Change and Continuity Over Time Essay (CCOT)

Change and Continuity
Over Time Essay (CCOT)
AP World History
AP World History Essays
 You
will write THREE essays on the exam day:
 Change and Continuity Over Time (CCOT)
 Compare and Contrast
 They
are listed on the test in this order  they will
NOT identify them as such
 Time: 2
hours, 10 minutes
 10 minutes to read DBQ docs
 2 hours to write essay (about 40 minutes per essay)
Change and Continuity Over Time
 What You
Need to Do:
 Address Changes in Time period(s) and region(s)
 Address Continuities in Time period(s) and region(s)
 Be able to demonstrate change over time (What was
the topic like in the beginning, middle, and end? And
 Use historical examples and analysis to explain WHY
or HOW things change or stay the same
 Connect topic of ideas to global events in the same
time period about a similar topic (global context
What to Expect – The Question
2008 CCOT: Analyze continuities and
changes in the patterns of interactions
along the Silk Roads from 200 BCE –
1450 CE
2007 CCOT: Analyze major changes
and continuities in the formation of
national identities in ONE of the regions
listed below from 1914 to the present
Middle East
Southeast Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
2006 CCOT: Analyze the cultural
and political changes and
continuities in ONE of the following
regions during the last centuries of
the classical era
Chinese 100-600 CE
Roman 100-600 CE
Indian 300-600 CE
2004 CCOT: Analyze the changes
and continuities in labor systems
between 1750-1914 in ONE of the
following regions:
Latin America and the Caribbean
Sub-Saharan Africa
What to Expect – Constructing Your
Must discuss changes AND
continuities in all categories
given to you
IE: political changes and
Cont., cultural changes and
cont., etc.
Sometimes question will give
one or multiple categories of
If categories are not given, you
should create your own (this is
Based on the question, this
should be a 4-5 paragraph
Constructing Your Response –
The Thesis
 Required
 Time Period(s)
 Place(s)
 Topic(s)
 Example of Continuity with explanation
 Example of Change with explanation
 The Change and continuity mentioned in your thesis
must be discussed in greater detail in your body
Thesis Template
 When
examining topic(s) in region(s)
during time period(s), several changes
and continuities occur. For example a
significant continuity in region/time
period/topic was ___________ because
how/why it stayed the same. On the
other hand, ___________ changed
because how/why it changed.
Example of Thesis Statements
(Using 2006 Question)
Unacceptable: There were many cultural and political
changes and continuities in the Roman empire from 100-600
Acceptable: Between 100-600 CE, the Roman Empire
experienced steady decline and eventually a fall, although in
the east, the Byzantine Empire kept alive many of Rome’s
political and cultural traditions.
Excellent: China experienced the fall, absence, and eventual
re-establishment of imperial authority due to the invasion of
the Huns and the subsequent rise of the Sui Dynasty, while
Confucianism pervaded all levels of society throughout the
period 100-600 CE.
Constructing Your Response –
Body Paragraphs
Outline #1 – Single Region, Single Topic
Outline #2 – Multiple Regions/Topics
Thesis Paragraph
Thesis Paragraph
Body Paragraph 1: Continuities
in Region
BP1: Changes and Continuities
in Region or Topic 1
BP2: Changes in Region
BP2: Changes and Continuities
in Region or Topic 2
Conclusion Paragraph
Conclusion Paragraph
Could Break this down into 6
paragraph essay if you think you
know enough detail and can
analyze well
Constructing Your Response –
Body Paragraphs
Outline #3 - Chronological
 Thesis
 BP1: Beginning
of Period
 BP2: Middle
of Period (w/ emphasis on how changes
develop from middle to end)
 BP3: End
of Period (w/emphasis on changes
developing and continuities existing)
 Conclusion
Body Paragraphs – Addressing Change
AND Continuity
 Always
include a topic sentence
 Acceptable
: Culturally, Rome was polytheistic until
Constantine changed the official religion to
Christianity in the 4th century CE.
 Excellent: The
importance of religion as a politically
unifying force holding the allegiance of the Roman
Empire’s population remained constant from 100-600
CE, even as their religion changed from polytheism to
monotheism by the early 300s.
Body Paragraphs – Appropriate
Acceptable: As the era of great unrest and political instability
came to a close in the Roman Empire, Diocletian split the
empire into East and West halves as a last ditch effort to
preserve the great Rome.
Excellent: Around 100 CE, Rome was at the height of its
glory, known as the Pax Romana, due in large part to the
infrastructure projects, and legal and economic expansion
encouraged by its earlier emperors such as Augustus.
However, as time progressed into the 3rd and 4th centuries, the
empire grew too large, with high and uneven taxes that led
Rome to be weak to some external attacks by Germanic
Body Paragraphs
 Each
of your body paragraphs should contain at
least THREE specific points of analysis
 Clearly
identify change and/or continuities for
region or topic
 Explain
HOW or WHY each change or continuity
occurred with SPECIFIC DETAIL
Global Context Statement
 Required
in all CCOT essays – you cannot move
into expanded core if you do not have one
 Description: a
connection between the
topic/region of the question AND another region
in the same time period
 Relate
topic to broad world historical patterns or
to specific global historical examples
 Can
go in conclusion or body paragraphs
Global Context Examples
 Unacceptable: The
Pope of Rome and the
Patriarch of Byzantium excommunicated each
other leading to the churches that exist today.
 Acceptable: While
there was great cultural
division that started with the east-west division of
the Roman Empire around 300 CE, China
remained culturally united in the Classical
Period, despite internal and external threats, due
to the strength of Confucianism.

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