2 Unit 8 (State Boundaries)

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BOUNDARIES
THE
SPACE
IN
BETWEEN
BOUNDARIES
BOUNDARY: an invisible line marking
the extent of a state’s territory.
Think of it as a vertical plane, extending
both into the air and deep into the
earth
Boundaries control both the shape of a
state and the amount of contact a state
has with bordering countries.
A state’s shape is a centripetal force in
generating its national identity.
A state’s shape also has major impacts
on the ease or difficulty of internal
administration.
There are five basic state shapes.
STATE
SHAPES
COMPACT
Distance from the center
to any boundary does not
vary significantly.
ELONGATED
Long, narrow shape.
Internal communications
are difficult.
Compactness is an
advantage for small states
because communications
to all regions are easy to
establish if the capital is
located in the center.
Capital is usually placed at
the center, and extreme
end regions have
difficulty communicating
with it.
The shape does not,
however, ensure peace.
EX: Myanmar, Chile,
Argentina, Malawi, etc.
Ex: Kenya, Kosovo,
Rwanda, Uruguay
PRORUPTED
PERFORATED
FRAGMENTED
Otherwise compact but
with a large projection
Completely surrounds
another state
Has several discontinuous
pieces of territory
Proruptions either:
1) Give access to resource
Ex: DRC
Ex: South Africa, Senegal
Two Kinds:
1) Fragmented by water
Ex: Tanzania, Indonesia
2) Separate states
ex: Namibia, Afghanistan
An ENCLAVE is a territory
or state that falls entirely
within another state.
Ex: Vatican City, Monaco,
Cabinda, Lesotho
2) Fragmented by an
intervening state
Ex: Angola, Russia, India,
An EXCLAVE is territory
legally attached to a state
with which it is not
contiguous
Ex: Cabinda, Alaska
STATE
SHAPES
…and then there’s one last:
LANDLOCKED STATES
Landlocked states have no direct
outlet to the sea because they are
surrounded by other countries.
Africa has en especially high number
as a result of the colonial era.
Landlocked states have an especially
difficult time developing international
trade because they lack seaports.
Ex: Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe,
Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, etc.
BOUNDARY
TYPES
Boundaries can cause conflict, especially if their location is not agreed upon by all states that share it.
Because a boundaries are where states come in to direct contact, they are often focal points for conflict.
There are two main types of boundaries:
PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES
Deserts can be effective boundaries
because they are sparsely settled and
hard to cross.
Ex: The Sahara in N. Africa
Mountains can be effective if they are
difficult to cross. They are also sparsely
settled and permanent.
Ex: The Andes between Argentina and
Chile
Rivers, lakes and oceans can be effective
boundaries. They are good because
they offer good protection.
They can be not so good when they
change locations. Determining a sea
boundary can be particularly difficult.
CULTURAL BOUNDARIES
LAW OF THE
SEA
Before 1953, sea boundaries were determined by each state.
Then, to ward off the inevitable disputes, the matter was given to the UN to set a standard.
UNCLOS (the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea) has set international standards for sea boundaries.
TERRITORIAL SEA: extends 12 nautical miles off shore. All sovereign rights apply and foreign nationals must have permission to sail them.
CONTIGUOUS ZONE: extends 12 nautical miles past the territorial sea. States may apply their own customs to this area.
EEZ: the Exclusive Economic Zone extends 200 nautical miles off shore. All ships have right of passage, but state has rights to exploit resources, sell rights, harvest, conserve,
manage fisheries and control pollution/piracy/smuggling.
HIGH SEAS: area beyond the EEZ, not owned or controlled by any state.
Countries less than 400 nautical miles apart must negotiate the location of their respective EEZs.
LAW OF THE
SEA
BOUNDARY
TYPES
Boundaries can cause conflict, especially if their location is not agreed upon by all states that share it.
Because a boundaries are where states come in to direct contact, they are often focal points for conflict.
There are two main types of boundaries:
PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES
CULTURAL BOUNDARIES
Deserts can be effective boundaries
because they are sparsely settled and
hard to cross.
Geometric boundaries are straight lines
(or arcs following Lat or Long lines)
drawn on a map
Ex: The Sahara in N. Africa
Ex: US/Canada (49°), Libya/Chad
Mountains can be effective if they are
difficult to cross. They are also sparsely
settled and permanent.
A religious boundary is a type of ethnic
boundary separating two states based
on religious boundaries
Ex: The Andes between Argentina and
Chile
Ex: India/Pakistan/Bangladesh
Rivers, lakes and oceans can be effective
boundaries. They are good because
they offer good protection.
A language boundary is another type of
ethnic boundary where a state’s
boundary is drawn to include speakers
of that language.
They can be not so good when they
change locations. Determining a sea
boundary can be particularly difficult.
Ex: Spain, France, The Versailles
Conference
CYPRUS
Cyprus is divided between Greeks (78%) in the south
and Turks (18%) in the north.
When Cyprus gained independence from Britain in
1960, Turks were guaranteed a full share in society and
a certain level of autonomy.
In 1974, Greek nationalists seized control of the
government and Turkey invaded to protect Turkish
Cypriots.
When the leaders of the coup were removed, the
Turkish army stayed and declared independence in
1983 (not recognized by the UN).
A wall and a buffer zone was constructed between the
two areas (Turkish Cypriots control the northern 36% of
the island), and the buffer was patrolled by the UN.
More recently, relations between the two have
warmed, a portion of the wall was removed, and the
UN initiated Cyprus as a member state in 2004.
INTERNAL
BOUNDARIES
States often draw internal boundaries called CIVIL DIVISIONS to create local government bodies for multiple purposes:
To ease administration over large spaces, to separate ethnicities or nationalities, or to advantage a political party.
State governments take two basic approaches to running a state:
UNITARY STATES
Unitary States place most power in the hands of the central
government.
FEDERAL STATES
A federal state allocates strong power to units of local government.
Local governments possess the power to adopt their own laws.
This approach works best in nation-states with a high degree of
internal homogeneity and a strong sense of national unity.
Smaller states are more likely to adopt it because it requires a
high degree of effective internal communication.
Multinational states may adopt a federal system to empower different
nationalities, especially if they are concentrated regionally.
The Federal system is also helpful for larger states because the national
capital may be too remote to provide effective control
Unitary states are especially common in Europe.
Some multinational states have adopted unitary systems in an
attempt of the majority ethnic group to impose their identity on
minority ethnicities.
Most of the word’s largest states are federal states, however, some
smaller states with particularly potent ethnic divisions are also federal
(Belgium).
At the same time, some large states are unitary (China).
In recent years, the global trend has been towards federal
governments.
Check out France and Poland in the reading.
ELECTORAL
GEOGRAPHY
Voter districts are redrawn in most democratic countries periodically to ensure that each district has the same number of voters.
In theory, the districts are drawn without regards to voting preferences or incumbent politicians.
While many countries and some US states use impartial commissions to redraw district lines, many US states leave the redistricting to the state
legislature.
GERRYMANDERING is when district lines are redrawn so as to favor the incumbent party in the legislature. It has three forms.
While gerrymandering is illegal in the US, the supreme court did not dismantle previously gerrymandered districts.
WASTED VOTE
STACKED VOTE
EXCESS VOTE
Spreads opposition supporters
across districts as a minority in
each
Links distant areas of like-minded
voters through oddly shaped
boundaries
Concentrates opposition
supporters into a few districts
CGP Grey’s “Gerrymandering Explained”

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