Teknik penulisan ilmiah: Seri tugas akhir S1,S2,S3

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Teknik penulisan ilmiah:
Tugas akhir S1,S2,S3
Bagaimana cara mengutip?
Bagaimana cara menulis referensi?
Oleh: D. Erwin Irawan
Referensi:
SPS 2008
SPH 2004
Teknik mengutip referensi dalam teks:
• Smith (1991) compared risk factors . . .
• In a recent study of risk factors (Smith 1991), . . .
• In 1991, Smith compared risk factors . . .
• In a recent study of risk factors, Smith (1991) described similar effects.
Smith also found . . .
• A recent report says Portugal's `low birthrate of 16 per 1000 inhabitants in
1980 was achieved despite only modest use of modern contraceptives'
(IFPP 1984: 71).
• As explained by Armitage and Berry (1987: 469), the implications of excess
risk depend . . .
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Teknik mengutip referensi dalam teks:
• If there are more than two authors, it is sufficient to use the name of the
first plus ‘et al’, unless that causes confusion between works by Smith,
Bloggs and Kobayashi (1989) and by Smith, Thomas, Honda and Brown
(1989).
• Smith, Bloggs et al. (1989) and Smith, Thomas et al. (1989).
• If the same author(s) published more than one work in a year, add letters
to distinguish them, such as Irwig et al. (1992a) and Irwig et al. (1992b).
• If several references occur together, separate them with semicolons. For
references by the same authors in different years, there is no need to
repeat the authors’ names: Oakley 1979, 1980; Rothman 1982; Zola 1972.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Dua tipe utama penulisan referensi
(Referencing)
• Harvard
• Vancouver
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Elemen yang perlu dicatat:
• Nama lengkap penulis (tanpa gelar akademik)
• Nama editor (tanpa gelar akademik)
• Judul:
– Ditulis seperti menulis kalimat biasa.
– Hanya kata pertama pada awal judul dan kata benda tertentu yang
ditulis dengan huruf besar
– Judul tidak dalam huruf besar semua.
– Kalau ada subjudul, pisahkan dengan “:”
• Tahun penerbitan
• Nama jurnal/prosiding
• Halaman pertama dan terakhir
• Organisasi yang menerbitkan, atau event penerbitan (misal PIT IAGI ke-xx)
• Lokasi penerbitan (kota, negara)
• Kata-kata, istilah, nama kota, organisasi dalam bahasa asing dicetak miring
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: skripsi, tesis, disertasi
• Shelley, J.M. (1991). Women's participation in Pap smear screening in NSW
[PhD thesis]. Sydney: University of Sydney.
• Youssef, N.M. (1988). School adjustment of children with congenital heart
disease [dissertation]. Pittsburgh (PA): University of Pittsburgh.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: artikel dalam jurnal ilmiah
Harris, A.H., Cercarelli, L.R. & Hobbs, M.S.T. (1992). Historical trends in road
accident types, deaths and casualties in Western Australia. Australian
Journal of Public Health, 16(2) June, 117-222.
Harris, A.H., Cercarelli, L.R. & Hobbs, M.S.T. (1992). Historical trends in road
accident types, deaths and casualties in Western Australia. Australian
Journal of Public Health, 16, 117-222.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: artikel dalam jurnal ilmiah
Rancke-Madsen, A. & Tanska, I. (1992). Legalt provokerede aborter 1990
[Legally induced abortions in 1990]. Ugeskrift for Laeger, 154(4), 205-6.
Nutbeam, D. (1991). Present progress and future challenges for health
promotion: observations from a recent migrant [editorial]. Australian
Journal of Public Health, 15, 4-6.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: artikel dalam jurnal ilmiah
The Royal Marsden Hospital Bone-marrow Transplantation Team (1977).
Failure of sygeneic bone-marrow graft without preconditioning in posthepatitis marrow aplasia. Lancet, 2, 742-744.
IFPP (1984). Portugal achieves low birthrate despite modest use of
contraceptives. International Family Planning Perspectives, 10(2), 71-2.
Hindari menggunakan kata ‘Anonymous’ atau ‘Anon.’ atau ‘____________’.
In press Lillywhite, H.B. & Donald, J.A. (in press). Pulmonary blood flow
regulation in an aquatic snake. Science.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: buku teks
• Personal author(s)
– de Vaus, D.A. (1990). Surveys in Social Research. 2nd ed. Sydney: Allen
& Unwin.
• Editor(s), compiler as author
– Diener, H.C. & Wilkinson, M., eds (1988). Drug-Induced Headache. New
York: Springer-Verlag.
• Author and editor
– Cumpston, J.H.L. (1989). Health and Disease in Australia: A History.
Lewis, M.J. ed. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
• Translation
– Beauvoir, S. de (1972). The Second Sex. H.M. Parshley, trans. and ed.
Harmondsworth (Middx): Penguin. First published (1949) as Le
Deuxième Sexe.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: buku teks
• Organisation, group as author
– Boston Women's Health Book Collective (1985). The New Our Bodies,
Ourselves. Ringwood (Vic.): Penguin. National Health and Medical
Research Council (1991). Immunisation Procedures. 4th ed. Canberra:
Australian Government Publishing Service.
• Organisation as author and publisher
– AGPS (1988). Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers. 4th ed.
Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
• Chapter in a book
– Versluysen, M.C. (1981). Midwives, medical men and ‘poor women
labouring of child’ lying-in hospitals in eighteenth-century London. In:
H. Roberts, ed. Women, Health and Reproduction. London: Routledge
& Kegan Paul, 18-49.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: prosiding seminar/konferensi
• Hall, R. & Richters, J., eds (1992). Immunisation: The Old and the New.
Proceedings of the Second National Immunisation Conference, Canberra,
27-29 May 1991. Canberra: Public Health Association of Australia. October
2004.
• Vallentine, J. (1992). Vaccination and medical defence. In: R. Hall and J.
Richters, eds (1992). Immunisation: The Old and the New. Proceedings of
the Second National Immunisation Conference, Canberra, 27-29 May 1991.
Canberra: Public Health Association of Australia, 68-73.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: prosiding seminar/konferensi
• Vallentine, J. (1992). Vaccination and medical defence. Proceedings of the
Second National Immunisation Conference, Canberra, 27-29 May 1991.
Canberra: Public Health Association of Australia, 68-73.
• Vallentine, J. (1992). Vaccination and medical defence. Proceedings of the
Second Public Health Association of Australia, Canberra, 27-29 May 1991,
68-73.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: Laporan
• Australian Bureau of Statistics ABS (1985). Projections of the population of
Australia, states and territories, 1984 to 2021. Cat. No. 3222.0. Canberra:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Committee reports.
• Commission of Inquiry into Poverty (1975). Poverty in Australia. First Main
Report (R.F. Henderson, Chairman). Canberra: Australian Government
Publishing Service.
• Commission of Inquiry into Poverty (1975). Legal Aid in Australia. Research
report, Law and Poverty Series. Canberra: Australian Government
Publishing Service.
• Women's Health Policy Review Committee (1985). Women's Health
Services in New South Wales. Final Report (F. LoPo, Chairperson). Sydney:
Parliament of New South Wales.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: Laporan
• Ergas, H. (1986). Telecommunications and the Australian economy. Report
to the Department of Communications. Canberra: Australian Government
Publishing Service.
• Callaghan, A.R. (1972). The wheat industry and stabilization [unpublished].
Report to the Minister for Primary Industry. Canberra.
• Bureau of Transport Economics (1985). Economic Regulation of Aviation in
Australia. Seminar Papers and Proceedings. Canberra: Australian
Government Publishing Service.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: Laporan
• Bureau of Transport Economics (1986). Demand for Australian Domestic
Aviation Services. Occasional Paper No. 79. Canberra: Australian
Government Publishing Service.
• Department of Employment and Industrial Relations (1984). Annual
Report 1983-84. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: Laporan
• Australian Standard AS 1199-1988. Sampling procedures and tables for
inspection by attributes. Sydney: Standards Association of Australia.
• Newspaper, magazine article Perrottet, T. (1990). Weisberg's wisdom: look
before you leap. Medical Observer (Sydney) 3 August: 36-9.
• SMH (1987). Researchers defend claim that children watch video ‘nasties’.
Sydney Morning Herald 21 March: 7.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: Leaflet/brosur
• NSW DH (1987). Head lice [leaflet]. State Health Publication No. (HSU) 82001. Sydney: NSW Department of Health.
• ACON (n.d.). Safe sex summer 1988 [leaflet]. Sydney: AIDS Council of NSW.
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Contoh: Referensi versi elektronik /online
• Monograph in electronic format
– Reeves, JRT, & Maibach H. (1995). CDI, Clinical Dermatology Illustrated
[monograph on CD-ROM]. 2nd ed. Version 2.0. San Diego: CMEA.
• www site
– Health on the Net Foundation. Health on the Net Foundation Code of
Conduct (HONcode) for Medical and Health Web Sites [Online].
Geneva. Available from: http://www.hon.ch/Conduct.html. [Accessed
June 19, 2001]. October 2004.
Dr.D.Erwin Irawan - KK Geologi Terapan
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Contoh: Referensi versi elektronik /online
• Piranti lunak (software)
– Medi-Sim, (1988). Renal system [computer program]. MSDOS version.
Edwardsville (KS): Medi Sim.
• Journal article in electronic format
– Morse, SS. (1995). Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.
Emerging Infectious Diseases [serial online], 1(1). Available from:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm [Accessed 5 June 1996].
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