Bisphenol A - SHANTI Pages

Al Strickler
Matt Moynihan
Jose Mattos
Bisphenol A (BPA):
BPA is an organic molecule
It is produced by a condensation reaction between acetone and phenol,
catalyzed by an acid or a resin.
(CH3)2CO + 2 C6H5OH → (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 + H2O
The reaction is effecient and the only byproduct of the reaction is water.
Molecular formula C15H16O2
Molar mass 228.29 g mol−1
Appearance White to light brown flakes or powder
Density 1.20 g/cm³, solid
Melting point 158 to 159 °C (430 K)
Boiling point 220 °C (493 K) / 4 mmHg
Solubility in water 120–300 ppm (at 21.5 °C)
Risk and Safety Statements: A group of standardized codes that
indicate the hazards of chemicals and compounds
 Risk and Safety Statements R: 36, 37, 38, 43 S: 24, 26, 37:
 R36: Irritating to eyes
 R37: Irritating to respiratory system
 R38: Irritating to skin
 R43: May cause sensitization by skin contact
 S24: Avoid contact with skin
 S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek
medical advice
 S37: Wear suitable gloves
BPA: Hazards
NFPA 704 National Fire Protection Association
Health (blue)
4 Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury
3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury
2 Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury
1 Exposure would cause irritation with only minor residual injury
0 Poses no health hazard, no precautions necessary.
Flammability (red)
4 Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn
readily. Flash point below 23°C (73°F)
3 Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23°C (73°F) and
38°C (100°F)
2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38°C
(100°F) and 93°C (200°F)
1 Must be heated before ignition can occurs. Flash point over 93°C (200°F)
0 Will not burn
Instability/Reactivity (yellow)
4 Readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition at normal temperatures and pressures
3 Capable of detonation or explosive decomposition but requires a strong initiating source, must be heated under confinement
before initiation, reacts explosively with water, or will detonate if severely shocked
2 Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive
mixtures with water
1 Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures
0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water
The white "special notice" area can contain several symbols.
BPA: Uses
There are seven plastic polymer groups.
BPA is found in type 3 and type 7
Type 3 is PVC. BPA is used as a ‘plasticizer’ in this type
Type 7 is a ‘catch all’ designation. Polycarbonates and epoxy resins use BPA and
fall under this category.
Other types that do not use BPA in production:
5 polypropylene
6 polystyrene
BPA: Uses
BPA is used in:
Synthesis of polyesters,
Synthesis of polysulfones
Synthesis of Polyether ketones
Antioxidant in some plasticizers
Polymerization inhibitor in PVC
Monomer in production of epoxy resins
Most common form of polycarbonate plastic.
Polycarbonate plastic made from BPA is used in water bottles, baby bottles,
sports equipment, medical and dental devices/sealant, eyeglass lenses, and
disc media.
Epoxy resins made from BPA are used as
the liner in food and drink cans.
Lexan (a polycarbonate), a polymer made using BPA
BPA: Impact on Health
 Postulated areas of negative health impact
 Brain
 Behavior
 Reproduction
 Endocrine system
 Prostate gland
 Mammary gland
BPA: National Toxicology
SOME Concern: there is
insufficient human data to reach a
- But there is LIMITED evidence
in animal studies
BPA: National Toxicology
Program Conclusions
 Brain, Behavior, and Prostate gland
Fetuses, Infants, and Children at current human exposures
to BPA
 Mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for
females, in fetuses, infants, and children at current
human exposures to BPA.
BPA: National Toxicology
Program Conclusions
 fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced
birth weight and growth
Exposure in pregnant women
 Reproductive effects in non-occupationally exposed
MINIMAL CONCERN for occupationally exposed
BPA: National Toxicology
Program Conclusions
 How where these conclusions reached?
 WEIGHT of scientific evidence
 Integration of toxicity and exposure data
BPA: A Brief History
 Was first synthesized in 1891
 BPA was investigated in the 1930s as a possible
compound for synthetic estrogens, but was not used
(DES was used instead)
 After its discovery as a useful synthetic in plastics
and other additives, its use skyrocketed in the
manufacturing sector (global production of BPA was
estimated to be over 2 million tons in 2003)
BPA: Why Are People Concerned?
 Human exposure to BPA is widespread
 A large amount of BPA is produced in consumer
goods every year
 A study conducted by the CDC in 2003-2004 found
detectable levels of BPA in 93% of urine samples said
to be representative of exposures across the United
 There is an extensive database of animal studies on
reproductive and developmental effects
BPA: Prevention
 If you are concerned about BPA, take precautions
such as:
 Don’t microwave polycarbonate plastic food containers
 Avoid plastic containers with the number ‘7’ on the
 Don’t wash polycarbonate plastic containers in
dishwasher with strong detergents
 Reduce use of canned foods
 Use containers labeled “BPA-free”
BPA: Environmental Risk
 Degradation of products containing BPA can contaminate
the environment
 It is a pollutant that can interfere with nitrogen fixation
in plant soil
 Over time, it has been found to affect reproduction and
development in marine life and other organisms
 Although low level releases of BPA into the environment
from manufacturing sites is thought to be possible, recent
comprehensive reviews of studies have concluded BPA
pose virtually no risk to the environment (SOURCE:
 Lang IA, et al. “Association of Urinary Bisphenol A
Concentration with Medical Disorders and
Laboratory Abnormalities in Adults”. JAMA, 300
(300): 1303.

similar documents