FEATURING Andrew Steer President and CEO, WRI Global CCS

Report
GLOBAL CCS STATUS AND
POLICIES
全球CCS现状及政策
FEATURING
Andrew Steer
Sarah
Forbes
PresidentM.
and CEO,
WRI
World Resources Institute
GLOBAL CCS INSTITUTE STATUS REPORT SHOWS BIGSCALE PROJECTS 全球CCS研究机构状况报告 - 大规模项目
FutureGen 2.0
Sinopec Shengli
Kemper
Don Valley
NRG
HECA
ROAD
White
Rose
Power generation
Boundary Dam
TCEP
Coal-to-liquids
Illinois Industrial
Medicine Bow
Yanchang
Chemical
production
Low Impact Steel
Sinopec Qilu
Iron and steel
production
ESI
Great Plains
Syngas
Lake Charles
Fertiliser
production
Dedicated Geological
Coffeyville
Century Plant
Oil refining
Shute Creek
Natural gas
processing
Hydrogen
production
EOR
ACTL Agrium
Enid Fertilizer
Snøhvit
ACTL Sturgeon
Lost Cabin
Gorgon
PetroChina Jilin
Lula
Spectra
In Salah*
Val Verde
Sleipner
Quest
Uthmaniyah
* Injection suspended
Air Products
Pre-2014
2014
2015
= 1Mtpa of CO2 (areas of circle are proportional to capacity)
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
COST OF NEW AND RECENTLY BUILT ELECTRIC
GENERATION 新建电厂发电成本
MOVING ANY TECHNOLOGY FROM RESEARCH
THROUGH COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT IS
DIFFICULT 任何技术从研发到商业应用都是艰难的
“Innovation is a powerful, cumulative process
but it does not happen automatically in a highly
regulated sector like electricity. It is critical that
policymakers support innovators by building a
robust, dynamic innovation ecosystem. This
goes beyond investing in public research and
development and creating markets through
subsidies. It also includes building collaborative
networks, creating stable regulatory
environments, providing infrastructure,
supporting innovators’ needs for finance, and
building capacity in the workforce.”
CREATING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR
CCS DEPLOYMENT 创造应用CCS的有利环境
Reduce capital and
operating costs
Develop enabling
policies and experience
减少资金和操作成本
发展授权政策和经验
Tax incentives
Infrastructure
investments
税收鼓励
基础设施投资
Environmental
regulatory frameworks
Loan
guarantees
贷款担保
环境制度框架
Grants for R&D
研发资金补助
Require Action
需要行动
Moratoriums on
coal without CCS
中止无碳捕集
的煤炭使用
Performance
standards for power
plants and industrial
facilities
发电厂和工业设施
的绩效标准
and a dilemma over food
versus carbon sink s p.342
research support rises,
but not for overheads p.343
months of science new s at
your fingertips p.344
behind major science
stories in 2013 p.357
DAG MYRESTRAND/ STATOIL
DECEMBER 2013 NATURE VOL 504
At the Sleipner field in the North Sea, waste carbon dioxide is separated from natural gas and injected into a rock formation 800 metres below the seabed.
EMISSIONS
Seabed scar s r aise questions
over car bon- stor age plan
LONDON PROTOCOL, ALLOWS CCS BUT NEEDS TO BE
RATIFIED 伦敦协议,允许CCS但需要得到批准
Protocol was amended in 2006 to include CO2 streams for CCS,
under three criteria:
1. Disposal into sub-seabed geological formation
2. The CO2 stream is of high purity containing only incidental amounts
of associated substances
3. No waste or other matter is added to the CO2 for disposal purposes
In 2009, Article 6 of protocol was amended to enable export of
CO2 streams for disposal
Norway has ratified, but need 27 parties to ratify before it enters
force. It is unlikely the Protocol will enter force without a
coordinated international effort. Presents a barrier (especially for
transboundary CCS).
MODALITIES AND PROCEDURES FOR CCS IN THE
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM
清洁发展机制下CCS的模式和程序
Geological storage sites shall only be used
to store carbon dioxide as project
activities….if, under the proposed conditions
of use, there is no significant risk of
seepage, no significant environmental or
health risks exist, and the geological storage
site will comply with all laws and regulations
of the host Party”.
STEPS TO ACHIEVING SAFE CCS, ADAPTED FROM
THE CDM MODALITIES AND PROCEDURES
采用清洁发展机制模式和程序,实现安全CCS的步骤
1. Comprehensive environmental impacts
analysis
2. Site selection based on site-specific
geologic information
3. Risk assessment, including hazard
identification and risk management plans
4. Monitoring, including operational
monitoring and post-injection monitoring
for unanticipated leakage or seepage.
ISO TC265
International Standards for
CCS(CCS的国际标准)
(Photo: Martini DK/Flickr)
ESTABLISHED CRITERIA FOR SAFE, SECURE CO2
STORAGE 存储二氧化碳的既定安全标准
Site Selection 选址
Monitoring Plans 监测计划
Site-specific geological Characteristics
选址特定的地质特征
Risk Assessment 风险评估
Injection Simulation
Dataroutinely
routinelycollected
collectedand
andreported
reported
Data
注入模拟
常规数据收集和报告
Area of Review 复审
Beyond the CO2 plume 碳储存以外
Regulatory Framework
Reviewed and renewed with time
监管框架
Liability and stewardship
责任和管理
复审检查,与时更新
Public engagement
公众参与
DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO ADDRESSING LIABILITY
FOR CCS PROJECTS 针对CCS项目责任的不同法规
PUBLIC
OPPOSITION AND
PERCEIVED RISK
ADDRESSED
THROUGH PUBLIC
ENGAGEMENT
公众参与
不同意见
感知风险
(Photo: Oxfam International/Flickr)
Country or region
国家或地区
Technical standards or environmental
regulatory framework
Environmental impact assessment
环境影响评估
技术标准和环境监管框架
Australia
澳大利亚
Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas
Storage Regulations 2011
Environment Protection and Biodiversity
Conservation Act 1999
2011海洋石油和温室气体储存规定
1999年环境保护和生物多样性保护法案
Onshore regulated at the state level
陆上由州一级规定
Canada
加拿大
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
published standards for CCS under,
Z741-12. State level regulations have been
adopted in Saskatchewan (using the Oil and
Gas Conservation Act (the Act) and The
Pipelines Act, 1998, administered by the
Ministry of Energy and Resources. 加拿大标
Canadian Environmental Assessment Act
(CEA Act).
加拿大环境评估法案
准协会(CSA)发布CCS标准, Z741-12。
国家级法规在萨斯喀彻温省已采用,1998
石油和天然气保护法和管道法,由能源与
资源部管理。
European Union
欧盟
Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological
storage of carbon dioxide. Countries that
have transposed the Directive into national
law include:
2009/31 / EC二氧化碳地质封存指令。已
将指令转化为国内法的国家包括:

Czech Republic 捷克共和国







Finland (only allows R&D or exporting
CO2 for storage) 芬兰(只允许研发或
出口CO2用于储存)
France 法国
Ireland (prohibits except for small
projects) 爱尔兰(禁止,只允许小项目)
Italy 意大利
The Netherlands 荷兰
Romania罗马尼亚
Spain United Kingdom 西班牙
EU EIA Directive
欧盟环境影响评估指令
Country or region
国家或地区
Technical standards or environmental
regulatory framework
技术标准和环境监管框架
Japan
韩国
Norway
挪威
环境影响评估
Article 18.12 of the Marine Pollution Prevention
Law 海洋污染防治法第18.12
日本
Korea
Environmental impact assessment
Marine environment management law was
amended to allow for capture and ocean
disposal 海洋环境管理法进行了修订,允许捕
集和深海处理
CCS-specific regulations are still pending, At
some future date draft regulations will be
simultaneously released by the Ministries of
Environment and Petroleum and Energy
CCS特定规定仍悬而未决,在将来某个时候,
法规草案将同时由环境部和石油能源部公布
South Africa
南非
Regulatory gaps have been analyzed and
regulatory development is underway 对监管漏
洞进行了分析,正在进行法规完善
United Kingdom
英国




United States
美国
EU Directive has been transposed
移置欧盟环境影响评估指令
Energy Act of 2011 allows for reuse of
exisiting pipelines and infrastructure for
CCS
2011年能源法案允许对已有的管道和
基础设施CCS再利用
“Class VI” regulations for Geologic storage
were developed by the US EPA under the
Underground injection control program and
finalized in 2010. No projects have yet been
permitted under the rule. “第六类” 地质储
存规章由美国环保局制定,归类于地下注射
控制项目,于2010年最终确定。此规则下,
目前尚未批准任何项目。
Federally-funded projects are subject to EAs
under the National Environmental Protection
Act (NEPA). Some states have mandatory EAs
for energy projects. 联邦政府资助的项目须遵
守国家环境保护法案(NEPA)。有些州有
强制性的环保能源项目。
STATES MOVE FORWARD ON CCS POLICIES, U.S.
GOVERNMENT FUNDS BIG-SCALE DEMOS
美国推进CCS政策,政府注资大型示范项目
Regulatory framework in place
Liability addressed in legislation
Permitting authority in place
Moratoriums on new coal
CCS requirement for new coal
Industrial CCS project
Regional partnerships III
Clean Coal Power Initiative
FutureGen
Based on compilation by Melisa Pollack, University of Minnesota
US EPA HAS PROPOSED STANDARDS
FOR NEW GENERATION…
美国环保局对新的发电厂提出的标准…
500 kg CO2/MwH Coal (12 mo. Avg)
454 kg CO2/MwH (7 year Avg)
454 kg CO2/MwH gas (>850mmBtu/hr)
500 kg CO2/MwH gas (< 850mmBtu/hr)
Applies only to new generation
只对新的发电厂
适用
CCS emissions can be
averaged over 7 years,
or 12 months
碳捕集排放可以平均
分布于7年中
Anticipates cost reductions
预期成本减少
CONTEXT FOR CCS IS DEPENDENT ON NATIONAL
CONTEXT FOR ENERGY, ELECTRICITY
CCS现状取决于能源电力国情
Sarah M. FORBES
[email protected]
Direct: +1-202-729-7714
Skype: sarah.m.forbes
Photo credit: Flickr Psenaka

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