Performance based Assessment in the LOTE classroom: how to

Darcy Johnson, M.ED. In Curriculum & Instruction and
Brian McDonough, M.A. in Ibero-Romance Philology
and Linguistics (Area of concentration: Second Language
Today’s RRISD Schedule
 8:30-8:40 – Introductions
 8:40-9:00 – Theory
 9:00-10:15 – Speaking
 10:15-10:30 – Break
 10:30-11:30 – Writing
 11:30-12:30 – Lunch
 12:30-1:40 – Listening
 1:40-1:55 – Break
 1:55-3:30 – Reading +
Today’s PISD Schedule
 8:30-8:40 – Introductions
 8:40-9:10 – Theory
 9:10-10:20 – Speaking
 10:20-10:35 – Break
 10:35-11:30 – Writing
 11:30- 12:30 – Lunch
 12:30-1:40 – Listening
 1:40-1:55 – Break
 1:55-3:30 – Reading +
 Name
 School
 Language
 Levels
 2014 World
Cup Winner?
Which one of these
pictures illustrates
 Note
how all three individuals are
“chill-axing”, thus lowering their affective
 Our
favorite definition of communication:
• a technique for expressing ideas effectively (as
in speech)
“Performance-based standards
necessitate the inclusion of a variety of
assessment tasks that integrate skills and
immerse students in scenarios
resembling real life situations.”
 Krashen
(1981) “The goal of the
classroom is not to produce nativespeakers or even error-free second
language performance..”
• “develop ‘intermediate’ second language
• “bring the student to…understand the language
he hears and reads outside the class and thus
improve on his own.”
 Interlanguage
- Selinker (1972)
 Are
you comfortable sending your teenager
on the road having only passed a paper and
pencil driving test?
 Did
your car mechanic take a paper and
pencil test before working on your Volvo or
does he/she actually work on cars?
 Does
your doctor know about brain surgery
or has he/she practiced brain surgery?
 Conversational
Day vs. Grammar Day
• Conversational day – implicit/learn by noticing
• Grammar day – explicit/ask specifically for that
 Who
Pledge of Allegiance
Ring around the Rosey
Six of one, half dozen of the other
Early bird catches the worm
Girl Scout pledge
Miranda rights
Brainstorm expressions without thought
Can you see the disconnect?
◦ When we memorize in a rehearsed manner, we do not
readily extract meaning and therefore cannot readily
apply what they have memorized in other contexts.
Spoken or written language data that has been
produced in the course of genuine
communication, and not specifically written for
purposes of language teaching.
–Nunan (1999)
 The
four abilities:
*Integrate culture whenever possible/appropriate!!! Do not be the <dark one>
like Sra. Johnson!
*Modifiable for the level you teach!
 Objective:
Students will study, memorize,
explain, listen, retell, and interpret visual/
audio cues in order to reproduce a visual that is
in the hall.
 Materials:
A picture prompt (to be hung in the
hall); a line on the floor (can be made with
tape); butcher paper and markers
See, tell , draw!
• Form groups of 5.
•person (A) goes outside to study a picture, painting, or drawing for x
•person (B) stands at a line by the door and listens to person (A) when they
return to the line
•Afterwards person (B) goes back to the rest of the group and describes the
picture, painting, or drawing that person (A) described
•The group draws the image that person (B) describes
•Person (A) goes back outside to study it again and will come back in to
describe it to a third person (C) again with more details. Person (C)
describes the image to the rest of the group, and group members take turns
meeting person (A) at the line.
Students form groups of 5-7. Each group works in a
place of inspiration (away from other groups)and
smiles in Spanish (or Arabic) at fellow group
Envelopes are given to students that contain cards.
Cards have names of famous dead people on them.
Students keep envelopes face down except to show
group members-objective is to guess which name
is on the card through information that peers
supply in the target language.
Each person will take his/ her turn asking QUs
 This
activity can vary depending upon
level/ grammatical topic
 I chose to use dead people because it
easily lent itself to the preterite tense,
which we were using at the time in
class (we spent the whole day on dead
people, i.e. writing an auto-obituary,
etc.), but one could easily use a
famous person who is currently alive
or base the people on the topic.
 ¿Dónde
trabajé durante mi vida?
(Where did I work during my life)
 ¿Con
quién me casé?
(Who did I marry?)
 ¿Qué
(What did I achieve?)
 ¿Cuándo
viví/ Cuándo me morí?
(When did I live and die?)
 Partner
everyone up A/B
 Send B’s outside
 Tell Group A they are asking their B
partner to the prom and they are not
allowed to take ‘no’ for an answer.
 Tell Group B (out in hallway) they are
‘repulsed’ by person A, will NOT go to
prom with them but they must invent
polite excuses as to why they cannot go.
When was the last time you memorized the
conversation that you were about to have with your
brother before you called him?
Think critically about former project presentations or
speaking dialogues to ensure that students are not
memorizing what they are going to say!
• Give students presentation guidelines
• Ask them to draw out their ideas, NOT script them.
• Have them practice based on interpreting their own visual
cues, each time saying the presentation differently.
When conversing in the big, bad world (AKA BBW)
you won’t always have visuals cues, so training your
students to speak without them is another option
which provides opportunities for circumlocution
(description of a word or concept when you can’t
think of the word)
 Look, no script! 
Form groups of 3
Make a plan of advice for survival at Westwood High
School. (estudiar, hacer ejercicio, desayunar…etc..)
Each person should talk about 3 pieces of advice using,
“(Ud.)Debe.., (Ud. )Puede…, y (Ud.)Tiene que….”
Draw an image to represent each idea.
Prepare to share your ideas with the clase (speaking),
without reading!
Restaurant Scene
In groups of three you are going to prepare a conversation to present to the
class. One student will play the role of the waiter and the other three are going
to be clients in the restaurant.
 5 words in the category “talking about how food tastes”
 15 words in the “food” category
 4 sentences in the category “talking about unintentional events”
 4 words with “ísimo”
For crédito extra (1-10 points) you can wear costumes and use props during
your presentation.
You need to turn in the script and rubric before you present.
Please mark the required vocab/ grammar on the script with different colors and
make a key indicating what your colors represent!
Simple requirements…instead of asking them to apply
15 vocabulary words from a specific list, design the
topic so that it solicits use of certain vocabulary
Train them from “an early age”!
Explain why they should NOT use a script (starting at
level 1)
Give quick orals as part of an exam, i.e. randomly move about the
room asking students questions based on the topic while they are
taking the test.
Oral quizzes on appropriate topics. Evidence suggests that
students understand the topic better when they do it that way
If technology permits, use the language lab, computer lab using
Audacity, or hand-held recorders. Saves class time if they record
all at once.
 During
homework review ask them
 Randomly
ask a student a question
during class in the target language.
 Students
rotate between responding to
stimuli and evaluating a peer’s response
to that stimuli
• For example, while studying art unit students
describe works of art from target culture while
partner grades them on their performance (see
Performance-based assessment is authentic,
connected to everyday life.
Performance-based assessment provides
opportunities for students to show what they
can do as well as what they know.
Performance-based assessment involves
students in the process of evaluation.
Performance-based assessment integrates
tasks involving multiple skills and
knowledge of culture.
Performance-based assessment helps all
learners to do their best and aims to improve
overall student performance .
 Journaling
• Grading techniques:
 Completion with observation
 Grading 1 out of every 5
 Sample
writing rubrics (see packet)
 Open
ended use of language providing for
student ownership
 Give students choices (of topics)
 Give varying target audiences …use humor!
 Give students silly mediums (graffiti art)
Discrete-point testing - language knowledge divided into a
number of independent facts: elements of grammar, vocabulary,
spelling and punctuation, pronunciation, intonation and stress.
(multiple-choice recognition tasks).
Integrative testing - realistic language use requires the
coordination of many kinds of knowledge in one linguistic event,
and so uses items which combine those kinds of knowledge, like
comprehension tasks, dictation, speaking and listening.
Pros and Cons
 Discrete-point testing risks ignoring the systematic
relationship between language elements;
 Integrative testing risks ignoring accuracy of linguistic detail.
Spanish example: por vs. para
 difficult concept
 traditional method: fill in the blank tasks
 memorization of uses
 fried brains
 50/50 chance of guessing correctly
 communicative method: tasks that elicit the
desired word
Select a use of por or para to focus on
For example, we use por to tell how much you bought something for
Have them write a paragraph (We use journals) telling
how they just went on a shopping spree and they
bought each item for (price).
The next class day, ask students randomly how much
they can buy something for, emphasizing the word
The next class, bring it up again.
How are you possibly going to get through all of the
uses of por and para?
Teach it throughout the year rather than in 2 class periods.
 Repeat and recycle constantly.
Choose a writing or speaking task that elicits the
use of ‘por’ and ‘para’ after having sufficiently
covered both over an extended period of time
Grade on a rubric that requires production of ‘por’
and ‘para’ as one (and only one) of the
characteristics of a properly produced task.
Writer uses details to
support story. Word
choice and placement
seems accurate, natural
and not forced.
Elaboration is used, but
occasionally the words
are used inaccurately or
seem overdone.
Writer uses words that
communicate clearly, but
the writing lacks variety,
punch, flair, or
Writer uses a limited
vocabulary that does not
communicate strongly or
capture the reader's
Grammar &
Writer makes no errors with
por and para AND general
grammar doesn’t distract the
reader from content.
Writer makes 1-2 errors with
por and para and/or general
grammar distracts reader
Writer makes 3-4 errors with
por/ para & grammar
distracts reader from the
Writer makes more than 4
errors with por/ para that
distract the reader from the
Focus on Topic
Main idea is clear and
Main idea is clear but the
supporting details are given supporting information is
that enhance main idea.
Main idea is somewhat clear The main idea is not clear.
but there is a need for more There is a seemingly
supporting information.
random collection of
Legend project:
 Students investigate an ancient civilization and
take notes on relevant facts: mode of transport,
religious icons, sustenance, etc.
 Students study components of a legend
 Students use the facts from the civilization to
write a legend in small groups that explains a
phenomenon from that culture
 Students then present the legend the rest of the
class by acting out the story while a narrator
from the group reads
Actors and reader are in tune with one
another. Props add to the
presentation. Excellent pronunciation
and enthusiasm. Enthusiastic actors
who clearly portray the story.
Grammar and Vocabulary
Very few, if any grammatical mistakes and
errors in word choice. Audience can easily
follow the story.
Actors and reader have a few awkward
moments. Some props which add to the
presentation. Some errors in
pronunciation. Actors portray the
story, but sometimes lack enthusiasm
and their actions aren’t always clear.
Some errors in syntax or mistakes in word
choice. These errors do not interfere
with comprehension. Audience can follow
the story.
Actors and reader are clearly not
prepared. Poor or no props. Many
errors in pronunciation or flat voice.
Actors lack enthusiasm and do not fully
portray the story. Actions are
Many errors in word choice. These errors
make comprehension very difficult.
Audience has a difficult time following
the story.
Content and Elaboration
The story has a complete and
interesting plot that makes sense.
Excellent elaboration. Cultural
references are interspersed
throughout story.
The story has a complete and
interesting plot. Some elements don’t
quite make sense. Good elaboration.
Cultural references are included .
Plot is confusing. Elaboration is poor.
There are few, if any cultural
15= 100
11= 84
7= 68
3= 50
14= 96
10= 80
6= 64
2= 30
13= 92
9= 76
5= 60
1= 20
12= 88
8= 72
4= 56
0= 0
Give students a topic, list of 10 verbs to use, or a
starting sentence.
 Each student will write for 3 minutes at the top of
notebook paper starting a story w/ the given topic.
 After 3 minutes, students will pass the story to the
person behind them for that person to continue
where they left off.
 Students continue rotating, switching every 3 minutes
until there is a crazy, but entertaining story told by
the entire row.
 Teacher can enhance and reinforce writing
organization strategies by giving the next student a
lead word like, "First...", "Later.....", "However"....,
 Employment
• Students will:
 Read classified ads, internet job search
 Create a classified ad
 Create a resume
 Writing a cover letter
 Conduct an interview
 Journaling
 Projects
 Essays
back from
When you think of authentic sources, what
kind of sources do you think of first?
But what about other types of authentic sources???
Students should listen, read, speak, and write in contextual settings that
mimic the real world.
With respect to listening: students should hear second language voices
from a variety of native-speakers as well as non-native speakers. In
addition, motivation can be enhanced by witnessing instructors
successfully communicating with other speakers of the language.
Using authentic or textbook generated
videos, radio, etc. (see handout)
 Fill in the blanks from a transcribed copy
of the audio selection
 Make your own comprehension questions
appropriate to the level of the class.
 Students read transcript outloud and then
 Create charts, tables to fill out based on
 Spanish:
streets of your own town, malls, restaurants, panaderías, taquerías,
UT Spanish Proficiency Exercises
BBC world in Spanish:
Radio de las Naciones Unidas:
 German: festivals in German-American towns in Texas,
 French:
 Francais interactif:
 United Nations Radio in French:
 Chinese:
 United Nations Radio in Chinese:
 Latin: the Vatican
 ASL: ASL videos on You Tube, Texas School for the Deaf
 Foreign exchange students at your school
 Teachers and School staff
 Westwood has Spanish, French, Chinese, Vietnamese,
Portuguese, German, ASL speakers to name a few
 Ask around, what languages does your staff speak (not just
language teachers)
 Airport
 Travel with students
 Personal Travel
 Foreign consulates (many in Houston)
Authentic resources and media can reinforce for
students the direct relationship between the language
classroom and the outside world- Brinton (1991)
Authentic materials are a way to contextualize learningGebhard (1996)
Students gain an overall increased motivation to learn,
as well as renewed interest in subject matter- Melvin
and Stout (1987)
Authentic materials bring content and subject matter to
life –Nunan (1999)
Students read article written by an American girl living and
dating in Costa Rica in which she complains about the crosscultural differences
Students listen to native-speakers talk about romance and dating
practices in Costa Rica
Students complete active listening task* (see packet)
Conclusion: students write their own personal ad in which they
are asked to make references to their comprehension of cultural
differences in dating practices
Finally, students post their personal ads around the room with
numbers on them (or on a blog) and peers read and select their
partner of choice. Once students are “hooked-up”, they go in the
hall to “get to know one another”!!!
Comparing and contrasting Tico and
American concepts of time...see handout
If you like that idea…why not have your
students conduct interviews with nativespeakers? (see student produced video)
Short shorts…Interviews with Native
Speakers (see hand-out)
 Students
• listen to the song,
• fill in the blanks,
• discuss relevant grammar,
• draw illustrations of the song on butcher paper
 choose the line of the song that best captures the
message and write it underneath their illustration, &
compare groups illustrations.
Dibujos animados con burka (cartoons with burka)
Reggaetón news video:
• Give them a listening link for homework- they listen as many times as
they like, when they return to the following class they listen to is one
more time and take it one more time and complete an assessment
Create comprehension questions using Bloom’s Taxonomy in your
Create a listening comprehension guide (Spanish sample in
Teach note-taking skills!!! *** Don’t assume they already know
Use community resources (newspapers, magazines,
web pages) – steer away from readings that are
produced for the LOTE classroom
• Searching for commands in newspaper; flag them;
ask your partner to identify them for the audience
that they target (i.e. ud. commands, tu commands)
Song investigation (see hand-out)
Look for authentic resources that heighten intrinsic
motivation. (Ex. - personality quizzes)
Create an interest in the text• Personality “tests” are perfect for this (example in hand-out ‘¿Cuán
apasionada eres?’)
Heighten the interest by asking students prereading questions
• “Are you passionate?”
• “What are the characteristics of a passionate person?”
Ask them to form small groups (2-3) where they:
• Predict who will be the most passionate in the group
• Interpret the questions together, answering each question individually
• Add points, read about their supposed personality, and compare results
 writing
or speaking about text;
 acting
out text (with appropriate
• See Juan Rulfo in packet
 illustrating
text and/or talking about it
Students read the following article (after listening to a youtube video in on stimulating activities for the elderly) from
the internet:
Salud en la vejez: seis consejos básicos para mantener
la calidad de vida …Mejorar los hábitos de vida resulta
siempre beneficioso para la salud
Students are then asked to write a public health
announcement for the elderly for a magazine in which
they use advice from the reading to support their
suggestions in the “anuncio” (see rubric on next slide)
Excellent use of grammar, especially with
positive and negative commands. Few, if
any, errors of usage.
Excellent elaboration and transition to
make an especially engaging product .
18 – 20 points
9– 10 points
Adequate use of grammar, especially with
commands. Errors do not interfere with
Obvious effort was put forth to make an
original but authentic product. Ideas
reflect sources but do not copy them.
18 – 20 points
Adequate use of elaboration and
13 – 17 points
7-8 points
Some effort to incorporate ideas from
reading/ listening AND 1-2 sources may
be almost explicitly reproduced, but most
of work is in student’s own words.
13 – 17 points
Frequent errors of verb form, agreement,
or syntax, especially with commands.
Errors make comprehension difficult.
6 or fewer points
Sentence structure is unvaried. Little or
no attempt made at elaboration.
0 – 12 points
Little or no effort was made to reflect
resources OR to paraphrase sources in
student’s own words.
0 – 12 points
– convert youtube videos
and save to your computer
 Flip cameras – buy one get one free google
 Spanish and French $10/mo.
Interviews on different subjects
 Discovery channel website
 BBC – free language lessons
 Draw a notecard with a topic, find partner
with topic, talk for x minutes
“Definition of Performance-Based Assessment”
When Grammar Instruction Undermines Cohesion in L2 Spanish Classroom Discourse Paul D.
The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 88, No. 1 (Spring, 2004), pp. 14-30
Krashen, S. "The 'fundamental pedagogical principle' in second language teaching." Studia linguistica.
35.1-2 (1981): 50-70. Print.
Rote versus Meaningful Learning Author(s): Richard E. Mayer Source: Theory into Practice, Vol. 41, No. 4,
Revising Bloom's Taxonomy (Autumn, 2002), pp. 226-232 Published by: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
(Taylor & Francis Group)
“Definition of communication”

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