- Energy Rating

Report
The E3 Program and Small Fan Units
Ian McNicol, Sustainability Victoria
On behalf of the E3 Committee
A joint initiative of Australian, State and Territory and New Zealand Governments.
Presentation Outline
1. E3 Program
•
•
Overview
Small Fan Units
2. Introduction to the Workshop
3. Overview of Product Profile
•
Discussion Points
An Industry Perspective - FMAANZ
4. Where to From Here
2
Workshop Agenda – Afternoon Session
1:00 pm
Overview of E3 Program
1:15 pm
Overview of Small Fan Profile
2:15 pm
2:25 pm
An Industry Perspective FMAANZ
Where to from Here
2:45 pm
Meeting end, tea/coffee
3
1 a. E3 Program - Overview
• E3 = Equipment Energy Efficiency
• Jointly run by Aust federal, state &
territory governments & NZ
– Currently relies on state & territory laws
in Aust, and NZ legislation
• Mandatory measures: MEPS &
Energy Labelling
• Voluntary measures: voluntary or
endorsement labelling, training &
support to promote best available
products
• 10 year strategies: draft strategy - In
From the Cold, Standby Power,
Greenlight Australia, Switch on Gas,
HVAC HESS
4
MEPS & Labelling in Australia
Labelling
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Refrigerators & Freezers
Clothes Washers
Clothes Dryers
Dishwashers
Air Conditioners - Single Phase
Televisions
* Approved but not yet implemented in all jurisdictions
MEPS
•
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Electric Water Heaters
Refrigerators & Freezers
Three-Phase Electric Motors
Three Phase Air Conditioners
Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts
Refrigeration Display Cabinets
Linear Fluorescent Lamps
Distribution Transformers
Single Phase Air Conditioners
External Power Supplies
Set-Top Boxes
Commercial Building Chillers
Computer Room Air Conditioners
Televisions
Lighting – CFL & incandescent
Gas water heaters*
5
E3 Program – Who’s Responsible in Australia
Select Council on Climate Change (SCCC)
(Australian, State and Territory and New Zealand Climate Change Ministers)
Senior Officials Management Group (SOMG)
(Australian, State and Territory and New Zealand Senior Officials)
Energy Efficiency Working Group (E2WG)
(Australian, State and Territory Senior Officials)
Equipment Energy Efficiency Committee (E3)
(Australian, State and Territory, & NZ Govt officials – Chaired by DCCEE)
6
E3 Process to Develop Regulations
1. Product Profile
2. MEPS Proposal
3. RIS
4. SCCC Approval
MEPS
Commence
7
1 b. E3 Program & Small Fan Units
• This stakeholder workshop opens up
discussion with government agencies and
industry around possible policy options for
improving the energy efficiency of small
fan units
– E3 is a regulatory program, so MEPS and
labelling are included in the options
considered
8
Draft strategy for Non-domestic Refrigeration –
In From The Cold
• Report: In From the Cold - Strategies to
Increase Energy Efficiency of Nondomestic Refrigeration in Australia and
New Zealand recommends that:
– Minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) are
introduced for fan motors used in non-domestic
refrigeration applications, with an output power
rating of between 5 Watts and 2,000 Watts
9
European Union: energy efficiency regulations
for fans
• EU regulations will place energy efficiency
requirements on fans with motor input power
125W - 500kW, aimed at inefficient ventilation
fans used in non-residential buildings.
– First tier: from 1 January 2013 - targets least efficient
10% of the market
– Second tier: from 1 January 2015 - targets least efficient
30% of the market
• More detail on the European Eco-design Directive
in Product Profile: Non-domestic Fans
10
Current E3 Motor and Fan Work Streams
Electric Motors
Product Profile
MEPS currently cover
three-phase electric
motors with output
power 0.73 kW to 185 kW
This forthcoming paper
considers increasing
MEPS levels and
extending MEPS to
include motors of larger
and smaller sizes
Non-Domestic Fans
Product Profile
Covers fan-units with input
power 125 W to 500 kW.
Small Fan Units
Product Profile
covers fan units with
input power 5 W –
<125 W.
11
2. Introduction to Small Fan Workshop
• Product Profiles are discussion papers
which consider options for driving
improvements to the efficiency of certain
products:
– Market assessment
– Efficiency of products currently sold
– Local and international standards
– Possible policy options to increase efficiency
12
3. Overview of Small Fan Product Profile
• Scope of Product Profile
• Market characteristics
• Energy consumption, energy efficiency
improvement and GHG emissions
• Policy options
• Standards
• Regulatory considerations
13
Scope of the Product Profile
• Scope of Product Profile is motor-driven
fan units with input power 5 to <125 W
• ‘Fan unit’ = fan and motor combination
• also includes integral fan-motor assemblies
which are constructed such that it is not
possible to separate the fan blade from the
motor without losing the function of the fan
14
Applications of Small Fans
• Some small fan units are a stand-alone product:
 fans for human comfort cooling
 extractor and extractor/heater combination fans
• Some small fan units are embedded in appliances:
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computers
refrigerators
freezers
room heaters with a fan
clothes dryers
hair dryers
dishwashers
room air conditioners
ovens
microwaves
rangehoods
15
Discussion Points – Scope of Small Fans
1 Input power range 5 to <125W – is this appropriate?
2 Input power versus output power for defining the scope for small fan
units?
3 Efficiency of fan-motor assembly (fan unit) versus efficiency of fan
as a stand-alone item. What should we focus on?
4 Should the scope cover all fan units in this size range or should it
exclude some types of fan units?
5 Additional applications of small fan units not listed in the Profile?
6 Market breakdown by small fans by application – is data available
on installed stock and annual sales?
7 Feedback on terminology used when discussing small fan unit
16
Types of Motors Driving Small Fans
Motor Type
Motor Characteristics
Shaded-pole,
single-phase
Common motor, cheap to purchase and reliable but very inefficient
– 5 to 70 Watt output. Are type of AC single-phase induction motor.
Has a low starting torque so best used for fans that are easy to
start.
External rotor
fan assembly:
single & three
phase
Another common type of motor used with small fans. Version of AC
induction motor where rotor rotates around the stator. Rotor is
integrated into the fan blade. Has improved efficiency.
Permanent split
capacitor
Mainly used in residential aircons and household appliances.
Usually more efficient than same size shaded pole motors, but
often operate below full load.
Electronically
commutated
Synchronous electric motor which uses permanent magnets which
rotate around a static armature. Require speed controllers and
these are often integrated into small units. High efficiency, low
noise and long life.
Universal
Commonly used in hand tools, hair dryers, and vacuum cleaners.
High starting torque, generally run at high speed and are noisy.
Have short life and best suited to intermittent uses.
Discussion points – Types of Motors
8 Proportions of small fan units driven by each type of
motor?
9 Market for small fan motors, broken down by
application?
10 Cost differences between types of small fan motors?
18
Fan Power and Efficiency
Table 1: Typical shaft efficiency ranges for fan motor types, single phase power
Output Capacity Range
(Watts)
Efficiency (%)*
Shaded-pole (SP)
5 to 70
20% to 30%
Electronically commutated (EC): small
5 to 70
60% to 70%
Permanent split capacitor (PSC)
3 to 100
40% to 60%
Electronically commutated (EC): medium
70 to 770
90% to 95%
External rotor (ER)
70 to 770
40% to 60%
Universal motor
5 to 2000
60% to 70%
Fan Motor Type
*Shaft power efficiency rating without blade
Discussion point:
11 Typical energy efficiency and expected life-time of small fan units driven by
particular motors?
19
Market Characteristics – Est. Sales (Table 2)
Appliance
Est.
Annual
Sales
Motor Type
Typical Motor
Input Power
(W)
No of
Fans
Est Fan
Sales
Clothes dryer
294,866
Split Phase
Induction
313
1
May be out of
scope
Res. Fan Heater
340,000
Shaded Pole
30
1
340,000
1,098,644
Shaded Pole
6
1
1,098,644
Shaded Pole /
PSC
30
2
194,000
Res. Fridge / Freezer
Refrigerated Disp. Cabinet
97,000
Room Refrig. A/C - cond
1,209,629
Split phase /
PSC / EC
84
1
1,209,629
Room Refrig. A/C - evap
1,209,629
Split phase /
PSC / EC
40
1
1,209,629
197
1
Some may be
out of scope
Cooling fans
401,648
Dishwasher
360,090
Computer
Total*
* Where we have data. Excludes gas room heaters, extractor fans, rangehoods, oven, microwave, hair dryers
4,051,902
Estimated Stock of Motors – Non-Domestic
Refrigeration Fans (Aust 2008)
Motor Type
Estimate from MEA,
2009
Estimate from
AREMA, 2009
Installed
stock
Installed
stock
% of Total
% of Total
Shaded-pole, single phase
2,446,200
37%
2,500,000
82%
External rotor, single phase
2,002,300
30%
350,000
11%
External rotor, three-phase*
2,190,880
33%
200,000
7%
Total
6,639,380
100%
3,050,000
100%
* External rotor, 3-phase likely to be larger than 125 W input, so would be outside the
scope of small fans. Around 67% of non-domestic refrigeration fan-units are likely to have
an input power < 125 W.
Discussion points – Market Profile
12 Australia market characteristics and trends for small fan units
– existing stock
– annual sales
– industry sector breakdowns
13 Estimated sales and stock numbers for:
– Small fan units imported for integration into products, or as replacement parts
– Small fan units imported as components already integrated into appliances
– Small fan units manufactured within Australia/New Zealand
14 Main countries for importing small fan units
22
Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvement
• Split incentives - the fan unit is often chosen by the appliance
designer/manufacturer yet the energy bill is paid by the end-
user.
• Information failures - the end-consumer is unlikely to take
account of the energy efficiency of small fan units.
•
Bounded rationality - incomplete consideration of the costs
and benefits of efficient small fan unit technologies
Discussion point:
15 Market failures affecting uptake of high efficiency small fan units?
Estimated Energy Use of Small Fans
Appliance
Est. Annual
Sales
Est. Annual
Operation
(Hrs/Yr)
Est. Unit
Energy Use
(kWh/Yr)
Est Total
Energy Use
(MWh/Yr)
Clothes dryer
294,866
156
48.8
14,389
Res. Fan Heater
340,000
1,120
33.6
11,424
1,098,644
8,736
52.9
58,118
97,000
8,736
529.5
51,362
Room Refrig. A/C - cond
1,209,629
1,400
117.6
142,252
Room Refrig. A/C - evap
1,209,629
1,400
56.0
67,739
Cooling fans
401,648
1,400
275.8
Some may be out
of scope
Dishwasher
360,090
Res. Fridge / Freezer
Refrigerated Disp. Cabinet
Computer
Total*
* Where we have data. Excludes gas room heaters, extractor fans, rangehoods, oven, microwave, hair dryers
Note that this is est. energy use of new stock sold each year.
345,282
Est. Energy Use of Motors – Non-Domestic
Refrigeration Fans
Fan Motor Type
Est. Installed
Stock
Est. Energy
Use (GWh/Yr)
% of Energy
Use
Shaded-pole, single phase
2,446,200
385
9%
External rotor, single phase
2,002,300
2,185
50%
External rotor, three-phase
2,190,880
1,790
41%
Total
6,639,380
4,360
100%
* External rotor, 3-phase likely to be larger than 125 W input, so would be outside the
scope of small fans. Around 67% of non-domestic refrigeration fan-units are likely to have
an input power < 125 W.
Discussion points – Energy Consumption
Greenhouse Emissions
16 Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from existing
stock of small fan units, including:
- total stock by end-use applications and size
- typical power consumption and annual operating hours of small fan
units
26
Opportunities to Improve Efficiency
• Efficiency improvements for small fan units from improvements to:
– Fan motor
– Motor – fan coupling
– Fan
• The different types of motors used to drive small fans have different
efficiency characteristics
Existing
Motor Type
Output (W)
Efficiency
New Motor
Type (1-ph)
Efficiency
Av. Energy
Saving
Shaded-pole
5 – 70
20 – 30%
Elec
commutated
60 – 70%
58%
70 - 770
40 – 60%
Elec
commutated
90 – 95%
58%
External
Rotor
Discussion Points – Efficiency Opportunity
17 What opportunities for improving energy efficiency of small fan
units?
28
International Situation
• US Energy Star certification
– Ventilating fans (2001)
– Ceiling fans (2002)
• European Union
– EuP Lot 30 study which includes small motors
has just started
– Have been considering regulating ventilation
hoods
Possible Policy Options
• Mandatory minimum energy performance
standards (MEPS)
• High efficiency performance standards (HEPS)
• Ban the least efficient types of motors that
drive small fan units
• Labelling or certification schemes
• Training and education
• Codes of best practice, benchmarking
programs
30
Discussion Points – Policy Options
18 Greatest potential for improvements in energy efficiency:
- Focus on the motor, the fan, or both?
19 Suitability of different policy measures to achieve improvements in
energy efficiency of small fan units:
- potential for savings in economic costs, energy, and greenhouse gas
emissions
31
Standards – Test Method
• AS ISO 5801 sets out methods for determining
performance of industrial fans of all sizes and types,
except those designed for air circulation (ceiling and
table fans).
• It may be possible to apply this method to products
in the 5 to <125 W size range.
• There is an Energy Star specification for ceiling fans
- this suggests a test method exists for these
products.
32
Standards – Efficiency Levels
• ISO 12759 sets out Fan Motor Efficiency Grade
curves, which specify minimum required efficiency
at “best efficiency point” and can be used as the
basis for setting MEPS levels for fan units of input
power 125 W to 500 kW.
• Introducing MEPS for small fan units in Aust and
NZ would require developing efficiency level
classifications for products below 125 W input
power.
33
Discussion Points - Standards
20
Appropriate efficiency levels for small fan units?
21
Testing facilities capable of AS ISO 5801, and
appropriateness of this standard for small fans?
22
Other standards issues?
34
Regulatory Considerations
• If regulatory action was deemed appropriate - a
consultation Regulatory Impact Statement (RIS) for
small fan units would be released for consultation.
• MEPS regulations in the EU will be applied to the
fan+motor combination. While this approach has some
drawbacks, it would allow Aust and NZ to align - and EU
is a major source of fan imports.
• It may be practical to introduce regulations for certain
sectors (such as fan units used in non-domestic
refrigeration)
– although MEPS normally apply to generic equipment categories.
35
Regulatory Considerations
Key challenges for regulating small fan units:
1. Most enter Australia and New Zealand as a part integrated
into another product:
- Potentially difficult to identify products which are subject to
regulation, and to enforce compliance.
2. Many small fan units are components within a product that
is already regulated for energy efficiency:
- Regulatory options include regulating the small fan unit
separately, or increasing the MEPS levels for the whole
appliance to drive improvements in fan efficiency.
36
Discussion points – Regulatory Considerations
23 Regulations targeting the fan only vs regulating the fan-motor
combination?
24 Voluntary/non-regulatory approaches to improve small fan unit
efficiency, complimentary to, or in absence of, MEPS/HEPS
25 MEPS for small fan embedded inside larger appliances that
already have MEPS?
26 Situations where the lower efficiency produces a useful byproduct such as heat?
27 Certain appliances incorporating small fans where regulations
would not be effective at improving efficiency
28 Possibly consider domestic and industrial small fan units
separately?
37
Discussion Points – Regulatory Considerations
29 Extra costs for manufacturers and users to measure the
efficiencies of small fan blades and motors
30 Impact of regulations on different suppliers e.g. appliance
manufacturer, fan blade manufacturer?
31 Impact of requiring more efficient small fan blades and
motors on the appliance cost? Effect on product competition?
32 Compliance and enforcement issues of MEPS for small fan
units
33 Categories of small fan unit applications that offer more
potential for MEPS
An Industry Perspective - FMAANZ
Where to From Here?
• Written submissions on Product Profile
close Friday 6 July, 2012
– Feedback from industry stakeholders welcome
– Feedback will be compiled and presented to E3
Committee
– E3 Committee will decide whether or not to proceed
to prepare a Regulatory Impact Statement to test
feasibility, cost effectiveness, and benefit to society of
implementing proposed policy options
– May require some standards development work
40
Information We Need to Take Further
• Better understanding of installed stock and sales
– by main applications and type of fan-unit
• Better understanding of the energy and efficiency
characteristics of small fan-units
– Av elec input and annual operating hours
– Av efficiency and spread of efficiencies
– Typical lifetime of products
• Whether there are market barriers and failures which
lead to a less than optimal outcome
• Opinions on the feasibility of regulating small fan units
• Typical cost differential for installing more efficient fanunits in key applications
Submissions
• Please email submissions on the Product Profile
with the subject line ‘Product Profile: Small Fan
Units’ to:
[email protected]
• Submissions close Friday 6 July, 2012.
• Call to discuss
– Bonn Maguire, DCCEE, Ph 02 6159-6875
– Ian McNicol, Sustainability Victoria, Ph 03 8626-8772
42

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