Adult and Elderly Nutrition

Report
Nutrition through the
Life Cycle
Adult and Elderly
Definition of Adulthood
With good luck, good genes, and good
habits, adulthood covers a life span of
roughly 60 years.
• Early Adulthood – by the age of 20, adults
have generally stopped growing
• Midlife – forties and fifties – body composition
shifts, hormones shift, and activity decreases
• Old Age – after sixty – consequences of
earlier lifestyle choices
Physiological Changes
of Adulthood
• Growth and maturation are complete by
early adulthood
• Nutritional emphasis turns to
maintaining physical status, continuing
to build strength, and avoiding excess
weight gain
• Differences between:
• Males
• Females
Energy Needs
• MyPyramid.gov
• Harris-Benedict Equation
• Mifflin-St.Jeor Equation
Dietary Recommendations
• Governmental and private groups make food
and nutrition recommendations according to
their missions and goals
– Advocating for reduction of specific disease risk
(i.e. American Heart Association)
– Ensuring adequate population intake specific
nutrients (i.e. FDA – fortification of grain products)
– Offering guidance on what and how much to eat.
(i.e. Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for
Americans)
Weight Change
• 3500 calories to gain or lose 1 pound of
body weight.
• To gain or lose 1 pound / week add or
subtract 500 calories / day
• These calories can be a combination of
intake and activity
Healthy People 2010
• Increase the number of individuals who are:
–
–
–
–
At a healthy weight
Eat at least two servings of fruit/day
Eat at least three servings of vegetables/d
Eat at least six servings of grain products/ d (with ½ of those
as whole grains)
– Eat less than 10% calories from saturated fat
– Eat no more than 30 % of calories from fat
•
•
•
•
Meet dietary recommendation for calcium
Eat 2400 mg or less of sodium daily
Increase food security and in doing decrease hunger
Increase number physician visits as needed
Water needs
• 1 ml water per calorie of food ingested
• 2000 calorie diet = 2000 ml of water
• Eight 8 ounce glasses of water/day
Are you receiving enough water?
– urine colorless or pale yellow
Physical Activity
Recommendations
• 30 minutes a day
• Intermittent physical activity also
increases caloric expenditure
Definition of Elderly
• 65-74 years is “young old”
• 75-84 years is “aged”
• 85 and older is “oldest old”
Diseases and disabilities are not
inevitable consequences of ageing
Longevity
• The Center for Disease Control and
Prevention suggest that longevity
depends on:
– 19% genetics
– 10% access to health care
– 20% environmental factors
– 51% lifestyle factors
Physiological Changes
•
•
•
•
•
Body composition changes
Weight gain
Taste and smell
Chewing and swallowing
Appetite and thirst
Food Safety
• Compromised immune systems
• Under reported due to individuals
thinking it is the “flu”
• Causes may be:
– Improper temperatures
– Poor hygiene
– Contaminated equipment
– Inadequate cooking time
Physical Activity
Recommendations
• On average older adults are less active
• An evaluation by a physician is needed
• For general health exercise 30 minutes
an day on most days
• Drink plenty of water
• Do warm up and cool down exercises
Physical Activity
• Encouraging physical activity will help
older adults by
– Improving strength
– Maintaining muscle mass
– Improving activities of daily living
– Feeling better both mentally and
physically, which may influence changes in
dietary habits.
Community Food
and Nutrition Programs
• Governmental programs:
– USDA’s Food Stamp program
– Adult Day Services food programs
– Nutritional Assistance Programs for
seniors
– Meals-on-Wheels
– Senior Nutrition program of the Older
Americans Act
Community Food
and Nutrition Programs
• Non governmental home health
programs provide food and nutrition
services:
– Nursing
– Home health aides
"To eat is a necessity,
but to eat intelligently is
an art."
- La Rochefoucauld
This material was funded by USDA’s Food Stamp Program through the California
Department of Public Health’s Network for a Healthy California. These institutions
are equal opportunity providers and employers. The Food Stamp Program provides
nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a
better diet. For information on the Food Stamp Program, call 1-888-328-3483.

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