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A worker in
China takes a
rest on bed of
plastic bottles at
a recycling
center in Jiaxing,
province, China,
on November 6,
Recycling – Across the Planet
Dr. F. Kessler
9 October 2014
 Leachate -- water percolates through a solid leaching out
some of the components
 Use of resources --- for new products & recycling processes
 Industry --- jobs, income, etc.
 Environment
 Materials --- glass, paper and newsprint, cardboard, steel,
aluminum, copper, iron, plastics, electronics, rubber (tires),
organic waste, batteries (ex. NiCad containing nickel and
cadmium), gold, silver, Freon, aggregates and concrete,
asphalt and tarmac, bricks, ink jet printer cartridges, paint,
textiles, mine chat waste, ship salvage, cars (all parts),
pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and possibly other materials.
 Landfills
FYI --- If the links require a password or state an issue with
security, please copy and paste the link. Some of the links are
slow, patience please.
For a look at recycling world wide with a variety of options and
how the United States ranks go to --- Getting Wasted:
Recycling Stats from Around the World -wasted-recycling-statsfrom-around-the-world.html
Global Trade in Electronic Waste
Lead acid batteries from Ghana successfully recycled [ in
Germany. This provides a topic where collection and recycling
take part in two different countries. -releases/archive-pressreleases/2014/lead -acid-batteries-from-ghana-successfullyrecycled/
The proces s of re -usi ng a giv en product (bey ond its intended use), or
producing a new product from a recyclable material. Recycling is
more commonl y associated with the process where ol d goods are re manufactured , al l owing them to be turned into new products
The v irtue of recycl ing has been appreciated for centuri es . For
thousands of years metal items hav e been recycl ed by mel ting and
reformi ng them into new weapons or tool s. I t is said that the broken
pieces of the Col ossus of Rhodes , a statue deemed one of the sev en
wonders of the ancient worl d, were recycled for scrap. During the
industrial rev ol ution, recycl ers began to form businesses and l ater
trade associati ons , deal ing in the col l ecti on, trade and proces si ng of
metal s and paper.
A merica's I nstitute of Scrap Recycl ing I ndustries (I SRI ), a trade
associati on with more than 1,400 member companies , traces its roots
back to one such organi zati on founded in 1913. I n the 1930s many
people surv iv ed the Great Depression by peddling scraps of metal,
rags and other items. I n those days reuse and recycl i ng were often
economi c necessi ti es . Recycl ing al so pl ayed an important rol e during
the second worl d war, when scrap metal was turned into weapons .
The processes involved in dealing with the waste of humans and
o r g an i sm s , i n c l udi ng m i n i m i zati o n, h an d l i ng , p r o c e s s i ng , s t o r ag e ,
r e c y c l ing , t r ans port , and f i n al d i s p o sal .
D i c t i o n a r y . c o m ' s 2 1 st C e n t u r y L e x i c o n C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 0 3 - 2 0 1 4
W as t e m an ag e m e n t i s t h e p r ac t i c e o f c o l l e c ti ng an d d i s p o si ng o f t h e
w as t e p r o d u c ed b y h u m an ac t i v iti e s. F o r e x am p l e , w h e n a p e r s o n b u y s a
p r o d u c t an d t h e n d i s p o se s o f i t s p l as t i c p ac k ag i n g , t h at p ac k ag i ng
b e c o m e s w as t e . O n c e w as t e i s i n t ro duc e d i n t o an e n v i ro nm e n t, i t c an
p r o d u c e m an y h ar m f u l e f f e c t s , s u c h as t h e s p r e ad o f d i s e ase .
W as t e m an ag e m e n t i s v i t al t o t h e h e al t hy f u n c t i o ni ng o f a s o c i e t y.
T h r o u g h o ut h i s t o ry, s an i tati o n i s s u e s h av e b e e n t o b l am e f o r d i s e ase
o u t b r e aks an d e p i d e mi c s i n m o s t p o p u l at ed r e g i o n s o f t h e
w o r l d. I m p ro p e r w as t e m an ag e m e n t h as n e g at i v e af f e c t s o n i n d i v idu al
h e al t h, an d s i m i l arly i t al s o n e g at i v e l y i m p ac t s e n v i ron m e nt al h e al t h.
P o s i ti v e w as t e m an ag e m e n t s y s t e m s, h o w e v e r, c an p r e v en t t h e n e g at i v e
i m p ac t s w as t e h as o n t h e e n v i ro n m en t. R e c y cl i ng , o r r e u s i ng m at e r i al s
t h at hav e al r eady been u s e d o n c e , i s an e n v i ro n me ntal ly fr i endl y w ay o f
u t i l izi n g w as t e . U s i n g t h e g as t h at d e c o m p o s i ng o r g an i c m at e r i al s g i v e o f f
i n l an d fi l ls as a s o u r c e o f e n e r g y i s an o t h e r p o s s i b l e w ay f o r w as t e
m an ag e m e n t t o f u n c t i o n i n a g r e e n w ay . -management
Wh a t a w a s t e : A G l o b a l R e v i e w o f S o l i d Wa s t e M a n a g e m e nt p r o v i d e s
b a c k gr o und , s t a t i s ti c s o n a l a r g e n u m b e r o f a r e a s , c o m p a ri so ns a m o ng
c o un t ri e s, a n d v a ri o us c o m p on e n t s o f w a s t e m a n a g e m e nt
h t t p :/ / w e b .w orl db a nk .o r g /WB SI T E / E XT E R N A L /T O PI C S / E XT UR BA N DE VE L O PM E NT /0
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R i si ng p r o sp e ri t y a n d t h e i n c r e a si ng u r b a ni sa ti o n o f t h e w o rl d p o p ul a ti o n
c o ul d l e a d t o a d o u b l ing i n t h e v o l um e o f m u ni ci p a l s o l i d w a s t e (M S W)
c r e a t e d a n n u a l l y b y 2 0 2 5 , a c c o r di ng t o n e w r e s e a r c h c o n duc t e d b y t h e
Wo r l d Wa t c h I n sti t u t e - a n i n d e p e n d e nt r e s e a r c h o r g a ni sa ti on d e d i c a t e d t o
g l o ba l e n v i ro nm e nt a l c o nc e rn s. h t t p :/ / w ww .w a st e - m a n a g e m e nt w o rl d .c o m /a r ti cl e s/ 2 0 1 2 / 0 7 /gl o ba l - m uni ci pa l - so l id - wa st e - to - d o ubl e - by 2 0 2 5 .h t m l
Wa s t e M a n a g em e nt a n d r e c y cl i ng i n A si a p r o v i de s a n o v e rv i ew o f t h e i s su es
a n d i nd us t r y h t t p :/ / w w w .r e v e n t ur e p a r k .c o m /upl o a ds /1 _ C WR _ A R T _ 1 1 .p d f
Graphs and data for plastics -data
PET is polyethylene terephthalate . PET is the plastic labeled
with the #1 code . Many beverages, food items and other
consumer products are delivered in bottles or packages made
from PET. The #1 code is usually found on or near the bottom
of the container.
Used to make new bottles, recycled PET can also be made into
fiber for carpets; fabric for t -shirts or fleece jackets; fiberfill for
sleeping bags, winter coats, and dog beds; industrial
strapping; sheet and thermoformed (clam shell) packaging;
and automotive parts such as headliners, bumpers, and door
Statistics and information about the issue of plastics and
recycling in Australia -bagfacts.html
Clean Up – Plastic bag usage around the world
Bottled water: Pouring resources down the drain water/276-bottled-water-pouring-resources-down-the-drain-
Electronic trash contains an enormous amount of toxic
Facts and figures on e -waste and recycling Facts and figures content/uploads/Facts_and_Figures_on_EWaste_and_Recyclin
Statistics on the management of used & end -of-life electronics
Cell phones -- next to computers &monitors , cell phones are
becoming one of the leading sources of electronic trash
http://www.benefits /
Confederation of European Paper I ndustries Key statistics are
included for 2013 which include recycling data begins on
page 19. You may want to review earlier data for
European Recovered Paper Council includes the European
Declaration on Paper Recycling for 2011 – 2015. Using the
Paper Monitoring Recycling Report , you will get an overview of
the industry as well as a map of countries and the organization
that provides data.
Bureau of I nternational Recycling. The Ferrous metals (steel ) and
Paper provides excellent statistics. Other areas indicated
password protection. The web site still provides an overview. -metals/
Bureau of I nternational Recycling A nnual Report 2013 has some
data but gives an excellent ov erview of the industry Reports/BIR-AnnualReport2013-V07.pdf
Eurostat Data Point to Recycling I ncrease news/6178/research -and-legislation/europe/eurostat -data-pointrecycling -increase
Scientists: Origins of Ocean Plastics Can be Traced news/8146/research -and-legislation/australia/scientists -originsocean-plastics-can-be-traced
Chemicals and hazardous waste: Three conventions convene
in Geneva. This site provides information about international
laws and participants.
/00962/index.html?lang=en&esgi -id=48429
Basel Agreement on the control of transboundary movements
and hazardous wastes and their disposal. Provides
background information.
Geo-Mexico, the geography and dynamics of modern Mexico
includes information on a new bio -energy project in Monterrey
which will reduce emissions by the equivalent of a million tons
of CO2. The World Bank is helping to finance the project.
“Assessment of the Recycling Potential of Aluminum in Japan,
the United States, Europe and China” from Materials
Transactions, Vol. 50 #3, (2009), pp. 650 -656. Gives insight into
the increase of aluminum usage and the subsequent need for
recycling. Note the references at the end of the article.
Highest recycling rates in Austria and Germany – but UK and
Ireland show fastest increase contains data/statistics for
individual country reports -municipalsolid-waste
The Himalayas and trash
pmental -issues/Mountain -of-trash-may-be-driving-Himalayasto-disaster/articleshow/41913815.cms?prtpage=1
India and plastics
Mumbai (Dhavari), I ndia: A Recycling Miracle -sdharavi-recycling-slumdog-entrepreneurs and also
Attero ready to 'fill the gap' in India's e -cycling -news/8145/escrap-and-batteries/india/attero -ready-039-fill-gap-039-india039-s-e-cycling
“A Cross-Country Study of Household Waste Prevention and
Recycling: Assessing the effectiveness of Policy Instruments” by
Ferrara and Missios. Land Economics, November 2012, 88 (4):
“Municipal Waste Management in Sweden.” Leonidas Milios.
Feb. 2013. Copenhagen Resource Institute, /
Sweden is hungry for trash and has turned to Norway for an
offer it would find hard to refuse, no pun intended. Sweden is
asking its neighbor for trash. Sweden's success is Sweden's
problem. Sweden is a model recycler. Thanks to a highly
efficient waste management system in Sweden, the vast
majority of this household waste can be recovered or reused -10-sweden-norway-trashlots.html#jCp
 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency /
 Natural Resources Defense Council –Recycling
 National Center for Electronics Recycling
 Bureau of I nternational Recycling
 European Environmental Agency
 For individual countries municipal-solid-waste
 United Nations Environmental Programme
 Waste management World
These resources can be used for further research:
 -waste-recycling/
ent-explains-sustainability -initiative/
 dictionary/recycling -definition
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