AP BIO Scavenger Hunt By Puja Bansal Summer of 2010 Mr. Cochrane PERIODS 6/7 YEAR 2010-2011 GRADE 10 Organisms in different Kingdoms In biology, kingdoms are general groups to classify organisms. The six kingdoms are: Fungi, Bacteria, Plantae, Animalia, Protista, and Archaea. A way to categorize organisms into kingdoms is by their role in the ecosystem. Bacteria Fungi Organisms in different Phylums In biology, phlyums catergorize organisms from their very general kingdoms into more specific group. For example, Animalia can be classified into 9 different phylums such as Annelida which include over 16,000 different worm species, and Chrodata which are over 100,000 different types of vertebrates. By doing this process of creating phylums, organisms are classified by one or two main distinguishing characteristics. Dogs are in the phylum Chordata whereas ants are in the phylum Arthrropoda. Organisms in different plant division Just like there are different categories of animals, there are different divisions of plants. These divisions are the phylums that plants are put into. There are 11 different phlyums, and again, these are categorized by usually one specific characteristic. One is called the Pteridophyta which contains all types of ferns and horsetails while Bryophta includes all the moss plants. In my two examples, I have Magnoliophyta (the ivy) and I have Coniferophya (sap plants and conifers). Organisms in the same class, but different orders The next specific division category is class. Class takes a general area and, like every other rank, divides it further. The reason for all these classes is the ability to classify organisms as well as find the relationship between them. One could see how related two fungi’s are by what ranks they share. If they have the same family, they are very similar to each other, but if they only share the same phylum than they are not. In my example, I used two plants that are both in the class, Asterids (of Eudicots of Angiosperms of Plantae), but ivy is in the order, Apiales, while Hydrangeas are in the order, Cornales. HOW EACH SLIDE IS FORMATTED! Word • • • • • Definition of the word. Some examples. Use in biology. Explanation of internet-diagram. Explanation of personal picture. Internet Diagram Explaning Process Personal Picture With BLACK HAIRTIE Analogous Structures Analogous structures are characteristics on organisms that are similar in use, but are not similar in physical characteristics. This can be shown through the example of different types of fins in underwater creatures or the types of eyes in different organisms. Analogous structures are important in biology because they allow the same adaptation that organisms need to survive but still contribute to genetic variety. My example is of legs, which allow transport. The leg of an ant and the leg of a dog are both very different in physical sense (in size and in bone structure), however, they have the same function. Asexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction is when only reproduction takes place using only one parent. This is most common in unicellular organisms such as bacteria and fungi but can also occur in plants. Asexual reproduction is the most efficient way to reproduce. The process in the diagram below is division. The nucleus is replicated first and then the cells are. Asexual Reproduction effiecency changes by the different conditions because each microorganism thrives best in a different temperature and food source. Bacteria, in this specific example of Staphylococcus Epidermidis, can asexually reproduce from one colony to a lawn of bacteria overnight. Anther and Filament of Stamen The stamen is one of the most important parts of the flower. It allows for pollination and therefore reproduction. It can be called the “male reproductive system in the flower”. The anther is the tip of the stamen, usually a small bud. The anther produces pollen for reproduction. The filament is the thin long stalk of the stamen that connects the anther with the rest of the flower, specifically the corolla. The anther and filament are both equal parts in the reproducing process. These are specifically important because without the anther and filament, it would be impossible for plants to reproduce, reducing the chance of genetic variety. Anther Filament Pollinator A pollinator is any kind of agent, such as an insect or wind, that will move pollen from plant to plant. This allows plants to fertilize. More pollinators are insects such as honey bees. But others include hummingbirds, butterflies, and wind. Pollination is constantly needed to reproduce autotrophs. (Go to ‘Autotroph’ page for benefits of reproduction). The diagram below shows how reproduction takes place through the pollinators work. The picture below is of a bee in a windowsill. A bee can pollinate thousands of flowers per week! Endotherm An endotherm is a warm-blooded organism that doesn’t change or regulate its temperature based on climate, but does so internally. Therefore, their internal temperature is constant. Organisms must find ways to be comfortable in external temperatures since they cannot change their own; sweating, hypernating, and panting are all ways to do this. Endotherms are warm-blooded while ectotherms are coldblooded. This is a picture of Darwin, Mr. Cochrane's dog. He is an endotherm because his body temperature remains constant. Ectotherm Ectotherms are organisms that change their internal temperature according to the environment. This ensures their comfort in any conditions. Ectotherms are always cold blooded and include animals such as reptiles, turtles, and fish. Chameleons are ectotherms that not only change their blood temperature, but change their skin color according to the weather. Autotrophs Autotrophs are the most important part of the environment. They can produce complex compounds such as carbohydrate and glucose from simple molecules, photosynthesis, or chemosynthesis. The reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and make their own food. These useful organisms are commonly called something that everyone has heard of- plants. Autotrophs are able to produce breathing oxygen. Without them, we would be unable to survive. One picture is of a flower that provides aesthetics as well as oxygen! Bilateral Symmetry Bilateral symmetry can be found in lots of nature. It is when two halves of a whole, whether in a leaf or on an animal, are approximately identical. Bugs and butterflies can both be bilaterally symmetrical. More commonly, leaves of plants can be identical when folded over along the vein. Flowers also often have symmetry between the petals. Lastly, fruits and vegetables have bilateral symmetry. For example, apples cut horizontally show symmetry in their seed pattern. These are incredibly interesting as they present themselves in different aspects of nature. Scientists still can not explain how or why they are formed. Even though they are unexplainable, they are incredible. Basidiomycete Basidiomycete are in a subkingdom of the kingdom fungi. These include puffballs, mushrooms, stinkhorns, and yeast. To be considered a basidium, the organism must include sexually producing spores. Basidiomycete can live in a variety of conditions and can even be found in a suburban backyard. These organisms can support the ecosystem by providing food for detrivores. In my example, I found mushrooms in a suburban lawn. These are unclassified but are definitely fungi. Modified Stem of a Plant Plants, like other organisms and animals, must adapt and mutate themselves to survive in new conditions and environments. Plants can be modified genetically by people or can modify themselves. By modifying themselves, plants allow themselves to live in better conditions and live longer. Most examples are of would be thorns or pricks on a cactus, which help plants protect themselves from predators, or the roots of turnips and potatoes which make it easier to live. In my picture, the trunk of this tree bent itself to get into areas of sunlight and fought with the other plants for the ability to grow. Gymnosperm Cone Gymnosperms are seed-bearing plants that form their seeds on the outside, making them known as “naked seeds”. Gymnosperm cones hang, most notably, on conifers and cycads. Often gymnosperm cone are used for commercial uses such as soap, paint, and varnish and trees that contains these cones are used for lumber. These trees are autotrophs that are home to many different types of wildlife. My picture is of a pinecone that fell from a conifer in my backyard. Genetically Modified Organism Genetically Modified Organisms are plants or animals that had their recombinant DNA altered by scientists. This is usually done to either expand genetic variation, produce organisms for aesthetics, produce longer living and larger vegetable and fruits, and for scientific research. Researchers remove the DNA from an organism and add or remove genes to give the DNA different properties. The DNA is then inserted back into the organism. Some types of organisms can be fish (glofish), bacteria (research), and foods. In my picture, this tomato was genetically modified to become much larger to produce more food than a normal tomato. Predation Predation is a process in nature that explains parts of the food chain. Predation involves a predator and prey. The predator is the predominantly stronger, faster, of the two animals and survives on weaker prey. Predation puts animals in their places of carnivore, omnivore, or herbivore and creates food chains for different areas. Because I live in a suburban neighborhood, it is rare to find predation at its best. Instead, I was able to capture a picture of a smaller, younger fish who was mauled (his tail was bitten off!) by a shark fish. This is an representation of marine predation were sharks and barracudas feed on smaller schools of fish. Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Tissue is one that covers different organs and structures of the body. It is the outermost tissue and skin in the most notable example. Epithelial tissue can contain nerves to create sensation, thick underlying that protections from chemicals and pathogens , and gland that produce sweat. The uses include protection, secretion, transport, along with many others. The picture I have is of a hand which is covered in Epithelial Tissues. The hands touch a variety of objects and can be hurt easily. Without this tissue, our body would be susceptible to bacteria's much more easily and would be unable to function. Flower Ovary An ovary can be considered the female reproductive organ in a plant. Ovaries can be most obviously found in flowering plants. They are located between the filament, petals, and stem and are small buds. Ovaries contains small ovule which allow for the growth of individual pollen and therefore more flowers or plants. A little known fact is that fruits are actually just ripened ovaries from a flower and they become edible just like some flowers and plants are. In my picture, I peeled and cut off the stem and petals from a flower until just the ovary remained. This is an ovary that, if cut open, will reveal small ovules. Here it is attached to, possibly, a filament. Seed Dispersal Seed dispersal is the transport of seeds from one plant to another. Because plants cannot fertilize themselves, vectors such as wind, water, and pollinators must do it for them. Seed dispersal is very necessary in biology because it allows for the production of more plants which, as already stated, is beneficial in many ways. In my example, a dandelion contains many loosely bound seeds. Wind can blow these seeds into new plots of land where they can grow with water, sunlight, and good conditions. Redox Reaction A redox reaction is a chemical reaction where the element that is reacting changes their oxidation number. Either they will have a loss of electrons, Oxidation, (increase oxidation level) or have a gain of electrons, Reduction, (decrease oxidation level). The element that will gain electrons is known as the reducing agent while the element that is losing electrons is the oxidizing agent. The most notable examples would be rust and combustion. Cambium The vascular cambium is a meristem in the tissue of plants. It is composed of many layers, including the xylem and phloem. The cambium is usually the trunk or stem of a plant, between the roots and the leaves. Cambiums, though rarely, can also exist in leaves. Cambiums are only found in dicots and gymnosperms and not monocots because monocots do no have secondary growth, which is what the cambium tries to sustain. Xylem A xylem is a type of tissue in an autotroph that transports nutrients and water. “Xylem” actually translates to “wood” in Greek. Xylem really is wood; tree trunks, stems, and stumps are all xylem tissue. The xylem connects the roots to the rest of the plant. The evaporation of water from the plant cells pulls the xylems upward which sucks up the water from the roots and soil. In a plant, the xylem is the third layer to be made and without it, no plant could survive. The third layer in this picture is the thick xylem whereas the phloem (next page) is very thin. This is because the xylem will be absorbing water which will expand it. Phloem The phloem is the tissue that, along with the xylem, carries nutrients to help the plant survive. While the xylem focuses on transporting the water, the phloem transports some basic nutrients, but more important, sucrose. The sucrose makes it possible for the plant to photosynthesize. Again, the phloem can be considered the stem or trunk of the plant. The phloem is a rather thin layer and is ,vertically, the fourth encompassing layer. Unicellular Organism A unicellular organism, or a microorganism, is an organism that cannot be seen with the human eye. Microorganisms consist of fungi, bacteria, archaea, protists, and viruses. Where there is water, there will be microorganisms. Most cannot survive in extreme conditions which is why by boiling or freezing something, one can remove lots of the microorganisms that live on it. Microorganisms are on every surface and there are millions alone that live on your skin. Microbiology, the study of unicellular organisms, is about genetically engineered and manipulating these organisms. Because unicellular organisms cannot be seen by the human eye, I took a picture of the air, ceiling, hair tie, and hand which, no doubt, together has billions of microorganisms. The diagram shows an up close view of a few of the millions of microorganisms.