AP BIO Scavenger Hunt - apbiology735

AP BIO Scavenger Hunt
By Puja Bansal
Summer of 2010
Mr. Cochrane
YEAR 2010-2011
Organisms in different Kingdoms
In biology, kingdoms are general groups to classify organisms. The
six kingdoms are: Fungi, Bacteria, Plantae, Animalia, Protista, and
Archaea. A way to categorize organisms into kingdoms is by their
role in the ecosystem.
Organisms in different Phylums
In biology, phlyums catergorize organisms from their very general
kingdoms into more specific group. For example, Animalia can be
classified into 9 different phylums such as Annelida which include
over 16,000 different worm species, and Chrodata which are over
100,000 different types of vertebrates. By doing this process of creating
phylums, organisms are classified by one or two main distinguishing
characteristics. Dogs are in the phylum Chordata whereas ants are in
the phylum Arthrropoda.
Organisms in different plant division
Just like there are different categories of animals, there are different
divisions of plants. These divisions are the phylums that plants are put
into. There are 11 different phlyums, and again, these are categorized
by usually one specific characteristic. One is called the Pteridophyta
which contains all types of ferns and horsetails while Bryophta
includes all the moss plants. In my two examples, I have
Magnoliophyta (the ivy) and I have Coniferophya (sap plants and
Organisms in the same class, but different orders
The next specific division category is class. Class takes a general area
and, like every other rank, divides it further. The reason for all these
classes is the ability to classify organisms as well as find the
relationship between them. One could see how related two fungi’s are
by what ranks they share. If they have the same family, they are very
similar to each other, but if they only share the same phylum than
they are not. In my example, I used two plants that are both in the
class, Asterids (of Eudicots of Angiosperms of Plantae), but ivy is in
the order, Apiales, while Hydrangeas are in the order, Cornales.
Definition of the word.
Some examples.
Use in biology.
Explanation of internet-diagram.
Explanation of personal picture.
Internet Diagram
Explaning Process
Picture With
Analogous Structures
Analogous structures are characteristics on organisms that are similar in use, but are not
similar in physical characteristics. This can be shown through the example of different
types of fins in underwater creatures or the types of eyes in different organisms.
Analogous structures are important in biology because they allow the same adaptation
that organisms need to survive but still contribute to genetic variety. My example is of
legs, which allow transport. The leg of an ant and the leg of a dog are both very different
in physical sense (in size and in bone structure), however, they have the same function.
Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction is when only
reproduction takes place using only one
parent. This is most common in
unicellular organisms such as bacteria
and fungi but can also occur in plants.
Asexual reproduction is the most
efficient way to reproduce. The process
in the diagram below is division. The
nucleus is replicated first and then the
cells are. Asexual Reproduction
effiecency changes by the different
conditions because each microorganism
thrives best in a different temperature
and food source. Bacteria, in this specific
example of Staphylococcus Epidermidis,
can asexually reproduce from one colony
to a lawn of bacteria overnight.
Anther and Filament of Stamen
The stamen is one of the most important parts of the flower. It allows for pollination and
therefore reproduction. It can be called the “male reproductive system in the flower”. The
anther is the tip of the stamen, usually a small bud. The anther produces pollen for
reproduction. The filament is the thin long stalk of the stamen that connects the anther
with the rest of the flower, specifically the corolla. The anther and filament are both equal
parts in the reproducing process. These are specifically important because without the
anther and filament, it would be impossible for plants to reproduce, reducing the chance
of genetic variety.
A pollinator is any kind of agent, such as an insect or wind, that will move pollen from
plant to plant. This allows plants to fertilize. More pollinators are insects such as honey
bees. But others include hummingbirds, butterflies, and wind. Pollination is constantly
needed to reproduce autotrophs. (Go to ‘Autotroph’ page for benefits of reproduction).
The diagram below shows how reproduction takes place through the pollinators work.
The picture below is of a bee in a windowsill. A bee can pollinate thousands of flowers
per week!
An endotherm is a warm-blooded organism that doesn’t change or regulate its
temperature based on climate, but does so internally. Therefore, their internal
temperature is constant. Organisms must find ways to be comfortable in external
temperatures since they cannot change their own; sweating, hypernating, and panting
are all ways to do this. Endotherms are warm-blooded while ectotherms are coldblooded. This is a picture of Darwin, Mr. Cochrane's dog. He is an endotherm because
his body temperature remains constant.
Ectotherms are organisms that change their internal temperature according to the
environment. This ensures their comfort in any conditions. Ectotherms are always cold
blooded and include animals such as reptiles, turtles, and fish. Chameleons are
ectotherms that not only change their blood temperature, but change their skin color
according to the weather.
Autotrophs are the most important
part of the environment. They can
produce complex compounds such as
carbohydrate and glucose from
simple molecules, photosynthesis, or
chemosynthesis. The reduce the
amount of carbon dioxide and make
their own food. These useful
organisms are commonly called
something that everyone has heard
of- plants. Autotrophs are able to
produce breathing oxygen. Without
them, we would be unable to survive.
One picture is of a flower that
provides aesthetics as well as oxygen!
Bilateral Symmetry
Bilateral symmetry can be found in lots of nature. It is when two halves of a whole,
whether in a leaf or on an animal, are approximately identical. Bugs and butterflies can
both be bilaterally symmetrical. More commonly, leaves of plants can be identical when
folded over along the vein. Flowers also often have symmetry between the petals. Lastly,
fruits and vegetables have bilateral symmetry. For example, apples cut horizontally show
symmetry in their seed pattern. These are incredibly interesting as they present
themselves in different aspects of nature. Scientists still can not explain how or why they
are formed. Even though they are unexplainable, they are incredible.
Basidiomycete are in a subkingdom of the kingdom fungi. These include puffballs, mushrooms,
stinkhorns, and yeast. To be considered a basidium, the organism must include sexually producing
spores. Basidiomycete can live in a variety of conditions and can even be found in a suburban
backyard. These organisms can support the ecosystem by providing food for detrivores. In my
example, I found mushrooms in a suburban lawn. These are unclassified but are definitely fungi.
Modified Stem of a Plant
Plants, like other organisms and animals, must adapt and
mutate themselves to survive in new conditions and
environments. Plants can be modified genetically by
people or can modify themselves. By modifying
themselves, plants allow themselves to live in better
conditions and live longer. Most examples are of would
be thorns or pricks on a cactus, which help plants protect
themselves from predators, or the roots of turnips and
potatoes which make it easier to live. In my picture, the
trunk of this tree bent itself to get into areas of sunlight
and fought with the other plants for the ability to grow.
Gymnosperm Cone
Gymnosperms are seed-bearing plants that form their seeds on the outside, making them
known as “naked seeds”. Gymnosperm cones hang, most notably, on conifers and
cycads. Often gymnosperm cone are used for commercial uses such as soap, paint, and
varnish and trees that contains these cones are used for lumber. These trees are
autotrophs that are home to many different types of wildlife. My picture is of a pinecone
that fell from a conifer in my backyard.
Genetically Modified Organism
Genetically Modified Organisms are plants or animals that had their recombinant DNA
altered by scientists. This is usually done to either expand genetic variation, produce
organisms for aesthetics, produce longer living and larger vegetable and fruits, and for
scientific research. Researchers remove the DNA from an organism and add or remove
genes to give the DNA different properties. The DNA is then inserted back into the
organism. Some types of organisms can be fish (glofish), bacteria (research), and foods.
In my picture, this tomato was genetically modified to become much larger to produce
more food than a normal tomato.
Predation is a process in nature that explains
parts of the food chain. Predation involves a
predator and prey. The predator is the
predominantly stronger, faster, of the two
animals and survives on weaker prey.
Predation puts animals in their places of
carnivore, omnivore, or herbivore and creates
food chains for different areas. Because I live
in a suburban neighborhood, it is rare to find
predation at its best. Instead, I was able to
capture a picture of a smaller, younger fish
who was mauled (his tail was bitten off!) by a
shark fish. This is an representation of marine
predation were sharks and barracudas feed on
smaller schools of fish.
Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial Tissue is one that covers different organs and structures of the body. It is the
outermost tissue and skin in the most notable example. Epithelial tissue can contain
nerves to create sensation, thick underlying that protections from chemicals and
pathogens , and gland that produce sweat. The uses include protection, secretion,
transport, along with many others. The picture I have is of a hand which is covered in
Epithelial Tissues. The hands touch a variety of objects and can be hurt easily. Without
this tissue, our body would be susceptible to bacteria's much more easily and would be
unable to function.
Flower Ovary
An ovary can be considered the female reproductive organ in a plant. Ovaries can be
most obviously found in flowering plants. They are located between the filament, petals,
and stem and are small buds. Ovaries contains small ovule which allow for the growth of
individual pollen and therefore more flowers or plants. A little known fact is that fruits
are actually just ripened ovaries from a flower and they become edible just like some
flowers and plants are. In my picture, I peeled and cut off the stem and petals from a
flower until just the ovary remained. This is an ovary that, if cut open, will reveal small
ovules. Here it is attached to, possibly, a filament.
Seed Dispersal
Seed dispersal is the transport of seeds from one plant to another. Because plants cannot
fertilize themselves, vectors such as wind, water, and pollinators must do it for them.
Seed dispersal is very necessary in biology because it allows for the production of more
plants which, as already stated, is beneficial in many ways. In my example, a dandelion
contains many loosely bound seeds. Wind can blow these seeds into new plots of land
where they can grow with water, sunlight, and good conditions.
Redox Reaction
A redox reaction is a chemical reaction
where the element that is reacting changes
their oxidation number. Either they will
have a loss of electrons, Oxidation,
(increase oxidation level) or have a gain of
electrons, Reduction, (decrease oxidation
level). The element that will gain electrons
is known as the reducing agent while the
element that is losing electrons is the
oxidizing agent. The most notable examples
would be rust and combustion.
The vascular cambium is a meristem in the tissue
of plants. It is composed of many layers, including
the xylem and phloem. The cambium is usually
the trunk or stem of a plant, between the roots
and the leaves. Cambiums, though rarely, can also
exist in leaves. Cambiums are only found in dicots
and gymnosperms and not monocots because
monocots do no have secondary growth, which is
what the cambium tries to sustain.
A xylem is a type of tissue in an autotroph that transports nutrients and water. “Xylem” actually
translates to “wood” in Greek. Xylem really is wood; tree trunks, stems, and stumps are all xylem
tissue. The xylem connects the roots to the rest of the plant. The evaporation of water from the
plant cells pulls the xylems upward which sucks up the water from the roots and soil. In a plant,
the xylem is the third layer to be made and without it, no plant could survive. The third layer in
this picture is the thick xylem whereas the phloem (next page) is very thin. This is because the
xylem will be absorbing water which will expand it.
The phloem is the tissue that, along with the xylem,
carries nutrients to help the plant survive. While the
xylem focuses on transporting the water, the phloem
transports some basic nutrients, but more important,
sucrose. The sucrose makes it possible for the plant to
photosynthesize. Again, the phloem can be considered the
stem or trunk of the plant. The phloem is a rather thin
layer and is ,vertically, the fourth encompassing layer.
Unicellular Organism
A unicellular organism, or a microorganism, is an
organism that cannot be seen with the human eye.
Microorganisms consist of fungi, bacteria, archaea,
protists, and viruses. Where there is water, there
will be microorganisms. Most cannot survive in
extreme conditions which is why by boiling or
freezing something, one can remove lots of the
microorganisms that live on it. Microorganisms are
on every surface and there are millions alone that
live on your skin. Microbiology, the study of
unicellular organisms, is about genetically
engineered and manipulating these organisms.
Because unicellular organisms cannot be seen by
the human eye, I took a picture of the air, ceiling,
hair tie, and hand which, no doubt, together has
billions of microorganisms. The diagram shows an
up close view of a few of the millions of

similar documents