What were the Origins of Slavery? What Impact did it have on the development of the North American colonies? Key Concept 2.1.ii The British–American system of slavery developed out of the economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British-controlled regions of the New World. Slavery In Africa / Pre-Colonial • NOT generational (children could not be enslaved to their mother’s owner) • NOT defined as property • COULD rise to positions of influence • NOT racially prescribed Source: http://hackettlatinacademy.weebly.com/apush.html Chattel Slavery, Pre-colonial Period • “chattel” = personal property • 15th c. Portugal established slave trade in W. Africa – 1482 Elmina, “the mine,” first exchange point for slaves on W. African mainland • Portugal and Spain export chattel slavery to New World – native peoples African slaves – “Middle passage,” transatlantic slave trade • ~10 – 12 million Africans exported from 1492 – 1808 – 17th – 18th centuries – Vast majority to Caribbean, S. America – ~400,000 to N. America (and the majority after 1700) – Source: http://hackettlatinacademy.weebly.com/apush.html Chattel Slavery / Colonial Period – first cargo of African slaves arrive in VA in 1619 – still, importing African slaves was expensive – Chesapeake depended primarily upon indentured servants until introduction of “slave codes” through the Slave Act of 1705. Source: http://hackettlatinacademy.weebly.com/apush.html Indentured Servitude / Colonial Period • “white slaves” – – – – – – Voluntary debt bondage to pay for passage Granted land after 5-7 yrs.(if survived). “headright” system benefitted masters “freedom dues”: seeds, clothes, land Chesapeake imported 100,000 by 1700 hardened lot: discipline, scarce land/freedom dues; low wage hire-backs – But they were not slaves • The Planter owned the labor, not the body Source: http://hackettlatinacademy.weebly.com/apush.html Virginia Slave Codes Activity: Document Shuffle Identify the Laws enacted by the Virginian Colonial Government. Why were they enacted? What do you think was the impact of these laws? Identify the economic, demographic, geographic, characteristics of the development of slavery from the documents and readings. Growth of the Black Population in Virginia 1625 – 23 1648 – 300 1671 – 2,000 1680 – 3,000 1700 – 16,390 1720 – 26,559 1730 – 30,000 1740 – 60,000 1775 – 210,000 Characteristics • Economic developments – Shortage of indentured servants – Growing European demand for colonial goods • Demographic developments – – – – Lack of effective means to enslave native populations English colonies attracted males and females Little intermingling/marriage = rigid racial hierarchy Strong belief in British racial, cultural superiority • Geographic developments – Abundance and consolidation of land – Thriving tobacco, wheat plantations in South – Source: http://hackettlatinacademy.weebly.com/apush.html Slave Rebellions • Africans developed both overt and covert methods to resist the dehumanizing aspects of slavery • 1712 New York City slave revolt • 1739 Stono Rebellion, largest before the Civil War later • 1831 Nat Turner rebellion Discussion Questions Was the development of African slavery in the North American colonies inevitable? (Consider the fact that it was never developed in other colonial areas such as New France ) What role did the Spanish encomienda system and British sugar colonies play in introducing slavery to the Southern colonies?