AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Report
TYPES OF GEOGRAPHY AND
THEIR USES
A Look a Physical and Cultural
Geography
“The purpose of Geography is to provide ‘a view of
the whole’ earth by mapping the locations of
places.” Ptolemy 150 AD
What is Geography?
 Study of the interaction of humanity and the physical
environment
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
 Physical Geography also called geosystems or
physiology
 Understanding the processes and patterns in the
natural environment
Father of Physical Geography
 “Geography is
synthesizing discipline
to connect the general
with special through
measurement,
mapping and a
regional emphasis.”
1845
Alexander von Humboldt
Geomorphology
 Understanding the
earth’s surface and
processes on how it
was shaped
Window Rock Arizona
Hydrolic (Water) Cycle
Concerned with amounts and quality of water moving on land such as rivers,
lakes and glacial runoff
Glaciology
 Study of glaciers and
ice sheets
 Ice Sheets are massive
glacier ice in Antarctica
and Greenland
Pedology
Study of Soil
Biogeography
Geographic patterns of species
distribution
Wikipedia.com
Oceanography
 Study of oceans and
seas
Environmental Geography
 Describes interactions of humans and the
natural world
Palaeogeography
 Study of distribution of
the continents through
time
Landscape Ecology
 Spatial variation in
land due to energy
flows and changes
Coastal Geography
 Port Campbell, Australia
Study of ocean and land
Climatology
 Study of Climate, such as weather over long
periods of time
CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
 Study of cultural products, traditions and variations
 Studies ways language, religion, economy, government
and other cultural aspects vary or remain constant
from one place to another.
Globalization
 Clash of cultures
 Cultural Exchange
Westernization
 Spread of western/American/European culture to
other areas of the world
Cultural Hegemony/Cultural Assimilation
 Adopting aspects of other cultures
Cultural Area Diversity
 Study of different
cultures and ideas in
geographical areas
Agricultural Geography
 Study of food of
different areas
 Study of farming
practices
Cities, Urban Geography and Transportation
Geography
 Study of cities,
transportation
and urban
development of
different areas
Political Geography
 Study of governments of different countries
 Comparisons of government effectiveness in one area
over another through time
Languages
 Study of languages of
various areas
Population Geography
 Study of birth rate,
death rate, growth and
decline of populations
through time in one
area
 Comparing
populations of
different areas with
each other
Colonialism, Internationalism, Immigration,
Emigration and Ecotourism
 Movement of people
on a permanent or
temporary basis from
one area to another
6 Elements of Geography
 Spatial relationships between people, places and the
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environment
Physical and human characteristics of places and
regions
Physical systems which shape life
Human systems of competition and cooperation
Environment and society’s effect on one another
Historical: geographic influences past and present
Tools Used in Geography to Collect Data
 Maps
 GPS
 Computer Databases
 Scientific Method
 Historic Data Basis
 Photography/Satellite images
A World of diversity and challenges
World Climates
Themes
Location
Place
Interaction
Movement
Region
Where is
it?
What do you
find there?
How people
change the
environment
Movement
of people
Areas with
similar
features
Climate
patterns
Trade and
immigration
Location
on the
earth
Relative
Location
Absolute
location
migration
emigration
Climate
 A typical pattern of
 Dry Climate
weather recognized in a
particular region over
time
 Results in different kinds
of soil, landforms and
vegetation
 Wet Climates
 Humid Climates
 Cold Climates
 Undifferentiated
Highlandd
World Climate
 Weather of a place over a period of time
 Understand how humans were able to travel in
certain areas
 Concern is that human activity may be changing
global climate
 Burning of fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide
which slows the escape of heat released by the
earth into space
 Global Warming can change rainfall, plant and
animal populations, melt polar ice caps and raise
the sea levels
5 Factors of Climate
 Latitude (distance from the equator)
 Altitude (height above sea level)
 Topography (surface features)
 Distance from Oceans and Large Lakes
 Circulation of the atmosphere
Latitude
 30% of the radiation from the sun that reaches the
Earth’s atmosphere is reflected back into space,
mostly by clouds
 70% is absorbed by the atmosphere, surface and
heats them
 As latitude decreases, the intensity of solar
radiation lessens—increases as you get closer to
the Equator
 Radiation Intensity is related to how high the sun
has to climb
Latitude
 Intensity of radiation declines, the average
temperatures of an area decline
 In tropical latitudes, there is little difference in the
amount of solar heating, so the temperature does
not vary as much
 At the poles, there are periods of time when the
sun does not rise and so the temperatures are
cooler
Terrain and Climate
 Higher the place is, the colder
 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit drop per 1,000 feet of altitude
 Surface of the Earth influences development of clouds and
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precipitation
Humid air sweeps up the slopes of a mountain range, air
cools and so clouds form
Windward sides tend to be more wet than Leeward sides
Oceans and Lakes make the air temperature less extreme
in places downward of them
Air temperatures over oceans or lakes vary less than air
temperatures over land
Influence of Wind
 Influences climate by producing winds that distribute heat
and moisture
 6 belts of wind circle the earth:
a) Trade winds between 30 degree north latitude and the
equator
b) Trade winds between the equator and 30 degrees south
latitude
c) Westerlies (winds from the west) that blow between 30
degrees and 60 degrees north of the equator
d) Westerlies blowing between 30 degrees and 60 degrees
south of the Equator
e) Polar winds north of 60 degree north latitude and f)
polar winds south of 60 degrees south latitude
Influence of Wind
 Trade winds north of the Equator blow from the
northeast, south of the equator, they blow from the
southeast. Trade winds of the two hemispheres meet
near the Equator, causing the air to rise.
 Rain develops often at the Equator so the weather is
often referred to as the doldrums in this region
Winds
 Trade Winds were used by explorers coming to the
Americas
 Front are distinctive masses of cold or warm air
 Rain Shadow are winds from mountain ranges that
stop rain clouds from depositing rain
Kinds of Climate
 Classification System was developed in 1918 by
Wladimir Koppen, a German Climatologist
 He based his system on a region’s vegetation, average
monthly and annual temperature, and average
monthly and annual precipitation
12 Climate Groups
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Tropical Wet
Tropical Wet and Dry
Semiarid
Desert
Subtropical Dry Summer
Humid Subtropical
Humid Oceanic
Humid Continental
Subarctic
Tundra
Icecap
Highland
Desert
Dry Climates
 Desert has less than 10 inches of annual precipitation
 Large daily temperature ranges
 Sandy soils that lack humus
 Vegetation has deep roots, thick bark and leaves
Steppe
Steppe
 Transition from dry to humid climates (semi-arid),
annual precipitation 10-20 inches
 Soils thick and black with humus
 Natural vegetation is short grasses; often used for
livestock grazing
Steppe
 Temperature change between day and night is
considerable due to clear skies and dry air
 Cover greater area than other climates
 East-West bands near 30 degrees north and south
latitude
Mediterranean
Warm Climates
Subtropical Dry Summer
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Warm to hot, dry summers
Mild, rainy winters
Sometimes called Mediterranean Climates
Occur on west side of continents between 30 and 45
degrees latitude
 Closer to the coast, the more moderate the
temperatures and less summer-winter contrast
 Vegetation has large roots and small leaves to survive
summer droughts
Rain Forest
Warm Climates
Tropical Wet
 Temperatures high, no lower than 64 degrees F,
temperature difference between night and day greater
than the difference between summer and winter
 Hot and muggy all year
 Support Dense Tropical Rain Forests
 Rainfall is heavy and occurs in frequent showers and
thunderstorms throughout the year
Savanna
Tropical Rain Forests and Savannas
 Average annual rainfall varies from about 70 to 100
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inches
Tropical wet and dry are similar, but shorter rainy
season, so no rain forests, but savannas—grasslands
with scattered trees
No distinct dry season in rain forests
Distinct dry season in savannas
Vegetation Rain Forests: Dense tree growth with
canopies
Vegetation Savannas: Tall grasses with tropical trees
Humid Subtropical
Subtropics
Warm Climates
Humid Subtropical
 Warm to hot summers
 Cool winters
 Rainfall fairly even throughout the year
 Large storm systems in the winter from east to west
 Summer thunderstorms or tropical storm/hurricane
 SE side of continents between 25-40 degrees latitude
 Vegetation mixed forest
Humid Subtropical
Warm Climates
Humid Oceanic (Marine)
 Only on western sides of continents where
prevailing winds blow from sea to land
 Moderating influence of ocean reduces seasonal
temperature contrast
 Moderate precipitation throughout the year
 Low clouds, fog, and drizzle common
 Thunderstorms, cold waves, heat waves, and
droughts are rare
Humid Continental
Warm Climate
Humid Continental
 Mild to warm summers
 Cold winters
 Temperature differences between summer and winter.
Temperature difference is as great as 45 to 63 degree F
 Precipitation distribution fairly even
 Snow is common in winter
Subarctic
Cool Climates
Subarctic
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Short, Cool summers
Long, bitterly cold winters
Freezes can occur even in midsummer
Most precipitation falls in the summer
Snow comes early in the fall and lasts on the ground
into early summer
Tundra
Cool Climates
Tundra
 Dry, with a brief, chilly summer
 Bitterly cold winter
 Continuous permafrost (permanently frozen ground)
lies under much of the treeless tundra regions
Highlands
Cool Climates
Highland
 Mountainous regions
 Several areas where climates are like those found in
flat terrain
 Air temperature decreases with increasing altitude in
the mountains, each climate area is restricted to a
certain range of altitude
Ice Cap
Cool Climates
Icecap
 Coldest on Earth
 Summer temperatures rarely rise above freezing
 Temperatures extremely low during the long, dark
winter
 Precipitation is very little and almost always snow
Climate
 Geographers study relationships between climates and
human cultures
Climate of Antarctica
Sources of Pictures
 Wikipedia.com
 Microsoft Clip Art
How do land formations, land use patterns, ecological
regions, natural hazards influence migration patterns of
people?
Population Theory
 He supported controlled
population growth and stated that
plagues, wars, and epidemics
helped to control populations
 Led to the development of the
field of demography.
 Father of Demography
Thomas Robert Malthus 1766-1834
Population Density
 Reflects Environmental conditions
 3 great concentrations of human population:
East Asia, South Asia and Europe
 Areas of future high density are Middle and South
America and Africa
World Migration Patterns
 Migrations effects geography, contributes to
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cultural change and development
Spreading of ideas and innovations
Mixture of people and cultures throughout the
world
Internal migration occurs within the
boundaries of the country
External is movement from one country to another
or region to another
Population Trends
 More than 80 million people are added to the world
each year
 By 2015 there could be as many as 22 cities with 10
million or more people
 People who study population are called Demographers
Developing Nations
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High rate of population growth
High % of population under 15 years old
Lower Life expectancy
Lower Literacy rate
Lower Rate of urbanization
Lower GNP/Capita figures
Limited industrial sector
Economy tied to agriculture/primary activities
Developed Nations
 Declining population growth rates
 Higher Life expectancy
 Higher quality/quantity of food supply
 Higher GNP/Capita figures
 Moving toward the service sector
 Higher rate of resource consumption
Population
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Currently 193 countries
6,800 different languages/dialects
2,261 written languages
½ world is illiterate
World is 70% adults and 50% female
Population increasing 1.3% year
Birthrate: 22 per 1,000
Death Rate: 9 per 1,000
½ world under 25
Over 60,000,000 die of lack of food per year
Japan has longest life expectancy at 108 years for
females, 104 years for men
 Only 7% own a motorized vehicle
Migration Influences
 Emigration are the push factors that drive
people from an area.
 Immigration are the pull factors that attract
people to an area.
Bantu Migrations
 One of the most influential migrations in human
history
 Movement of the Bantu speaking people from
Western Africa to regions South, then East and
West
 Occurred between 3000-1000 B.C.
 Due to Agriculture and Metallurgy
Bantu Migrations
1st Migration
 Reason for the migration was
the Bantu knowledge of iron
working led to exploration of
interior
 West from east Nigeria
To East Africa
 Then South
 Inland following Congo River
Bantu Migration
2nd Major Migration
 Both migrations led to the
settlement of most of Africa
Urbanization
 Movement of people to the cities
 Urban area includes city and suburbs
 Urbanization is rising everywhere on Earth
 Urban areas combine people and activities
for convenience by providing economic
base and infrastructure
Subsistence Farming
Rice
Millet
Subsistence Farming
 Farming aim to provide enough for self and
family
 Cultivation takes place on small farms using
simple techniques
 Concentrates on basic needs
 Any surplus sold or bartered to provide other
needs
 West Africa 80% of workforce is in subsistence
farming
Diversified Farming
 Mixed
 Landowner has
large amount of
arable land and
technology
 Landowner
eventually will
specialize
Cooperative Farming in Israel
Commercial Farming
 Crops for sale and profit
 Livestock production and grazing
 Emphasis on capital formation, scientific progress and
technological development
 Large scale commercial farming is Agribusiness
Food Supply
 Cereal grains dominate the calorie intake of
people, particularly in Asia and Africa
 Staple grains:
 Corn, native to Western Hemisphere
 Wheat, among two oldest grain along with
Barley, most widely cultivated grain
 Rice, originated in Asia and staple for half of
the world’s population, labor intensive and
grows in paddies (flooded fields)
Housing
 Materials used reflect the region and differences in
culture
 Nomads move from place to place, so they build
houses that can easily be taken apart and put back
together
 Housing conditions vary from region to region
based on area, economics, population and
availability of food and drinkable water
Sources of Pictures
 Wikipedia.com
 Microsoft Clip Art

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