the role of critical friends in continuing development

Report
Dr. Jayagowri Shivakumar Ms Jayanthi Vijaygopal
NMKRV College for Women
Principal ( retired)
Bangalore –INDIA
Mitra Academy
Bangalore-INDIA

‘is a planned ,continuous, and lifelong process
whereby teachers try to develop their
personal and professional qualities ,and to
improve their knowledge, skills and practice,
leading to their empowerment, the
improvement of their agency and the
development of their organisation and their
pupils.’
Padwad,Amol ; Dixit ,Krishna(2011)
Continuing Professional Development :An
Annotated Bibliography .British council
can be defined as:
 Systematic maintenance and improvement of
knowledge, skills and competence.
 Enhancement of learning, undertaken
throughout an individual's working life.
TEACHER AS A REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONER
Effective response to
 student requirements
 technological and organisational change
 changing social and market conditions,
Dr. Jayagowri Shivakumar 22 Feb 2014

Reflective practitioner.

Critical friend/Mentoring

Portfolio/classroom diaries etc

Learner /learning centeredness

Classroom Observation-peer/ group

Classroom research/Action research

Feedback and Evaluation
Dr. Jayagowri Shivakumar 22 Feb 2014


Origins in critical pedagogy education reforms
in the 1970s. attributed to Desmond Nuttall.
Costa and Kallick (1993) define a critical
friend as “a trusted person who asks
provocative questions, provides data to be
examined through another lens, and offers
critique of a person’s work as a friend”.

Build a relationship of trust and respect

Ask constructive questions


Help people work collaboratively in democratic/
reflective communities
Provide a context to interact with students/peers/
and examine our thoughts, assumptions, and beliefs
about teaching and learning
The Four main ‘lens’ of Critical
Reflection- Brookfield (Becoming a
Critically Reflective Teacher-1995)
• Self-reflection as
the foundation
of critical
reflection.
• Teachers
become aware
of the
assumptions and
reasoning that
frame how we
work
autobiographical
Students
• “Seeing
Ourselves
Through Our
Students’
Eyes.”
Theoretical
literature
• better illuminate
our personal
stance
• share colleagues
perspectives
• from the same
‘teaching culture’
or from a
different one
colleagues
• alternative ways
of conceptualising
and articulating
our unique mix of
beliefs, knowledge
and assumptions
Photographs-students workshop
Recognise inadequacy of teaching at the
ninth grade .
 Aware of students expectations.
 Work from the agenda of students
 Conscious of a teaching/learning
opportunities in a classroom
 Identify prospects for collaboration/
team-teaching
 Discover teachers willingness to
innovate/ experiment with teaching /
classroom procedures






Why was I surprised?
Had my earlier experience made me believe
that teachers were unwilling to change/take
risks?
Was I typecasting teachers as not being
able to do anything without a helping hand?
Was I pre-judging and underestimating my
teachers even before giving them an opportunity?
Could I have decentralised ?
Would the management approve of my effort to
decentralise?





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Could I have helped teachers to set up
self-help groups ( CFG groups)?
Was I a typical Principal wanting to
have complete control over teachers?
As an administrator had I lost out on
providing them opportunities available
to them?
Had I lost a good chance of setting up a
CFG?
Could I? Could I? Could I?
Why did I feel gratified?
 Was I in some small way responsible for
triggering the process of people becoming
autonomous learners responsible for their
own CPD?
 Could it be because we had co-opted young
mothers and housewives as substitution
teachers?
 Could it be because they were willing to
upgrade themselves and take up teaching?

Were we helping each other to get
out of the ‘Tunnel vision’ and get a
‘Panoramic view’ of life?
 Had we done the right thing by
employing differently-abled people?
 As part of administration ,had we
been able to address our social
responsibility?

Mathematics
Languages
Measurement/
graph
Social Science
Rainfall in various
places/ value of
water
Lessons or poems
related to water
Library
Science
Stories or
topics related
to water
water cycle/
Archimedes
law
Art and Craft
Bubble blow
drawing/making paper
boats/washing
machines
Environmental
Science
Saving water
Physical education
Swimming/ activities
around the pool.








Had we
Finally succeeded in building Critical Friend Groups in
our Organisation?
Made the teachers see the importance of being
creative in their teaching?
helped teachers realise the importance of sharing?
Motivated them to read more? Visit the library ?
Initiated the making of text books customized to
learners’ needs?
Encouraged them to edit and proof read?
Was that why I was excited? Only time
can tell
critical reflection is important for some
of the following reasons- to





increase probability of teachers taking informed
decisions – explain/ justify to self /others
provide a rationale for practice - crucial to establish
credibility with student
avoid self-laceration - believing that teachers are
responsible for students not learning
ground teachers emotionally- make classes challenging
and stimulating
increase democratic trust of the teacher/
management /learner.
DESCRIBE
IMPROVE
PRACTICE
CRITICAL
REFLECTION
REFLECT
UNDERSTAND
Describe - articulation of beliefs,
assumptions and values of
teaching
Understand- unique social settingsopportunities &constraints
Reflect
- exploring the implications of
these factors
Improve
- classroom practice
BIBLIOGRAPHY


•
•
Costa, A. and Kallick, B.(1993) "Through the Lens of a Critical Friend". Educational Leadership 51(2) 49-5.
Brighouse, T. and Woods, D. (1999) How to Improve your School. London: Routledge.
Bolam, R., Smith, G. and Canter, H. (1978) Local Education Authority Advisers and the Mechanisms of Innovations. Windsor: NFER.
“Critical Friends,” Deborah Bambino, Educational Leadership March 2002 pp. 25-27.
“What if…” Peggy Silva, Connections: Journal of NSRF, Spring 2002 pp. 6, 14
“Documenting Decisions: Making Learning Explicit in our CFG,” Betty Shockley Bisplinghoff, et al.
“Critical Friends Groups: Teachers Helping Teachers to Improve Student Learning” Faith Dunne, Bill Nave, Anne Lewis, Phi Delta Kappa
Center for Evaluation, Development, and Research Research Bulletin, No. 28, December 2000.
•
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
Bibliography
“Critical Friends Groups: Teachers Helping Teachers to Improve Student Learning” Faith Dunne, Bill Nave, Anne Lewis, Phi Delta Kappa
Center for Evaluation, Development, and Research Research Bulletin, No. 28, December 2000.
“Reflections of an NSRF Coach,” Jon Appleby, June 1998
“Building Professional Community in Schools,” Sharon Kruse, Karen Seashore Lewis, Anthony Bryk
Issues in Restructuring Schools, Report from Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools Spring 1994
“Critical Friends,” Deborah Bambino, Educational Leadership March 2002 pp. 25-27.
“What if…” Peggy Silva, Connections: Journal of NSRF, Spring 2002 pp. 6, 14
“Documenting Decisions: Making Learning Explicit in our CFG,” Betty Shockley Bisplinghoff, et al
Connections: Journal of NSRF, Fall 2002 pp. 4, 15-18
Modified from a document prepared by Marie McKenzie and Anne Marie Carr-Reardon
June 2003-
Harmony Education Center
PO Box 1787 Bloomington Indiana 47402 • 812.330.2702
[email protected] • fax 812.333.3435
Comments: [email protected]

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