EDU699PowerPoint - Teacher Techniques

Report
Motivational Teaching Strategies
for Students in Preschool
BY: ALISA CELENTANO
DECEMBER 2013
Motivational Teaching Strategies
 What do you already know about motivational teaching
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strategies?
What does it mean to use motivational instructional
strategies?
What do we want to know about motivational teaching
strategies?
Discuss the questions with a partner or small group.
Share your ideas with the whole group by: writing ideas on
chart paper, verbally expressing ideas to group, and/or
drawing ideas out on chart paper.
What is motivation?
 Motivation is:
“The act or process of giving someone a reason for doing
something: the act or process of motivating someone…The
condition of being eager to act or work…A force or influence
that causes someone to do something” (Merriam-Webster,
2013, para. 1).
Why is it important to motivate students in the
classroom?
 “Learners motivation has been consistently linked to
successful learning” (Clayton, Blumberg, & Auld, 2010, p.
350).
 “Intrinsic motivation [has shown to predict] greater
achievement” with students (Perkins, 2009, p.55).
 “There is a strong link between student motivation and
learning…[and] motivation plays a central role in the
amount of time students will invest in their learning”
(Akhlaq, Chudhary, Malik, Saeed-ulHassan, & Mehmood,
2010, p. 41).
What role do teachers have to motivate students?
 Instructional strategies teachers implement in the
classroom can have a direct impact on students’ learning.
 Present information to students in an interesting way to
help them become engaged, stay attentive, and excited to
learn.
 Implement motivational instructional strategies by
providing engaging activities that will motivate students to
want to learn, which will help improve students’ learning
outcomes over time.
Reflect on your teaching practices?
Activity:
In a small group, discuss:
 How do you motivate students in your classroom?
 What specific strategies do you use that help students
learn?
 What strategy or strategies have you implemented that
prove to be the most beneficial?
 Why do you think the strategy helps improve students’
learning?
Share your thoughts with whole group. (Can use chart
paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
How does cognitive science play a role in improving students’
learning and teaching practices?
 Logic, rules, concepts, analogies, and images can impact a
student’s learning and influence the way an educator
implements teaching strategies in the classroom.
 Logic: When educators teach new information, students
use logic to think about what they are learning and make
sense of the information. When a student uses logic, he/she
uses reasoning to formulate new beliefs based on the new
information.
 Rules: Then, the student creates rules regarding the
information based on what he/she has learned. The rules
establish what will occur in situations and by using logic a
student can make inferences on what will happen based on
a specific rule.
How does cognitive science play a role in improving students’
learning and teaching practices?
 Concepts: After a student has used logic and rules
regarding a specific topic, he/she can create a concept
based on what they know. A student can decide based on
his/her logic and rules how the information fits into his/her
own life and categorize the information for future use.
How does cognitive science play a role in improving students’ learning
and teaching practices?
 Analogies: Analogies can be used to compare an object or
concept that a child has prior knowledge about to another
object or concept that is new to the student. Analogies “are
important in problem solving and reasoning. They help a
person visualize problems and find ways to solve
them…Once an analogy is formed it presents a new idea of
what we know before” (Ash, n.d., Slide 2).
 When a teacher uses an analogy, it helps students to
connect to their previous knowledge and build upon
previously learned concepts. Using analogies can help
auditory learners because the students can listen to the
discussion of how the information builds upon previous
knowledge.
How does cognitive science play a role in improving students’
learning and teaching practices?
 Images: Images are beneficial to use in the classroom
because they can help further explain a concept, object,
or idea. “Visual and other images play a significant role
in human thinking…[because] mental imagery is useful
in problem solving” (Ash, n.d., Slide 4).
 Using visual imagery can help students who are visual
learners because they would be presented with images to
reflect on to help learn the new information.
 When a teacher is instructing students, the use of
analogies and visual imagery can help students better
understand the newly learned concepts because they help
meet the learning needs of the students.
What strategies can teachers implement to positively affect learning and
improve teaching practices relating to cognitive science?
 Actively reflect on teaching practices to ensure
opportunities are provided for students to critically think
about what they are learning.
 Ask students to make inferences based on specific rules
regarding the information.
 Create concepts to help categorize the information to assist
students in recognizing where they could use the learned
information in the future.
 Create activities that gradually work on small concepts in
activities that lead up to students learning and
accomplishing larger ideas and tasks.
What strategies can teachers implement to positively affect
learning and improve teaching practices relating to cognitive
science?
 Create opportunities for students to participate in “creative
problem-solving strategies [which are] defined as
techniques that offer multiple ways and angles of
considering a problem from which an optimal solution may
be selected” (Bryant, 2010, p.43).
 Offer many opportunities for students to actively reflect on
their own learning and collaborate with classmates to
increase understanding of newly learned information and
how it can be applied to their own life.
What strategies can teachers implement to positively affect learning and
improve teaching practices relating to cognitive science?
 Plan for a variety of differentiated instruction to meet the
needs of students and observe and reflect on the progress
students are making to influence how future activities are
created to ensure each student’s learning needs are met and
teachers are helping each child progress to the best of
his/her ability.
 Using analogies and visual images are two teaching tools
educators can use to help meet the learning needs of
students, especially those who are auditory and visual
learners.
What has previous research conducted on
motivational teaching strategies discovered?
 Research from scholarly peer-reviewed articles reveals that
instructional strategies teachers implement in the
classroom can have a direct impact on students’ learning.
 Overall themes found throughout the research articles are
implementing instructional strategies that support
students’ interests, intrinsic motivators, and providing
students with choices in the classroom.
 Boi Hoang, Sun Hee, & Yang (2010) stated that the
materials that are implemented in the classroom motivate
students when they are “fun…unexpected…[and match]
their interests and…daily life” (p. 348).
 Hein (2012) stated that providing students with
opportunities to become leaders in the classroom and make
their own choices helps teachers implement a “more openended and student-centered style (productive style) where
the teacher acts only as facilitator” (p. 14).
What has previous research conducted on motivational
teaching strategies discovered?
 Yildirim (2012) conducted a study that reinforced the
importance of teachers supporting the students’ intrinsic
motivators (p.163).
 Goodman et al. (2011) found that students’ intrinsic
motivation had a positive impact on academic achievement
(p. 383).
 Acat & Dereli (2012) discovered in their study that when
“cognitive and lifelong learning goals motivation is very
high, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is high and negative
factors for learning motivation is low” (p. 2670).
 Tella’s (2007) study helped to explain the two ways that
students are motivated, either intrinsically or extrinsically
(p. 151).
What has previous research conducted on motivational
teaching strategies discovered?
 When students have an interest in what they are learning,
they will decide to continually want to learn about the topic,
which will have a positive impact on their academic
performance in that area of interest.
 Teachers should understand that some students are
intrinsically motivated in the classroom on specific topics
or while participating in specific activities.
What has previous research conducted on motivational teaching
strategies discovered?
 Different motivational instruction strategy researched by
Little (2012) discussed adding “challenge and
meaningfulness in the curriculum as critical elements for
promoting motivation in gifted students” (p. 695).
However, all teachers should ask themselves how they are
making learning challenging for every student in the
classroom and plan instruction based on the individual
academic needs of the students.
 Oche (2012) stated “instructional technique via prompt
feedback generally improves students’ achievement” (p.
377). Oche’s strategy connects to Little’s research study
because when teachers provide a student with consistent
feedback and scaffold activities to challenge the student,
he/she is presented with activities that match his/her
learning needs and, therefore, can learn specific ways to
improve in his/her learning.
9 Motivational Teaching Strategies
 The specific strategies that have shown to improve
students’ learning are:
1. Choosing effective materials and classroom arrangements
2. Providing child-centered activities
3. Integrating students’ interests
4. Supporting students’ intrinsic motivators
5. Implementing activities that meet the learning
preferences of the students
6. Being cognizant of students’ learning needs and abilities
7. Challenging students based on their capabilities
8. Connecting classroom concepts to students’ experiences
9. Providing students with immediate feedback
What does this research show?
 “There is a strong link between student motivation and
learning…[and] motivation plays a central role in the
amount of time students will invest in their learning”
(Akhlaq, Chudhary, Malik, Saeed-ulHassan, & Mehmood,
2010, p. 41).
 When a student is motivated in the classroom, he/she will
want to learn what is being taught, pay attention,
participate and remain engaged with the classroom
activities, and, therefore, be able to later recall and apply
the learned knowledge in future experiences because
he/she would have absorbed and retained the information.
 Therefore, it is important for teachers to recognize ways to
use motivation in the classroom to help students want to
learn what is being taught.
Why should teachers choose effective materials and
classroom arrangements?
 Seating arrangement, such as when teachers meet as a
group with students- “circle arrangement…[allows]
teachers to easily approach individual students and
simultaneously provide students with an equal chance of
participation” (Nguyen, Jang, Yang, 2010, p. 347).
 “Environment shapes behavior” (Collins, 2012, p. 121).
Reflection
 How can you implement effective materials and classroom
arrangements to improve students’ learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of how teachers can choose effective
materials and classroom arrangements
 Effective Materials:
 Implement developmentally and age-appropriate materials
based on abilities of students
 Provide materials for hands-on learning experiences, such
as in centers and small groups.
 Classroom Arrangements:
 Place materials and postings at students’ eye level.
 Create areas for small and whole group meetings and
activities.
Why should teachers provide child-centered
activities?
 “Student-centered teaching styles may be considered as
autonomy-supportive behavior” (Hein, 2012, p. 14).
 When students are provided with a more active role in their
learning, children are more likely to remain engaged and
interested in the activities/instruction.
Reflection
 How can you provide child-centered activities to improve
students’ learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of how teachers can provide childcentered activities
 Provide opportunities for students to take the lead in
activities, such as by implementing a job chart. A student
can help lead a morning meeting.
 Activities integrated into centers should create
opportunities for students to engage in purposeful play
independently.
 “Student-centered style (productive style) where the
teacher acts only as a facilitator (Hein, 2012, p. 14).
Why should teachers integrate students’
interests?
 “Interest may be defined as the focusing of the sense organs
on, or giving attention to, some person, activity, situation or
object” (Akhlaq, Chudhary, Malik, Saeed-ulHassan, &
Mehmood, 2010, p. 40).
 “Interest can also develop and deepen over time as students
engage in learning and find meaning in the content” (Little,
2012, p. 701).
 “Interest and attitude of learner towards a particular
subject matters a lot” (Tella, 2007, p. 154).
Why should teachers integrate students’
interests?
 “Teaching relevant subject matter and interesting
instruction is imperative to the student ability to develop a
feeling of necessity and importance about learning”
(Akhlaq, Chudhary, Malik, Saeed-ulHassan, & Mehmood,
2010, p. 40).
 “Students learn material that they find interesting and
challenging” (Akhlaq, Chudhary, Malik, Saeed-ulHassan, &
Mehmood, 2010, p. 41).
Reflection
 How can you integrate students’ interests to improve
students’ learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of how teachers can integrate students’
interests
 “Students should be involved in something fun, something
unexpected, something matching their interests and close
to their daily life” (Nguyen, Jang, Yang, 2010, p. 348).
 “Providing authentic choices, learning about students’
interests and incorporating those into the classroom”
(Little, 2012, p.700).
 Ask students what they would like to learn about.
 Observe students during activities to notice what students
are interested in.
Why should teachers support students’ intrinsic
motivators?
 “Intrinsic motivation is promoted when one feels both self-
determined and competent and self-determination denotes
the experience of choice, or autonomy. The sense of control
over their own study has the potential to breed
responsibility, which will then foster students’ motivation”
(Nguyen, Jang, Yang, 2010, p. 352).
 “Results indicate that perceived teacher support may be
more effective on students’ intrinsic value” (Yildirim, 2012,
p. 164).
 “Praise is effective as a classroom motivator to the extent
that it is contingent, specific and credible. Contingent
praise depends on student’s performance of well defined
behaviors. By specificity is meant that the teacher praises
students for specific behaviors” (Akhlaq, Chudhary, Malik,
Saeed-ulHassan, & Mehmood, 2010, p. 40).
 “Motivation consists of internal processes which spurs
somebody to satisfy some needs” (Oche, 2012, p. 372).
Reflection
 How can you support students’ intrinsic motivators, which
will lead to an improvement in students’ learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of how teachers can support students’
intrinsic motivators
 “One of the ways to engage students in intrinsic motivation
is by praising the students for the efforts they make in the
classroom and encouraging learning that is more positive”
(Akhlaq, Chudhary, Malik, Saeed-ulHassan, & Mehmood,
2010, p. 40).
 Observe and listen to students during activities they are
engaged in to discover what motivates them.
 Write down students’ interests to help plan for future
activities and themes.
Why should teachers implement activities that
meet the learning preferences of the students?
 “When technique complements students’ interests and
tendencies, students will regard the teaching and learning
processes implemented in the classroom as being exciting
and enjoyable” (Saleh, 2011, p. 70).
 When activities are implemented that meet the learning
preferences of the students, the children will be more likely
to remain engaged in the activity and further their learning.
Reflection
 How can you implement activities that meet the learning
preferences of your students, which will lead to an
improvement in students’ learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of how teachers can implement
activities to meet students’ learning preferences
 “There should be times where students are given a
choice about what they will study and in what way they
will study the subject” (Akhlaq, Chudhary, Malik,
Saeed-ulHassan, & Mehmood, 2010, p. 41).
 “Looking for a good learning fit for students means, at
least in part, trying to understand how individuals
learn and responding appropriately” (Tomlinson,
2001, p. 66).
 When students choose their centers, write down the
centers each child chooses to find out what specific
activities/center each child enjoys being engaged in.
Why should teachers be cognizant of students’
learning needs and abilities?
 When learning opp0rtunities match the students’ needs
and abilities, the students are more likely to remain
engaged in the activity because it is at their developmental
level.
 “At least each pupil no matter their ability level should be
able to answer some questions correctly. This would go a
long way to motivate such pupils towards further learning”
(Tella, 2007, p. 152).
Reflection
 How can you be familiar with students’ learning needs and
abilities to work towards improving students’ learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of what teachers can do to be cognizant
of students’ learning needs and abilities
 “Individual differences in ability…must be taken into
consideration” (Tella, 2007, p. 155).
 Write daily observations of students during activities to
discover and assess students’ needs and abilities.
 Plan small group instruction to assess students in specific
developmental areas.
Why should teachers challenge students based
on their capabilities?
 A “key curricular feature of challenge [is] a necessary
component of curriculum” (Little, 2012, p. 696).
 “There is a history of strong recommendations from experts
in the field and from students themselves about the need
for more challenging curriculum…offering faster pace,
greater depth and complexity, and less repetition and
review; and about the importance of the classroom context
and teacher support in making challenging curriculum
motivating and engaging” (Little, 2012, p. 698).
 “If schools are to promote world-class levels of
achievement, they must provide opportunities for students
to encounter material that is consistently challenging and
that promotes ongoing growth” (Little, 2012, p. 702).
Why should teachers challenge students based on
their capabilities?
 “Curriculum that is challenging to students and that is
implemented in a supportive learning context is more likely
to promote motivation than curriculum that is too easy”
(Little, 2012, p. 703).
Reflection
 How can you challenge students based on their capabilities
that will lead to an improvement in their learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of how teachers can challenge students
based on their capabilities
 Plan for tiered activities using Connecticut Preschool
Assessment Framework standards and the benchmarks for
each standard.
 Plan for individualized instruction by creating purposeful
activities to progress students’ to the next benchmark level
in each standard.
Why should teachers connect classroom
concepts to students’ experiences?
 “It is advisable that teachers are equipped with interesting
stories to illustrate and support the lessons. As language
can’t be divorced from context, every lesson colorized and
enlivened with vivid examples from real-life experience can
help make learning closer to enjoying” (Nguyen, Jang,
Yang, 2010, p. 349).
 “Curriculum that is meaningful for students allows them to
make connections with their own individual experiences
and goals, it presents opportunities for them to see beyond
the immediate activity to long-term effects and outcomes,
and it may provide context for personal relevance and
growth” (Little, 2012, p. 700).
Why should teachers connect classroom concepts
to students’ experiences?
 “When the teachers’ delivery strategy combines well with
compatible and matching learning experiences to students’
learning methods, the information internalization process
of a student’s processing system can occur more efficiently”
(Saleh, 2011, p. 70).
Reflection
 How can you connect classroom concepts to students’
experiences, which will lead to an improvement in students’
learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of how teachers can connect classroom
concepts to students’ experiences
 When discussing topics, ask students about their own
experiences related to the topic.
 Find ways that themes or topics during discussions relate to
the students’ lives and experiences.
Why should teachers provide students with
immediate feedback?
 “Prompt feedback as one of the motivational strategies can
be regarded as the information available to the students
which makes possible the comparison of their actual
performance with some standard performance of a skill at
an appointed time without delay” (Oche, 2012, p. 372).
 “Experiment has proved that reinforcement is important in
learning” (Oche, 2012, p. 373).
 “The effect of a positive feedback or negative feedback on
students which are of course multiple in outlooks can make
or mar a student’s educational aspiration” (Oche, 2012, p.
373).
Why should teachers provide students with
immediate feedback?
 “Prompt feedback influences the readiness, interest and
attention of students in the class thereby making them
achieve better performance than when feedback is not
given” (Oche, 2012, p. 377).
Reflection
 How can you provide students with immediate feedback,
which will lead to an improvement in students’ learning?
 Discuss with a partner or small group.
 Share your thoughts with the whole group. (You can use
chart paper, drawings, and/or verbally explain).
Examples of how teachers can provide students
with immediate feedback
 “Learners want engaging learning environments that
promote ‘direct interaction with… [teachers] and students’,
‘spontaneity’, ‘immediate feedback’…” (Clayton, Blumberg,
& Auld, 2010, p. 362).
 “Prompt feedback strategy should always be used to arouse,
sustain and maintain interest of students” (Oche, 2012, p.
378).
 When working with students, provide immediate positive
responses based on what they are doing to help the children
progress in their learning.
Research conducted on motivational teaching
strategies in our program
 The motivational teaching strategy viewed as the most
important to implement for the teachers whose students’
scores met or exceeded the program’s outcome scores is:
Providing students with immediate feedback.
Motivational Teaching Strategy Rated as Most
Important to Implement
Data Collected for each Motivational Teaching
Strategy
Data for six teachers who met and/or exceeded program scores in developmental outcome report
Strategy Number
1
Teacher 1
7
Teacher 2
8
Teacher 3
5
Teacher 4
3
Teacher 5
1
Teacher 6
9
Total for each strategy
33
2
4
7
8
2
2
8
31
3
1
3
9
1
4
7
25
4
8
2
7
6
7
3
33
5
5
9
3
5
3
1
26
6
2
6
1
9
9
6
33
7
6
4
2
4
5
4
25
8
3
1
6
7
8
2
27
9
9
5
4
8
6
5
37
Strategies Identified by Number
_____1_____ Choosing effective materials and classroom arrangements
_____2_____
Providing child-centered activities
_____3_____
Integrating students' interests
_____4_____
Supporting students' intrinsic motivators
_____5____
(Cited as least important to implement)
Implementing activities that meet the learning preferences of the students
_____6_____
Being aware of the students' learning needs and abilities
_____7_____
Challenging students based on their capabilities
_____8_____
Connecting classroom concepts to students' experiences
_____9____
Providing students with immediate feedback
(Cited as least important to implement)
(Cited as most important to implement)
What we can learn about how we motivate students
based on teachers’ responses in the questionnaire?
 Question 1:
 How do you motivate students in the classroom?
 By making learning: Fun, exciting, interesting, interactive,
and child-friendly.
 By providing: Encouragement, positive reinforcement,
one-on-one support, praise, and age-appropriate activities
and materials based on abilities.
Question 2
 What specific strategy or strategies do you use to
motivate students?
 By being: Energized, enthusiastic, positive, engaging, and
encouraging.
 By implementing: Small group activities, one-on-one
support, rhyming books, praise, feedback.
Question 3
 What specific strategy/technique do you believe
has the most positive impact on your students’
learning outcomes and developmental progress?
 By implementing: Encouragement, positive learning
environment with age-appropriate materials and activities,
specific feedback and praise, activities related to students’
interests, positive teacher attitude, new concepts into
instruction, interactive stories, support to increase
students’ self-help skills.
Question 4
 Why do you think the specific strategy or strategies
prove to be the most beneficial for your students?
 When topics are interesting, students are more likely to be
engaged and learn. When students are presented with
choices and opportunities to make their own decisions,
students are more likely to be motivated. When strategies
target a specific goal or developmental domain, it enhances
the children’s developmental skills. The strategies are
meaningful and purposeful. Students’ ideas can influence
teaching. When teachers show they care about students,
children recognize attitudes and are motivated to learn.
Conclusion from Data Collected
 Overall, teachers can motivate students by
providing an: Encouraging and positive
developmentally appropriate, child-directed
learning environment where lessons are
engaging, purposeful, and based on students’
interests and abilities.
Results from all teachers who completed the
open-ended questionnaires
For each question, the responses were categorized
into two main themes:
 1. Academic teaching strategy
 2. Social emotional strategy
The data was organized into three categories:
 1. Responses that were only mentioned in the group of six
teachers whose students’ scores met or exceeded the
program’s scores.
 2. Responses that were only mentioned in the group of
teachers whose scores were below the program’s scores.
 3. Responses that were similar in both groups: Teachers
whose students’ scores met or exceeded the program’s
scores and teachers whose scores were below the program’s
scores.
Results Showing the Percentage of Academic
Strategies Implemented for Question 1
1. How do you motivate students in the classroom?
Differences:
 Teachers who successfully met or exceeded the program
outcome scores in all four developmental areas: 88%
 Teachers whose developmental outcome scores were below
the program’s scores: 20%
 Similarities:
 Teachers whose scores successfully met or exceeded
program outcome scores: 4%
 Teachers whose scores were below program outcome
scores: 4%
Results Showing the Percentage of Academic
Strategies Implemented for Question 2
2. What specific strategy or strategies do you use to
motivate students?
Differences:
 Teachers who successfully met or exceeded the program
outcome scores in all four developmental areas: 43%
 Teachers whose developmental outcome scores were below
the program’s scores: 41%
Similarities:
 Teachers whose scores successfully met or exceeded
program outcome scores: 0%
 Teachers whose scores were below program outcome
scores: 0%
Results Showing the Percentage of Academic
Strategies Implemented for Question 3
3. What specific strategy/technique do you believe
has the most positive impact on your students’
learning outcomes and developmental progress?
Differences:
 Teachers who successfully met or exceeded the program
outcome scores in all four developmental areas: 80%
 Teachers whose developmental outcome scores were below
the program’s scores: 50%
Similarities:
 Teachers whose scores successfully met or exceeded
program outcome scores: 0%
 Teachers whose scores were below program outcome
scores: 0%
Results Showing the Percentage of Academic
Strategies Implemented for Question 4
4. Why do you think the specific strategy or
strategies prove to be the most beneficial for your
students?
Differences:
 Teachers who successfully met or exceeded the program
outcome scores in all four developmental areas: 83%
 Teachers whose developmental outcome scores were below
the program’s scores: 54%
Similarities:
 Teachers whose scores successfully met or exceeded
program outcome scores: 0%
 Teachers whose scores were below program outcome
scores: 0%
Conclusion Based on Data Collected from all
Open-Ended Questionnaires
Conclusion:
 Overall, the teachers who met or exceeded the program’s
outcome scores used more academic techniques and less
social emotional techniques than the teachers who had
scores below the program outcome scores.
References
 Acat, M., & Dereli, E. (2012). Preschool teaching students'
prediction of decision making strategies and academic
achievement on learning motivations. Educational Sciences:
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