Report

Universal Design, Accessibility, Bias and Sensitivity Considerations Quality of Measurement High Quality Evidence Item or Task Lower Quality Evidence Accessibility • • • • Bias Sensitivity Sensory or Learning Disability English Language Proficiency Jimmy is the star on his football team. This season he scored ten touchdowns, kicked twenty extra points, and had eight field goals. What is the total number of points Jimmy has scored this season? 104 What is a field goal? What is this question asking me? Keys to Accessing Assessment Targets • • • • Universal Design Bias Sensitivity Accessibility Universal Design “Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” – Ron Mace Universal Design for Learning (UDL) “Universal Design does not imply ‘one size fits all’ but rather acknowledges the need for alternatives to suit many different people’s needs.” “… the essence of UDL is flexibility and the inclusion of alternatives to adapt to the myriad variations in learner needs, styles, and preferences.” – Rose and Meyer Universal Design and Assessment Jimmy has been searching a park for coins… Jimmy is the has been starbeen searching on his football a parkteam. for coins. This season He found he coins. Jimmy has searching a park for scored ten nickels, ten touchdowns, twenty pennies, kicked andtwenty eight dimes. extra points, and He found had eight field ten goals.nickels, twenty pennies, and What is the total amount of money Jimmy found? eight dimes. What is the total number of points Jimmy has scored this season? What is the total amount of money Jimmy found? How an Item Functions Present Information Interact with Content Stimulate Construct Apply Construct 4 x8 ? 32 Produce Response Produce Score Make Inference Produce Visible Product of Construct Measure of Construct Statement About Construct 4 ×8 32 Beth achieved the assessment target. Correct = 1 point Barriers to Valid Measurement Present Information Interact with Content Stimulate Construct Apply Construct Produce Response Quantitative Score Inference Visible Product of Construct Measure of Construct Statement About Construct Inaccurate receiptChallenges Inaccurate Inaccurate or interpretation interacting with production or interpretation of What is a field goal? of stimulus content recording ofstudent response response 4 Challenges to Accessibility Review 1. Inaccurate receipt or interpretation of stimulus 2. Interacting with content 3. Inaccurate production or recording of response 4. Inaccurate interpretation of response Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment One Size Does Not Fit All Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment One Size Does Not Fit All Braille Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment One Size Does Not Fit All Read Aloud Braille Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment One Size Does Not Fit All Read Aloud Braille Translation Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment One Size Does Not Fit All ASL Read Aloud Braille Translation Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment One Size Does Not Fit All ASL Read Aloud Braille Translation Bias • Bias occurs when content contained in an item or task creates an unfair disadvantage for a sub-group of students – Unfamiliar contexts or examples – Unusual names of people or places – References to local events or issues Sensitivity • Sensitivity focuses on content that creates unease, provokes negative feelings, or challenges beliefs or values – Religions, religious practices, and religious figures – Political topics – Issues of gender, race, ethnicity, and culture Accessibility Extensions • • • • • • Audio presentation of text-based content Audio descriptions of graphics Braille presentation of text-based content Tactile presentation of graphics Signed presentation of text-based content Presentation of content in another language Examples of Accessibility Guidelines • • • • Only use graphics when necessary Avoid idioms, jargon, and terminology that is difficult to translate Clearly label all graphics Keep tables as simple as possible Accessibility Considerations • • • • Vision Cognitive Load Language Motor Skills Vision • • • Minimize the use of graphics Simplify the complexity of graphics Simplify the complexity of tables Cognitive Load • • • Minimize the amount of information contained in an item Simplify the layout of an item Avoid items that spread information across multiple pages or screens In school, Myra uses a desktop computer. Myra’s mother began a new job and received a laptop computer. Myra’s mother’s laptop screen seems smaller than the computer Myra uses at school. What is the area, in square inches, of the laptop screen as shown in the picture? 13 The diagram below shows the dimensions for a computer screen. What is the area of the screen, in square inches? Dimensions of Screen 13 8 8 Language • • • • Simplify vocabulary Simplify sentence structure Avoid unusual names, places, and terms Place problems in familiar contexts such as school-based activities or settings Paris went on a trip to Belgium and bought a large box of chocolates containing 36 pieces that she wants to share evenly with her three friends. How many pieces will each friend receive? Maria has 36 pieces of candy. Maria wants to share the pieces evenly with three friends. How many pieces will each friend receive? Motor Skills • • • Limit the number of required manipulations Avoid precise manipulations such as selecting a single point in a graph Minimize the length of constructed-responses The drawings below show four different ways of dividing a rectangle into equal sized sections and shading the equivalent of 1/3 of the sections. One of drawings is inaccurate. Place the inaccurate drawing into the trash can. The drawings below show four different ways of dividing a rectangle into equal sized sections and shading the equivalent of 1/3 of the sections. One of drawings is inaccurate. Select the drawing that is inaccurate. A B C D Guidelines for Universally Designed Items and Tasks • • • • • • • • Simplify vocabulary and sentence structure Place problems in familiar contexts with familiar items and names Use graphics only when necessary Simplify graphics and tables Avoid the use of color and maximize contrast Avoid content that spans multiple pages or that contains multiple elements Use highly interactive manipulations only when necessary Identify terms and visuals that should not be altered