AP Human Geography Week #12 Fall 2012 AP Human Geography 11/17/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Examine gender in America. APHugII-A.3 • Language objective: Write about gender. • I. Administrative Stuff -attendance • II. Film: “Boys will be Men” 1.) Watch and take notes on the film. 2.) After the film write a summary answering the following question: “What does it mean to be a male in the United States?” Homework Tonight • Study for the Ch#5 Test. AP Human Geography 11/18/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Examine the concepts in the first trimester of AP Human Geography APHugVarious • Language objective: Write about various topics in Human Geography. • I. Administrative Stuff -attendance & directions • II. Final Exam Review Distribution • NOTICE: Chapter#5 Test TOMORROW! Homework Tonight • Study for the Ch#5 Test. Reminders & Announcements • • • • • 1.) The Chapter#5 Test is Tomorrow (Nov 19th). 2.) Europe Map Test Friday Nov 21st. 3.) Final Exams Hours 1,2,3 Monday Nov 24th. 4.) Final Exams Hours 4&5 Tuesday Nov 25th. 5.) No School Wednesday, Thursday, & Friday Nov 26-28th. AP Human Geography 11/19/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate mastery of Chapter#5Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality. APHugIIIB.2&3. • Language objective: Write about Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality. • I. Administrative Stuff -attendance & distribution of test • II. Chapter#5 Test • Practice Europe Map Test • Homework: Read p.164-171 Homework Tonight • Read p.164-171. • Begin working on the Ch#6 Guided Reading. • Study for the Final Exam. AP Human Geography 11/20/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Begin examination of Language. APHugIII-B.1 • Language objective: Write about language. • I. Journal#35 pt.A -Watch the following: American Tongues • II. Quiz#21 • III. Return of Chapter#5 Test • IV. Journal#35 pt.B -notes on language • Homework: Read p.172-180 • Europe Map Test TOMORROW! Europe Map http://www.kidsmaps.com/geography/images/fullsized/modern-polical-europe.png Language Language – a set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication. World Language Families Major Language Families Percentage of World Population Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people. Major World Languages Major World Languages Language v. Dialect • It is difficult to classify languages and dialects. • Some scholars treat Quebecan French as a separate language while others consider it a dialect. • Many areas have a very complex linguistic geography• Africa-has perhaps 1,000 languages • India has about 600 Language Terms • Standard language-an official language sustained by the state in the form of state examination for teachers, civil servants and others. • Dialect-regional variation of a standard language. • Language family-a group of languages descended from a single, earlier tongue. • Language subfamily-a further division of language groups. E.g. Romance language is a subfamily of Indo-European. • Regional differences in a standard language; – Syntax-the way words are put together – Vocabulary – Pronunciation – Cadence or rhythm – Accents can reveal the regional home of a person. • Isogloss-a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature is found. Examples • Northern dialect and its subdivisions are found in New England and Canada, extending southward to a secondary dialect are centered on New York. • Midland speech is found along the Atlantic coast from New Jersey southward to central Delaware, but spreads more extensively across the interior of the US and Canada. • The Southern dialect dominates the East coast from the Chesapeake Bay south. • Examples-North Midlands & South • pail bucket • brook run or branch • bossie to call cow Sook or Sookie or Sook cow • co or come cow co-wench or co-inch or coo ee • spider skillet or frying pan Dialect-variants of a standard language along regional or ethnic lines- vocabulary-syntax- pronunciation- cadence-pace of speech Isogloss -A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs Homework Tonight • Read p.172-180. • Continue working on the Ch#6 Guided Reading. • Study for the Europe Map Test. AP Human Geography 11/21/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Continue examination of Language. APHugIII-B.1 • Language objective: Write about language. • I. Journal#36 pt.A -Watch the following: American Tongues pt.3 Deadly Delays, Newborn Screening • II. Europe Map Test • III. Quiz#22 • IV. Journal#36 pt.B -notes on language • NOTICE: Final Exam Monday & Tuesday! Origin & Diffusion of Languages • Mother Tongue-the first language spoken by Homo sapiens about 200,000 years ago. • Deep reconstruction-by studying sound shifts, linguists try to re-create an extinct language. • Language divergence-the differentiation that takes place over time and distance. • Language convergence-when long isolated languages make contact through diffusion. • Language replacement-traditional languages of small groups of less advanced people were replaced or greatly modified by an invading tongue. • Linguists can find linkages among languages by examining sound shifts – a slight change in a word across languages over time. • The vocabulary of a ancient language can reveal its cultural hearth. • The Indo-European branches of the language tree at right illustrates the concept of language divergence. • August Schleicher was the first to compare the world’s language families to the branches of a tree. • An example of sound shift: – – – – Latin for milk is lacte Italian is latta Spanish is leche French is lait • Another example of sound shift is: – German vater – Dutch vader – English father • Still another example is – Latin for eight is octo – Spanish is ocho – French is huit How are Languages Formed? • Mutual Intelligibility- means two people can understand each other when speaking. Problems: • Cannot measure mutual intelligibility • Many “languages” fail the test of mutual intelligibility • Standard languages and governments impact what is a “language” and what is a “dialect” How do Languages Diffuse? • human interaction-2,000 years ago-Han China, Roman Empire-spread languages over vast empires • print distribution-Gutenberg’s movable type printing press (1452-first Gutenberg Bible) helped to diffuse, standardize & stabilize European languages • Migration-ancient & more recent migration from 16th century to now diffused languages e.g. Spanish, Portuguese, English & French • Trade-encouraged the spread of goods & languages • Rise of nation-states-stabilized & standardized languages • Colonialism-mercantilism & colonies spread European languages in the Americas, Africa & Asia Spatial Interaction helps create • Lingua franca – A language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce. • Pidgin language – a language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary. • Creole language – a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people. Examples of lingua franca • First known lingua franca was a pidgin language created in the 1200s along the Mediterranean Sea-Southern France – Franks language mixed with Italian, Greek, Spanish and Arabic-came to be known as a Frankish language or lingua franca • Arabic became a lingua franca during the Islamic expansionEnglish did so in the colonial period • Swahili is the lingua franca of the East African coast-developed from African bantu mixed with Arabic & Persian-50 million speakers from southern Somalia to East African Lakes region. • Creole-stems from a pidgin language formed in Caribbean from English, French & Portuguese mixed with African languages • South East Asia-Bazaar Malay is spoken from Myanmar to Indonesia, Philippines to Malaysia-a lingua franca in the region. Monolingual State a country in which only one language is spoken Multilingual State a country in which more than one language is in use Official Language should a multilingual state adopt an official language? Examples • Monolingual states-Japan, Uruguay, Venezuela, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, Poland, and Lesotho. • Multilingual State-Canada, Belgium, India, Peru-with Indigenous languages • Official Language-many former colonies adopted English, French, or Portuguese as official languages to tie people together: – – – – – Angola-Portuguese Nigeria & Ghana-English Ivory Coast-French India-Hindi & English are official languages Tanzania-English & Swahili Language Family Trees Homework Tonight • Study for the Final Exam.