/17/14
• OBJECTIVE: Examine gender in America. APHugII-A.3
• Language objective: Write about gender.
• I. Administrative Stuff
• II. Film: “Boys will be Men”
1.) Watch and take notes on the film.
2.) After the film write a summary answering
the following question:
“What does it mean to be a male in the United States?”
Homework Tonight
• Study for the Ch#5 Test.
AP Human Geography 11/18/14
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the concepts in the first
trimester of AP Human Geography APHugVarious
• Language objective: Write about various topics in
Human Geography.
• I. Administrative Stuff
-attendance & directions
• II. Final Exam Review Distribution
• NOTICE: Chapter#5 Test TOMORROW!
Homework Tonight
• Study for the Ch#5 Test.
Reminders & Announcements
1.) The Chapter#5 Test is Tomorrow (Nov 19th).
2.) Europe Map Test Friday Nov 21st.
3.) Final Exams Hours 1,2,3 Monday Nov 24th.
4.) Final Exams Hours 4&5 Tuesday Nov 25th.
5.) No School Wednesday, Thursday, & Friday Nov 26-28th.
AP Human Geography 11/19/14
• OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate mastery of Chapter#5Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality. APHugIIIB.2&3.
• Language objective: Write about Race, Ethnicity, Gender,
and Sexuality.
• I. Administrative Stuff
-attendance & distribution of test
• II. Chapter#5 Test
• Practice Europe Map Test
• Homework: Read p.164-171
Homework Tonight
• Read p.164-171.
• Begin working on the
Ch#6 Guided Reading.
• Study for the Final Exam.
AP Human Geography 11/20/14
• OBJECTIVE: Begin examination of Language. APHugIII-B.1
• Language objective: Write about language.
• I. Journal#35 pt.A
-Watch the following:
American Tongues
• II. Quiz#21
• III. Return of Chapter#5 Test
• IV. Journal#35 pt.B
-notes on language
• Homework: Read p.172-180
• Europe Map Test TOMORROW!
Europe Map
Language – a set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and
symbols that are used for communication.
World Language Families
Major Language Families
Percentage of World Population
Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language
families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost
75% of the world’s people.
Major World Languages
Major World Languages
Language v. Dialect
• It is difficult to classify languages and
• Some scholars treat Quebecan French as a
separate language while others consider it a
• Many areas have a very complex linguistic
Africa-has perhaps 1,000 languages
India has about 600
Language Terms
• Standard language-an official language sustained by
the state in the form of state examination for teachers,
civil servants and others.
• Dialect-regional variation of a standard language.
• Language family-a group of languages descended
from a single, earlier tongue.
• Language subfamily-a further division of language
groups. E.g. Romance language is a subfamily of
• Regional differences in a
standard language;
– Syntax-the way words are
put together
– Vocabulary
– Pronunciation
– Cadence or rhythm
– Accents can reveal the
regional home of a person.
• Isogloss-a geographic
boundary within which a
particular linguistic
feature is found.
• Northern dialect and its subdivisions are found in New England
and Canada, extending southward to a secondary dialect are
centered on New York.
• Midland speech is found along the Atlantic coast from New
Jersey southward to central Delaware, but spreads more
extensively across the interior of the US and Canada.
• The Southern dialect dominates the East coast from the
Chesapeake Bay south.
• Examples-North
Midlands & South
run or branch
bossie to call cow
Sook or Sookie or Sook cow
co or come cow
co-wench or co-inch or coo ee
skillet or frying pan
Dialect-variants of a standard language along regional or
ethnic lines- vocabulary-syntax- pronunciation- cadence-pace
of speech
Isogloss -A geographic boundary within which a
particular linguistic feature occurs
Homework Tonight
• Read p.172-180.
• Continue working on the
Ch#6 Guided Reading.
• Study for the Europe Map
AP Human Geography 11/21/14
• OBJECTIVE: Continue examination of Language.
• Language objective: Write about language.
• I. Journal#36 pt.A
-Watch the following:
American Tongues pt.3
Deadly Delays, Newborn Screening
• II. Europe Map Test
• III. Quiz#22
• IV. Journal#36 pt.B
-notes on language
• NOTICE: Final Exam Monday & Tuesday!
Origin & Diffusion of Languages
• Mother Tongue-the first language spoken by Homo sapiens
about 200,000 years ago.
• Deep reconstruction-by studying sound shifts, linguists try
to re-create an extinct language.
• Language divergence-the differentiation that takes place
over time and distance.
• Language convergence-when long isolated languages
make contact through diffusion.
• Language replacement-traditional languages of small
groups of less advanced people were replaced or greatly
modified by an invading tongue.
• Linguists can find linkages among languages by examining
sound shifts – a slight change in a word across languages
over time.
• The vocabulary of a
ancient language can
reveal its cultural
• The Indo-European
branches of the
language tree at right
illustrates the concept
of language divergence.
• August Schleicher was
the first to compare the
world’s language
families to the branches
of a tree.
• An example of sound shift:
Latin for milk is lacte
Italian is latta
Spanish is leche
French is lait
• Another example of
sound shift is:
– German vater
– Dutch vader
– English father
• Still another example is
– Latin for eight is octo
– Spanish is ocho
– French is huit
How are Languages Formed?
• Mutual Intelligibility- means two people can understand
each other when speaking.
• Cannot measure mutual intelligibility
• Many “languages” fail the test of mutual intelligibility
• Standard languages and governments impact what is a
“language” and what is a “dialect”
How do Languages Diffuse?
• human interaction-2,000 years ago-Han China, Roman
Empire-spread languages over vast empires
• print distribution-Gutenberg’s movable type printing
press (1452-first Gutenberg Bible) helped to diffuse,
standardize & stabilize European languages
• Migration-ancient & more recent migration from 16th
century to now diffused languages e.g. Spanish,
Portuguese, English & French
• Trade-encouraged the spread of goods & languages
• Rise of nation-states-stabilized & standardized
• Colonialism-mercantilism & colonies spread European
languages in the Americas, Africa & Asia
Spatial Interaction helps create
• Lingua franca –
A language used among speakers of different languages for
the purposes of trade and commerce.
• Pidgin language –
a language created when people combine parts of two or
more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary.
• Creole language –
a pidgin language that has developed a more complex
structure and vocabulary and has become the native
language of a group of people.
Examples of lingua franca
• First known lingua franca was a pidgin language created in the
1200s along the Mediterranean Sea-Southern France – Franks
language mixed with Italian, Greek, Spanish and Arabic-came to
be known as a Frankish language or lingua franca
• Arabic became a lingua franca during the Islamic expansionEnglish did so in the colonial period
• Swahili is the lingua franca of the East African coast-developed
from African bantu mixed with Arabic & Persian-50 million
speakers from southern Somalia to East African Lakes region.
• Creole-stems from a pidgin language formed in Caribbean from
English, French & Portuguese mixed with African languages
• South East Asia-Bazaar Malay is spoken from Myanmar to
Indonesia, Philippines to Malaysia-a lingua franca in the region.
Monolingual State a
country in which only
one language is spoken
Multilingual State
a country in which
more than one
language is in use
Official Language
should a multilingual
state adopt an official
• Monolingual states-Japan, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, Poland, and Lesotho.
• Multilingual State-Canada, Belgium, India, Peru-with
Indigenous languages
• Official Language-many former colonies adopted
English, French, or Portuguese as official languages to
tie people together:
Nigeria & Ghana-English
Ivory Coast-French
India-Hindi & English are official languages
Tanzania-English & Swahili
Language Family Trees
Homework Tonight
• Study for the Final Exam.

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