Mapping Your Research Using GIS

Report
AN INTRODUCTION TO GIS
Karen Hogenboom (with thanks to Leo Dion)
Numeric and Spatial Data Librarian
Reference, Research and Government Information Services
Geographic Information (Systems/Science)
Mapping disease dates back to 1855. The map below shows water pumps and deaths from cholera.
The spatial representation of these two pieces of information help identify a relationship that would
otherwise go unnoticed.
Image from UC Santa Barbara Geography Dept.
The first law of geography
according to Waldo Tobler:
"Everything is related to everything else, but
near things are more related than distant
things.“
Tobler, “A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the
Detroit Region.” Economic Geography 46 (1970), p.236
What is GIS?
Spatial representation
and analysis of
information (attribute
data) that is
positioned to
correspond to the
same X, Y coordinates
throughout the various
map layers.
Image from the US Geological Survey
Who is using GIS?
 Biology, ecology, environmental sciences,
forest science, geology, engineering, history,
archeology, anthropology, literature, political
science, business, economics, public health,
medicine, education, public policy,
geography, agriculture, urban planning,
atmospheric sciences, library and information
science, journalism, veterinary medicine,
social work…
Vector Data
 Points, lines and polygons where position is
relative to X, Y coordinate plane and
intersects are possible.
Image from National Geospatial Intelligence Agency
Three formats of vector data
 Polygons
Image from MIT
Three formats of vector data
 Polygons
 Lines
Image from MIT
Three formats of vector data
 Polygons
 Lines
 Points
Image from MIT
Raster Data
 Pixels in a continuous field where each pixel
represents actual raw data.
Image from School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii
Chicago from Landsat. The resolution is 30 x 30 m for each
pixel containing raw data: Seven wavelengths of light.
A Landsat 7 image of Chicago, Illinois acquired on October 19, 2000.
Aerial Photographs can also be used as raster data.
Urbana 1940, Historic Aerial Photo Imagebase UIUC
Digitizing Aerial Photographs requires matching a layer
with an existing spatial reference to the unreferenced
photograph.
Why can you integrate raster and vector data?
Because of the underlying coordinate system.
Added layers: roads, transportation, and buildings.
Satellite Image of Chicago from Google Earth
Attribute Data
OID
countyName
perIncome
0
DeWitt County
47415
1
Coles County
36007
2
Champaign County
44237
3
Douglas County
46166
4
Edgar County
40544
5
Ford County
46388
6
Iroquois County
44003
Etc…
Some GIS Data Resources
 UIUC Library Numeric and Spatial Data Services
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http://www.library.illinois.edu/datagis/
National Atlas http://nationalatlas.gov/pros.html
Geodata.gov http://gos2.geodata.gov/wps/portal/gos
Illinois Natural Resources Geospatial Data Clearinghouse
http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/nsdihome/
FSGeodata Clearinghouse
http://svinetfc4.fs.fed.us/clearinghouse/index.html
International Geospatial Data Catalog Search
http://gateway.fgdc.gov/gateway/srv/en/gateway.home
Illinois Data http://www.illinoisdata.com/
Collect Your Own Data
•Geographic Positioning System (GPS)
•Georeference data by address
Map Making
Sante Fe, New Mexico in 3D with the use
of a Satellite image and digital
elevation model(DEM)
NASA Landsat 7 perspective image of Santa Fe, NM. Landsat 7 image acquired on Oct. 14, 1999
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (Geology)
3-D Models can be extrapolated from
raster data.
Mount St. Helen image from US Geological Survey
Projections, Coordinates & Metadata
•Projections allow
spherical surface to be
represented in planar
format.
•Coordinates are NOT
the same from one
projection to the next.
•Conversions between
projections allow for
datasets to be used
together.
•Metadata for the
datasets will describe
projections and much
more.
Projection Image from Rice University
Why are Projections Important? You won’t have to wonder
why New York City is just off the coast of Delaware or the
capital of Maine is in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.
Image from University of Colorado Dept. of Geography
Buffering tool creates
exclusion of features.
parcels to be excluded
building codes. (Urban
an area (criteria) for inclusion or
Here developers can determine
and total cost due to government
Planning)
Latino population by percentage in districts of Boise shows
a distribution. (Demographics)
Online mapping examples
 National Atlas http://nationalatlas.gov/
 AfricaMap http://cga-
5.hmdc.harvard.edu/africamap/
 SimplyMap (UIUC subscription)
http://www.library.illinois.edu/orr/get.php?ins
tid=770081
 Census Bureau thematic maps
http://factfinder.census.gov/jsp/saff/SAFFInfo
.jsp?_pageId=thematicmaps&_submenuId=m
aps_1
University of Illinois
Resources
 Map and Geography Library: Data sets, GIS
reference, books and journals, aerial photos, paper
maps. www.library.illinois.edu/max
 ATLAS: Supports LAS research, classes in GIS &
Statistical software, and data sources. 608 S.
Matthews, U; (217) 333-6300 www.atlas.illinois.edu
 ESRI Development Center: training in usingArc GIS
for spatial analysis http://www.inrs.illinois.edu/edc/;
 Data Services @ The University Library (1-4 MonWed and Friday; also by appointment)
http://www.library.illinois.edu/datagis
Introductory Classes & Workshops
at Illinois
 ATLAS: Getting Started with ArcGIS (Gives general
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overview of operating ArcGIS).
ESRI Development Center: three advanced
workshops about spatial analysis
Geography 379: Intro to GIS (thorough overview of
GIS including use of ArcGIS, raster, vector,
geodatabases, geocoding, statistical & spatial
analysis, and modeling)
Geography 476: Applied GIS to Environmental
Studies.
Geography 477: Intro to Remote Sensing.
LIS 490GIG: Geographic Information Systems.
Please feel free to contact me for further
assistance.
Karen Hogenboom
333-2472
[email protected]
THANK YOU

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