Stephen Pruitt & Maria Ferguson - Next Generation Science Standards

Report
Science Education:
Facts and Trends in High School,
College, and Career
The National Look
Trends in science course-taking using High School
Transcript Study (1990, 2000 & 2009) data
High School Science Course-taking
100
80
96
91
70
60
Biology
Chemistry
40
Physics
49
Geology/Earth Science
Biology, chemistry, and physics
36
20
21
25
28
19
0
1990
2009
30
STEM-related CTE Course Credits
2000
2005
2009
Agriculture
12
12
11
Computer & information science
24
20
21
Engineering technologies
14
12
11
Health sciences
11
10
10
Manufacturing
16
16
13
Repair & transportation
9
9
8
•
The percentage of high school graduates taking STEM-related
career and technical education courses in high school has
remained steady or decreased.
AP, IB, and Other Honors Courses
25
22
20
15
16
AP/honors biology
AP/honors chemistry
10
AP/honors physics
5
5
0
3
1990
•
2
6
2000
4
6
6
2009
The percentages of students taking Advanced Placement,
International Baccalaureate, or other honors science courses
have risen, especially in biology.
Science Course-taking by Race/Ethnicity
1990
Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Biology &
chemistry
Bio, chem
& physics
•
2009
2000
White
Black
Hisp
Asian
White
Black
Hisp
Asian
White
Black
Hisp
Asian
92
91
90
90
92
92
88
88
96
96
95
96
52
40
38
64
63
60
52
75
72
65
66
85
23
15
13
38
32
25
23
54
38
27
29
61
50
40
36
60
60
58
50
71
69
64
64
83
20
12
10
33
26
20
18
47
31
22
23
54
The percentage of white, black, Latino, and Asian students
taking science courses increased.
Gaps in Science Course-taking
by Race/Ethnicity
60.0
50.0
40.0
White
Black
30.0
Hispanic
20.0
Asian
10.0
0.0
1990
2000
2009
• There are significant gaps among racial/ethnic subgroups of
students taking a science curriculum consisting of biology,
chemistry, and physics.
Science Course-taking by Gender
1990
2000
2009
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
90
92
89
93
95
96
48
50
58
65
67
73
25
18
34
29
39
33
47
49
54
64
65
71
22
16
26
24
32
28
Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Bio & chemistry
Bio, chemistry & physics
•
Overall, more male students completed a curriculum that
includes biology, chemistry and physics than did their female
counterparts.
Science Course-taking by SES
2000
2009
Graduates in the highest
income schools
Graduates in the lowest
income schools
Graduates in the highest
income schools
Graduates in the lowest
income schools
Biology
91%
91%
96%
96%
Chemistry
65%
61%
76%
69%
Physics
35%
35%
47%
27%
Bio & Chemistry
62%
60%
75%
68%
Bio, Chemistry & Physics
29%
26%
40%
23%
For this analysis, a highest-income school was defined as one where fewer than 25% of students were eligible for free/reduced lunch, whereas a
lowest-income school was one where more than 75% of students were eligible. 1990 was not included because of insufficient data.
• The gap in science course-taking between the highest- and
lowest-income schools widened, except in biology.
The High School Look
Trends in science graduation requirements
Science Credit Requirements for a
Standard High School Diploma
Number of States
7
4
10
• Most states (30)
require a minimum
of three science
credits to graduate
high school with a
standard diploma.
Not specified
1 credit
2 credits
3 credits
30
4 credits
Science Course Requirements for a
Standard High School Diploma
25
Number of States
Biology
20
15
10
5
0
No specific courses
21
Lab
16
Student option
14
Physical
11
9
Chemistry
2
2
Life
1
1
Physics
Enviromental
Courses Required for a Standard Diploma
Note: Sixteen states do not require specific courses and 11 state require certain courses from a series (for example, on state requires biology, physics or
chemistry , and a third additional science credit.
•
More states require students to complete a biology course to
earn a standard diploma than other types of science courses,
such as chemistry or physics.
States Requiring Science Exit Exams
between 2002 and 2014
25
Number of States
20
Number of states
requiring a science
exit exam
15
10
Number of states
requiring a biology
exit exam
5
2014
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
0
Year
•
In 2002, three states required a biology exit exam; by 2014, six
states administered such an exit exam.
The College Admissions Look
Trends in science requirements for college
admissions
4-year Postsecondary Sample by Governance
Public 4-year: State-level
governance
Kansas
Kentucky
Maryland
Nevada
Washington
West Virginia
Public 4-year: Institution-level
governance
(6)
California
Delaware
District of Columbia
Illinois
Iowa
Minnesota
New Jersey
New York
Oregon
Rhode Island
Vermont
Wyoming
(12)
Highly selective private 4-year
Universities
California Institute of Technology
Columbia
Dartmouth
Duke
Harvard
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Princeton
Stanford
University of Chicago
University of Pennsylvania
Yale
Colleges
Amherst
Bowdoin
Carleton
Claremont McKenna
Davidson
Haverford
Middlebury
Pomona
Swarthmore
Wellesley
Williams
(20)
Four-Year Public and Private Postsecondary
Science Requirements by Credit
1
Number of credits
4 credits
3 credits
12
2
2 credits
7
1 credit
10
Public 4-year requirements
Private 4-year requirements or
recommendations
1
5
No credits/Not specified
0
2
4
6
8
10
Number of colleges/universities
12
12
14
• 12 out of 28 public colleges and universities in our sample require
three credits; 2 of the 22 private universities and liberal arts colleges
require or recommend three science credits
Four-Year Public and Public Postsecondary
Science Requirements by Course
Laboratory
Public 4-year
requirements
3
Biology
Course
16
6
6
Physical
Chemistry and/or physics
1
1
Biology, chemistry, and/or…
1
8
Other
7
2
0
Private 4-year
requirements or
recommendations
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Number of colleges/universities
• The most commonly required science course for admission into
a public college or university in our sample is a laboratory
science course. These types of courses could incorporate any
science subject or a combination of subjects.
Two-Year Public Postsecondary
Science Admissions Requirements
Laboratory
Biology
Course
Physical
Chemistry and/or physics
Biology, chemistry, and/or physics
Other
1
High school transcript/diploma or GED
5
Not specified
12
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Number of colleges
 Twelve of the eighteen two-year colleges in the sample do not
have specific science course requirements for admission into the
college.
The College Major Prerequisite Look
Trends in science recommendations and requirements for
STEM majors
Sample Postsecondary Institutions
for STEM major prerequisites
Sample State
California
Sample Public 4-Year Institutions
California State University (CSU), Long Beach
California State University (CSU), Northridge
University of California (UC), Davis
University of California (UC), Los Angeles
Delaware
Delaware State University
University of Delaware
District of Columbia The University of the District of Columbia
Kansas
Kentucky
Fort Hays State University
Kansas State University
University of Kansas
Wichita State University
Eastern Kentucky University
University of Kentucky
University of Louisville
Western Kentucky University
Sample Public 2-Year Institutions
Barstow Community College
Delaware Technical Community College
The University of the District of Columbia
Community College
Northwest Kansas Technical College
Hazard Community and Technical College
Sample Postsecondary Institutions
for STEM major prerequisites (continued)
Sample State
Maryland
Rhode Island
Vermont
Washington
Sample Public 4-Year Institutions
Morgan State University
Salisbury University
Towson University
University of Maryland, College Park
Rhode Island College
University of Rhode Island
Castleton State College
Lyndon State College
University of Vermont
Eastern Washington University
University of Washington
Washington State University
Western Washington University
Sample Public 2-Year Institutions
Anne Arundel Community College
Community College of Rhode Island
Vermont Technical College
Clover Park Technical College
STEM majors: Chemistry, Computer Science, Electrical
Engineering, Environmental Science, Life Sciences/Biology,
Petroleum Engineering, and Physics.
High School Science Recommendations
and Requirements for STEM Majors
• In general, two-year community and technical colleges do not
require or have specific recommendations about high school
science courses.
• Where course taking information was available for the sample
of for-profit institutions used in this study, the major providers
do not require or have specific recommendations about high
school science courses.
Science in “Bright Outlook” Careers
Trends in STEM careers using Department of
Labor’s ONET database
ONET Job Zones
• Zone 1: Little or no preparation needed
• Zone 2: High School Diploma
• Zone 3: Training in vocational school, related on-the-job
experience, or an associate’s degree
• Zone 4: Four-year bachelor’s degree
• Zone 5: Graduate school (a master’s, Ph.D., M.D., or J.D.)
Zone Sample Selection
• A comparison of both STEM and non-STEM careers in our
sample shows that STEM careers generally require higher
levels of preparation than non-STEM careers.
4%
20%
6%
16%
18%
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5
24%
32%
20%
60%
Sample of STEM bright outlook careers
in ONET zones
Sample of non-STEM bright outlook careers
in ONET zones
Knowledge Needed for Bright Outlook
STEM and Non-STEM Jobs
All Jobs in Sample
STEM Jobs
Non-STEM Jobs
1.
English language
1.
English language
1.
English language
2.
Mathematics
2.
Mathematics
2.
Customer & personal service
3.
Customer & personal service
3.
Computers & electronics
3.
Administration & management
4.
Computers & electronics
4.
Engineering & technology
4.
Mathematics
5.
Admin & management
5.
Administration & management
5.
Computers & electronics
6.
Engineering & technology
6.
Design
6.
Education & training
7.
Education & training
7.
Customer & personal service
7.
Public Safety
8.
Design
8.
Biology
8.
Psychology
9.
Sales & marketing
9.
Physics
9.
Sales & marketing
10. Psychology
10. Production & processing
10. Clerical
Most Important Knowledge Areas for
Zone 4 and 5 Jobs.
• For Zone 4 jobs: Mathematics, Computers and Electronics,
Engineering and Technology, and Design
• For Zone 5 jobs: Mathematics, Biology,
Computers and Electronics, and Medicine and Dentistry
Zone 4: 4-year college degree
1. English language
2. Mathematics
3. Computers & electronics
4. Engineering & technology
5. Customer Service
6. Administration & management
7. Design
8. Clerical
9. Economics & accounting
10. Law & government
Zone 5: Graduate degree
1. English language
2. Education & training
3. Mathematics
4. Biology
5. Customer service
6. Psychology
7. Computers & electronics
8. Administration
9. Medicine & dentistry
10. Therapy & counseling
Most Important Skills for
Bright Outlook Jobs
All Jobs
STEM Jobs
Non-STEM Jobs
1.
Active listening
1.
Critical thinking
1. Active listening
2.
Critical thinking
2.
Active listening
2. Speaking
3.
Speaking
3.
Reading comprehension
3. Critical thinking
4.
Reading comprehension
4.
Complex problem-solving
4. Reading comprehension
5.
Complex problem solving
5.
Speaking
5. Social perceptiveness
6.
Judgment & decision making
6.
Judgment & decision making
6. Judgment & decision making
7.
Monitoring
7.
Active learning
7. Service orientation
8.
Writing
8.
Writing
8. Monitoring
9.
Social perceptiveness
9.
Science
9. Coordination
10. Service orientation
10. Mathematics
10. Writing
Major Points to Take Away
• More high school students are taking more science courses
but gender and race/ethnicity gaps still exist.
• High school science course requirements and college
admissions science requirements are not well aligned.
• There is still work to be done to ensure students are well
prepared for STEM majors and to ensure that minority, low
income and female students enter and remain in the STEM
pipeline.
Major Points to Take Away
• The ONET database points out the overlap between the
knowledge and skill areas that are deemed important for career
success and the content knowledge/skills/practices embedded
in the NGSS.
• The NGSS supports what research has made clear: Students
need to engage in science and engineering practices as they
learn content. The high-level thinking skills, communication
skills, and argumentation from evidence practices within the
NGSS align well with the skills requirements needed for bright
outlook careers as defined by ONET.
Major Points to Take Away
• Knowledge and skills in STEM-related areas is a valuable
commodity in the bright outlook job market, even beyond just
STEM careers.
• A rigorous science curriculum based on the NGSS can provide
all students with the kind of foundational knowledge and skills
they need to pursue bright outlook careers in both STEM and
non-STEM fields.

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