Intro to Organic Molecules & Lipids AP Biology Life is based on Carbon Carbon atoms are versatile building blocks Special bonding properties Has 4 valence electrons so it can form 4 stable covalent bonds with other carbon atoms or atoms of other elements Bonds with CHNOPS – the elements that make up living things; Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur H H C H AP Biology H Lipids Lipids are organic molecules essential for life that are composed mostly of C, H, O 4 types of lipids fats (triglycerides) phospholipids steroids waxes AP Biology Triglycerides Fat molecules Structure = 3 fatty acids chains linked to glycerol Functions = long term energy storage and insulation for animals Can be saturated or unsaturated Glycerol AP Biology 3 fatty acids Saturated fats All C bonded to H No C=C double bonds long, straight chain most animal fats and butter solid at room temperature contributes to cardiovascular disease AP Biology Unsaturated fats At least one C=C double bond in the fatty acids plant & fish fats vegetable oils liquid at room temperature AP Biology Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated AP Biology unsaturated Phospholipids Structure: 2 fatty acids chains + phosphate head Fatty acid chains = non-polar = hydrophobic “water fearing” Phosphate head = polar = hydrophillic “water loving” Function: make up cell membranes (phospholipid bilayer) AP Biology Steroids Structure: 4 fused Carbon rings examples: cholesterol – Function =control the fluidity of the cell membrane hormones – Function = regulate processes in the body (such as pregnancy) vitamins (A, B, D) – Function = supports metabolism and cell processes AP Biology Waxes Solid at room temp Insoluble in water Function: Protective covering for animals and plants Examples: AP Biology Beeswax Earwax Cuticle of leaf (keeps water in) Which of the following is an example of a type of triglyceride? 1. 2. 3. 4. A fat containing 3 saturated fatty acids A fat containing 2 saturated fatty acids & 1 unsaturated fatty acid A fat containing 3 unsaturated fatty acids All of the above eufic.org AP Biology aafp.org mpkb.org 0% 1. 0% 2. 0% 3. 0% 4. 2 Which of the following types of fats (triglycerides) would be an oil at room temperature and would be healthier to eat since its bent carbon & hydrogen chains and don’t stack well? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Unsaturated fat WITHOUT any C to C double bonds Saturated fat WITHOUT any C to C double bonds Unsaturated fat containing C=C Saturated fat containing C=C Steroids like testosterone hormone or cholesterol eufic.org AP Biology aafp.org mpkb.org 0% 1. 0% 2. 0% 3. 0% 4. 3 Which type of lipid makes up the majority of the cell membrane? 1. phospholipids 2. waxes 3. steroids 4. triglycerides AP Biology essortment.com alevelnotes.com 0% 1. 0% 2. 0% 3. 0% 4. 4 Phospholipids contain: 1. 2. A hydrophobic polar phosphate head & 2 hydrophilic nonpolar fatty acid tails A hydrophilic polar phosphate head & 2 hydrophobic nonpolar fatty acid tails AP Biology http://myhome.sunyocc.edu/~weiskirl/Alcamo_membra ne.gif 5 Which is an example of a steroid? Structure of triglycerides: fats 1. Fatty acids & oils 2. Sex hormones 3. Phospholipids 4. Olive Oil 5. Triglycerides 0% 0% 0% 2. 3. 0% 0% 4. 5. AP Biology 1. Structure of sex hormones 6 What is the function of a triglyceride? 1. Stores and transfers genetic information 2. Long term energy storage, as well as insulation & protection 3. Control the rate of reactions 4. Help to fight disease AP Biology 0% 1. 0% 2. 0% 3. 0% 4. 7 What is the function of hormones such as the steroid hormones? 1. Communication & cooperation between cells 2. Short term energy storage 3. Structural building materials 4. Compose the bilayer cell membrane 0% AP Biology 1. 0% 2. 0% 3. 0% 4. 8 What is the cholesterol considered a steroid? 1. They have a similar hydrophobic structure 2. The both contain rings made mostly of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms 3. They are both nonpolar covalent 4. All of the above AP Biology cholesterol 0% 1. 0% 2. 0% 3. 0% 4.