Northern Exposure Introducing US students to Quebec

Report
Effects of CALL instruction on
high-level, low-frequency
English vocabulary
Linguistics, CUNY Graduate Center
Euna Cho
Agenda
• Background information on L2 vocabulary
knowledge and learning
• Methods and procedures of the study
• Results and further research suggestions
Introduction
• Importance of vocabulary learning in L2 language
learning, yet teaching is neglected due to the belief in
vocabulary learning through extensive reading
• Effectiveness in more form-focused, deliberate,
intentional teaching in L2 vocabulary acquisition,
especially for high-level, low-frequency words shown on
the Graduate Record Examination (GRE)
• Advantages of Computer-Assisted Language Learning
(CALL) instruction in L2 vocabulary teaching
Frequent word lists
• General Service List (GSL) of English words: 1,964
word families (West, 1953), 80% coverage
• New General Service List (NGSL): 2,368 word families
(Browne, 2013), 90% coverage
• Academic Word List (AWL): 570 word families outside
the GSL (Coxhead, 2000)
Required number of words
• Approx. 3,000 words to engage in a daily
conversation (Laufer & Nation, 2011)
• 6,000-9,000 words to understand radio interviews or
literature (Laufer & Nation, 2011)
• 10,000 words to understand 95% of the general texts
(Hazenberg & Hulstijn, 1996)
• 17,000 words: receptive knowledge of collegeeducated native English speakers (Zechmeister et al.,
1995)
Frequency of encounters
• A learner should see the same word more than 10
times (Laufer & Nation, 2011).
• Each new experience with the word should take
place before the word is forgotten (Laufer, 2006).
• A learner should read 1-2 books per week, which will
take 29 years to learn the most frequent 2,000 words
(Zahar et al., 2001)
 Learning vocabulary through reading may not work.
Academic words
• Receptive knowledge of 17,000 words among collegeeducated native English speakers (Zechmeister et al.,
1995)
• Learners pursuing higher education should have
vocabulary knowledge used in academic contexts.
• Moderate use in academic settings; rare in general
context (e.g., convoluted, gratuitous, vociferous)
• Low-frequency of appearance (Coxhead, 2000)
• Form-focused, deliberate, and intentional learning of
vocabulary words  Vocabulary should be taught!
CALL learning environment
• Vocabulary is one of the most prevalent applications
in a CALL environment.
• Multimedia applications: pictorial, audio-visual
information in addition to traditional textual cues
• Retention is easier and more effective when words
are learned in multiple modes (Chun & Plass, 1996).
• Multimedia cues yield promising outcomes in L2
vocabulary acquisition (Akbulut, 2007; Al-Seghayer,
2001; Chun & Plass, 1996; Yoshii & Flaitz, 2002)
Rationale
• Efficacy of computer-mediated multimedia aids
shown on beginner and intermediate level
vocabulary (Al-Seghayer, 2005; Chun & Plass, 1996;
Mohsen & Balakumar, 2011; Yoshii & Flaitz, 2002)
• Little attention paid to high-level infrequent words
that are important for particular purposes
• Advanced-level words are hard to learn, requiring
special attention (e.g., multimedia aids)
The present study
• Efficacy of multimedia cues (video) on advancedlevel English vocabulary shown on the GRE
• 15 Korean L1 students preparing for graduate study
in the U.S.
• Testing 40 unfamiliar words selected from the
pre-test (60 items)
• Pre-test  Definition  Treatment (video / text)
 Post-test 1 (immediate)  Post-test 2 (7 days)
 Post-test 3 (2 weeks)
Context of the study
• 4 week intensive GRE lecture series in Seoul,
South Korea (4 hours X 5 days) in July 2014
• Total enrollment: 27 (9 male, 18 female)
recruited from an internet blog
• Instruction focused on vocabulary, reading
comprehension, and essay writing
• Target number of vocabulary: 1,500 GRE words
– Etymology, images, videos, and mnemonics
Participants
• 23  15 for final analysis (6 male and 9 female)
• Age: 24-34 (Mean 28, SD 2.94)
• Length of residence: 0-10 years (Mean 1.16, SD 2.56)
• M-TELP listening (45): 28-42 (Mean 33.8, SD 4.63)
• Pre-test results (40): 0-5 (Mean 1.2, SD 1.42)
Pre-test (60)
• 60 items tested by 24 students (outside 5,000 frequent words)
• 40 items below 10% of correctness selected
Final test items (40)
Pre- and post-tests
Treatment
• Experimental group (video group)
– Dictionary annotations (Korean/English)
– Video clips with subtitles
• Control group (text group)
– Dictionary annotations (Korean/English)
– Handout with scripts of the video clips
Dictionary annotations
Video clips
• 40 video clips from movies or TV shows
• Edited to show the gist (5-20 seconds) with subtitles
• Repeated with synonyms or definition
(e.g., pulchritude vs. beauty)
• Visually represented with gestures and facial
expressions
• Played one time with a description or background
information
Are you and your friends gonna be over here all the time like partying and
hanging out? Oh, don’t worry. I am not really a party girl. Wow, don’t just be
blurting stuff out. I want you to really think about your answers.
From: Friends
As you can see, I don’t look like that. That was a moment of useful
pulchritude that is long since past. Youthful pulchritude? Don’t ask me what
pulchritude means. Pulchritude means beauty.
From: Puccini for Beginners
King, you’re majesty. I gravel at your feet. It’s not gravel, it’s grovel.
From: Lion King
Handout for text group
Script for the instructor
Results
Limitations and further research
• A small number of participants
• Vocabulary size test
• Vocabulary learning experience
• Participants from diverse language
background
• More precisely-structured instruction
(e.g., recorded instruction)
References
•
Akbulut, Y. (2007). Effects of multimedia annotations on incidental vocabulary
learning and reading comprehension of advanced learners of English as a foreign
language. Instructional Science, 35(6), 499-517.
•
Al-Seghayer, K. (2005). The effect of multimedia annotation modes on L2
vocabulary acquisition. Research in Technology and Second Language Education:
Developments and Directions, 3, 133.
•
Browne, C. (2013). The New General Service List: Celebrating 60 years of
vocabulary learning. LANGUAGE TEACHER, 37(4), 13.
•
Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1996). Effects of multimedia annotations on vocabulary
acquisition. The modern language journal, 80(2), 183-198.
•
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL quarterly, 34(2), 213-238.
•
Hazenberg, S., & Hulstun, J. H. (1996). Defining a minimal receptive secondlanguage vocabulary for non-native university students: An empirical investigation.
Applied linguistics, 17(2), 145-163.
References
•
Laufer, B. (2006). Comparing focus on form and focus on formS in second-language
vocabulary learning. Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des
langues vivantes, 63(1), 149-166.
•
Laufer, B., & Nation, I.S.P. (2011). Vocabulary. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The
Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 163-176). London and
New York: Routledge.
•
Mohsen, M. A., & Balakumar, M. (2011). A review of multimedia glosses and their
effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition in CALL literature. ReCALL, 23(2), 135-159.
•
West, M. (1953). A General Service List of English Words. London: Longman, Green
and Co.
•
Yoshii, M., & Flaitz, J. (2002). Second language incidental vocabulary retention: The
effect of text and picture annotation types. CALICO journal, 20(1), 33-58.
•
Zahar, R., Cobb, T., & Spada, N. (2001). Acquiring vocabulary through reading:
Effects of frequency and contextual richness. Canadian Modern Language
Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 57(4), 541-572.
•
Zechmeister, E. B., Chronis, A. M., Cull, W. L., D'Anna, C. A., & Healy, N. A. (1995).
Growth of a functionally important lexicon. Journal of Literacy Research, 27(2),
201-212.
Thank you!
CUNY Graduate Center
Euna Cho ([email protected])

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